NEV. ' ZEALAND.
The following letter from a "younger son" of a gentleman of good. family in Kent, who emigrated to settle in New Zealand last year, is full of such valuable information with respect to the prospects of emi- grants possessed of capital, that we make a considerable sacrifice of space in order to lay it complete before our readers. It exhibits more of the faculties of observation and reflection on practical matters than any of the letters from settlers that have been hitherto published. We can answer for the strict veracity a the writer, and have assurance that the letter was addressed to his family without any view to pub- lication. He is a scientific as well as practical farmer, having been a
LETTLIt ROM Mt. GEORGE TO 1116 FATHER, BALDWIN DUPL'A
IWITA, ESQ., OF 11OLLINGHOURNE 1101;81:, KENT. Ihdlinglourne 'feat, Port Nit loilson, 26ilt February 1840. neatt FATIJI;ll—On our passage we touched at l'ort 'Naga, St. Jago, one °Hie Cape de Verd Islands; at which place lieft letters sith the Consul to be forwarded by the first opportsmity, likewise my journal lip to that time. (In the whole, ire made a good passage to Port Ilardy, New Zealand, which tee rcached or. the 22d of January ; and four days elapi.ed before we heard of the iite fixed upon ficr the town. Having received intelligence that this was to 1,/, the:fin:oared spot, we were three days beating out of the harbour, and were urn :101 upon a rock at its entrance, dignified by the appellation of Nel,•on's Alia, till cut . After having got deur of the port and the grini-looking meII urnent, se wen, three days mitre heating tip the Straits to this place, with a is aid dual ahead of la. '1111: distance from Pert Ilanly is sisal t biNly Lowever, reached Port Nicholson, our future home, on the 1st of February. (.0:011C1 ettl111, 011hcm,rurch, niil remained with us until we got to the bead of the hari,olir ; u cliii entamined another day. Colonel Wakefield appears tr., be 1!%4,‘,Ilinkly inteiligent ; and if things remain as they are, I should say that he has made an admirable sell:dim, for the site of the town: but I am thorougl.ly convinced, horn too evident signs, that the spot I am now writiog is covered with water during the rainy seaxon, 1.0 till, depth of . two fi.ot iit teakt. I intend, however, getting higher up the riser, and imilding ',elf a house oil all cies itioit of two or three feet, so as to bc Almost every tale else npocarli to think that it will not be at all necessary, and that there s ill be no suclt thing as a flood. I hope not. I will, however, take good cure to pro- vide: satersiest it, lint whether it is flooded or not, it will not interfere with avrictiltore ; fir the natiV('H rualize two crops of potatoes Mr the Hume ground in one year. The soil is perfectly won/krill!: the rapid get us of any thing plaetsd in it is wanething extraordinary. livery one appears to agree that it is us capable of producing from five to seven waters of wheut er acre as any more valuable from na never havieg been hitherto laid pupil of De Felleriburg at Hoffwyl, and brought up in the midst of the
finest agriculture of his native country.
of the most highly-manured lands in England. A dense forest, which has en- riched the soil for ages, covers the country in this district. The enormous ex- pense of clearing—calculated at 40/. per acre—is the great apparent drawback; but as wheat fetches 10/. per quarter, and is likely to remain at that price for the next five or six years at least, it will amply repay for the outlay ot capital. The native potato-grounds show what the laud is : they grow enormous crops by merely scratching the ground with a sharpened stick, and returning the smallest potatoes to mother earth when they grub up the large ones. So fur for the soil. Sheep and cattle farming is altogether out of the question for the !present ; for you must first clear a spot of ground in which your cow can turn round, and then scour the country round to find food for her. Wheat, Indian corn, potatoes, &c., are the crops from which a settler must expect to pay for an outlay, of capital ; and they will pay right well. Now for the beauties of the place. The harbour resembles rather an inland lake than an inlet of the sea, particularly when it is perfectly calm; which is not always the case—it being so squally and changeable a climate, aa far as the wind is concerned, that we are frequently threatened with an upset when sailing about in our boat to bring our goods, or %viten on a fishing excursion : but she, I mean the boat, is very still; and I have acquired the art of managing her to such an extent as to secure my safety in her. But. to return to the harbour : it is surrounded with mountainous hills, for that is the only way to describe them—being a species of neither mountain nor hill, and yet both. They are partly covered with a sort of lristard flax and long grass, which gives them rather a barren appearance; but it is fully compensated by the richest descrip-
tion of forest timber which covers the remainder At the further end of the harbour is the mouth of the three rivers on which the town is to be built. They flow down a valley of level land, which is from four to eix mike in breedt1,, and surrounded by hills most densely covered with timber ; as is Ilkewise
saucy itself, excepting on the banks of the river, which have, at one thin, or other, been cleared-by the natives for 1i:doh...gardens: but those golden. do not extend further than one hundred yards or so inland; and they are sfoile places still in a high state of cultivation ; iii others, rather More neglected, %ill: re the potatoes and cabbages have run to seed ; 1.1 others again, which arc ly the most frequent, they are covered with a epeek s ofwillew, a hich is by no difficult to enulicate. But, unfortunately, these spots have been re- by "In,
Company for public purposes, for houlevardcs, or some such nonsense or ol the
land immediately in the rear being covered with timber of such extraordil.,:ry di- mensions as to require at least -40/. per acre to clear it. But this is ioedne.:s again. The scenery of these rivers, as you go paddling up them in a cauee, i,ss-t enchanting : the principal river is as broad as the Thames at Welimond, hut t frequently interrupted hy snags, which have in many places formed lairs, whivb must be removed before it can become navigable for a boat of any size : but a canoe which dues not draw more than one and a half to two inches of \voter can of course go anywhere, and enable you to see it all—and a beautiful. eight it is. Picture a most enchanting serpentine river, overshadowed by trees ark...est ver- dure emblossomed by every colour, enlivened by the deep mellow awl oeaint notes or the plui, or mocking-bird, besides those of hundreds of other- rich and curious ; and every now and then parnquets of the brightest grec:. s and reds fluttering from hank to bank, and adding their chattel ing Thais to the general concert t in filet, it is of little use my attempting toL l
oscr.ie sciAiery rich and varied, in the limited space of a letter ; to be folly appreciated it mint be seen. I trust, therefore, that your imagi t i
na..on will, to a certtio oNteut, make amends ffir the meagreness of this description. and that the ski, ler In.:to•- rials which I have furnished will give some notion of the site of our town ; and for many purposes most admirably adapted it is. .1s an agricultural district, it vitt not answer for many years, inasmuch as it requires too great an outlay of capital to do any thing with it; and I question much whether tIkre is tli; 'hundred thousand acres of level land for those who have already come oat. You will therefore say that the whole is a failure : but sot eo, for at Tareneki. distant overland about s1xty miles, there are millions of acres of level 11,1. which will not be nearly so expensive to clear, with a much better river through it, but unfortunately a very poor harbour. The soil there is equally good as here—so report says. Previous to making up my mind tor a removal thither, I intend going there myself; and if it should prove sat idlictory. I ehan choose my town-acres here, (for this will always be the principal town.) and my country sections there. * * * For an agriculturist, the tiret their or five years are those which will pay best, as we shall not be able to supply our- selves until the expiration of that time ; and I well know that Sydney n ill not be able to spare us any in the mean time. Wheat is now selling thi•re at 10/. per quarter, and was much higher a short time hack. A friend if Sinclair's, a fellow-midshipman, who has been in this part of the world for the lar:t four or tive years, tells Inc that the Sydney agriculturists never esleulate upon realizing inure than one out of three crops; so that I feel confident of our tilwars having; a good market ffir our prthluee. Oaten-hay itself, which can certainiy be har- vested lore twice, and probably three times in the course of the season, stils at 18/. the ton. I shall now proceeil to describe the natives. and so put myself out of all danger from that quarter. They are certainly the most curious being: iniagin- ablq exceedingly intelligent, and not so easily led away 'is one might imagine; very hard to deal with, and exceedingly lazy. Some of them are very looking and tall strong-built fellows; awl from the circumstance of their n•-•ver making use of the brush or comb, are naturally overrun with vermin. They are most of them tattooed ; hut as they see that the Pachias. as they call the Whites, never adopt that practice, it is beginning to go out of fasllion. l'hey certainly dress in a most eXI raordinary manner : a hat. with top-boats. is not a had idea of the description of dress to which they are iii it :at :tatted hut they almost all are p.oeseseed or mankets, which have been given them, toeethor with other articles, m exchange for their land, toil w !deli they Oleo" ever their shoulders and tie up with a piece or flax (ph,rmino, flue lutist dee- sieal moiler—the ancient Greeks of modern times. The chief is at onee the orator, philosopher, nod warrior. They will reason with von as sensibly as any European ; and as to cannibalism, it is it mere matter et' history--ah hough one or two or triv obi chiefs put their hands to their empty stomachs occasion- ally, and sue they woold like to masticate the, hind-leg of a. num. We, Iola- Vier, are perfectly Sufi.; whenever filar or five White men set top•ther, they need fear nothing l'rom the natives, who are in a mortal frieht ths'y be blown to atoms by some new invention ; which fear has been ineteased in no small degree by my air-gun, which, front the circumetance of its losdine it the breech and making no report, has made me of universal netov;ely :vete:est them. The Missionaries hare, however, misled them to it certsin est eel, he telling them to take nothing hot looney in emit:loge the their labour pr.- duce ; and front the circumstanee of tin ir being so laiy, they have ii Ii ii absurd idea of their own exertions, that tiles ask as much as thirty ti ill for it small hag a potatoes, which you may have for the digging pro% iii it 410 it yourself; and again, they will HA aNi nitwit as fort luiiuuio Ii it 11;g, 1V1.1,1•11 they will be most happy to let you have for a hot tle iii .pirits. I•pon tin ii bole, I like them exceedingly, and do not see any reason ii by ire 81111tIld litlt iii' tiuuut the most friendly terms. They are remarkably hotioA : for example, give them your gun and epee or six charges of powder and shot. with actrrn,llontling number of caps, nod send them otr into the woods to shoot pigeons tor yell, you may rely upon their returning ii it ii 3 corresponding number of pieelns. and your gun 118 safe RIO 8(1111111 m. it yon 11.1.1 been out with it y ourself : hiiuuuiil they, however, not he able to find is limey pigeons as you give them charges of powder, shot, &c., they tire sure to return .) the remaining charges, uhich they would give almost tiny thing to possess. They are, moreover, capital car- penters, and can build very good houses, or worries, as they call them. Nothing delights them more than your listening to their feats in war, and at the end of it to tell them they arc very fine fellows: if, however, you should tell them that it is all steal; they become as frantic as lions, and will endeavour to frighten you by every means in their power : hut you have only to remain perfectly com- posed, and laugh at them as if they were a parcel of children, and they will very soon cease making faces and howling, awl end by being terribly afraid of you, and be ready to do any thug to make amends (hr the liberty they fancy they have taken. About a henight ago, a party of rangers attacked and killed one of' their chiefs, while in the act of digging potatoes ffir tl, • e of the Oriental,
(which brought tilyelf and others out here): tliis d • r.:renge fur a chief
who was captured and made a ewokee or shire, hy tl • '. .•Iiief of this port.
Tl:ey are sure to have revenge fOr any injury done t'. • ,• fveling to which I have no objection. as it tends to keep tie., who lo..•" ...• out as labourers from pilfering and robbing them, and at .ame t:v.•• • nes us against any
attack from the natiVUS : for they naturally v opeet i V. ".•-• to have their re- ser of such ever e,king us. At- . ).i.* night, it its • -.: whom we have _to Ite apprehended lily and quietly as
• i. loud a fortnight's .1,tys have been - • Hog weather in I be able to april aud Scp- :terstatttl thst so. there is no '• i up, and have before the wet : est three or of :utter the 5ur- it London,
• - sett, as it us land for if I can, and :v luich is to be ' ..,erted native
'arts of goods se - —very onset - .1•' 1. y ask th.• first e. I do sot are e how
to 1,L. ,—.•
Ir.-;`,:l1 t!,111 ; setil
,'...svelotvussup- lubell ourselves. p of "a-heat awl a ern') of potaa.,•,. oil the saute us, ui'tu in one f •. :e no frost to !uuveg.,.. e. 71e land if 1..; cease, Ar to ',I , :Iliag
to a Llige capital.
I...- , as t'apaide iu;'•,,.
ilitO 1101117, s•
widely it it lhkvlsto nearly the whole 1 :Biel thlti, Lu. enals (lace !do:Telling e
never eaw land re
monist, :eel s' to its havi,t...: !..
sonle(1 i,t t1.1-, crop of tier,.
that any in • Inake 137 . I:: -7 .0
I a !,, ; . as they call 11
skoot :net • ;ro few- 1•11;17;,,. It,
one berrel eisst and he serecieine tleit I did not e e giving butt (lie
folly until met. ivith ut uigciuul; and iii,.:' notch better condition then it' 1 !lad eel... are very fine Islet,. ae ;is htltIC17.
I !Lire nut', LI.; 5,- 1,, .17;er,utuot. ' , 7- ,;
SOIL! iuuiu h a .1 , titan I
think. of sh : v is Tit
for the • ■ ,thoz,
for poiviler ,• Iiistory here; ;1;, ' .•-:
thin!. 110.% itill tl • I w ill .erol you • I am betti r ' . posed to all
chenees of temp,•,..1
appiarallee, thu, ;', , he should have it jut eit the nom', r year. I call
it the pas-.11;,' ; ft, tell Oil that l , rain, 1 %Noali not es,
;is 11111c11 a .W1111.7 I.- ',ir,l tu halt Ilas Ilk1• tisk now be ' for the first time \\ ,
Ntaladi : it is tee •,' It reheat ci th
venge and externonat„' then at once ; test t., .1 titer.
being the case, heeesse tl,re is not the ! t though 1 ele ep with a brace of loaded ph,! not on acc,nint of the natives, Itut rathel brought out with us—altImugh tin it' : from that rpiorter. Ii NA, Illaltoe, • •.• • _
one could p, et, utI mind, - I
The first 1.., .,•,
.• I "i ' - .
I :no I.. a join • bs't ill titliSt t s• .1:, %%list tl,," tembu" .re the t u. is for ", .
on I all it ,r • 1,1,
at pr,-ent anti
• :Le six :no:1th,, . expense.
: for e ttnest garden- ; a he a..:71t.utoi -- crop n, Ht be . ■: 1. CCU-
• ,* p,a. ton : a ....rt, it is evidebt . led he has but a
iti to-day, to
three ; Arra. and • . lo he wet upon my
.t illoSt care- : hsick. it was in pteeous
• ee glees
' cit , (tall