_foreign antt eolonfal. FRANcE.—There is little to attract notice in
the domestic news, except a contest between M. de Salvandy, Minister of Public Instruction, and the celebrated M. Quinet. The story is this— M. Quinet is Professor of the Literature of the South in the College of France. For some years past, the prospectus of his lectures has been announced as "Des litteratures et des institutions comparees de l'Europe Meridionale ": this pro- spectus has always been received by the assembly of the Professors of the College of France, and sanctioned by the Minister of Public Instruction. At the com- mencement of the present session, however, M. de Salvandy insisted on the emission of the words "institutions compariel." Thus curtailed, M. Quinet has refused to open his course of lectures; because, he says, he cannot treat the sub- 4ect philosophically and scientifically without comparing the literature and the institutions. The Opposition papers support M. Quinet, and denounce the in- terference as illiberal. The Journal des Debate defends the Minister, and recalls some facts. The Professorship of Literature of Southern Europe was created for AL Quinet During the sessions of 1844 and 1845 he delivered lectures which were afterwards published in two volumes, one bearing the title of L'Ultra- onontanisme, and the other that of La Christianisme et la Revolution Franaise: those two works produced a discussion which reached the two Chambers; they created and maintained the agitation in the country which the negotiation con- cluded at Rome respecting the Jesuits was intended to appease. It was those works, the object of which is entirely political, that roused the attention of the Minister, and obliged him to limit the Professor to his legitimate province. Anticipating the resignation or dismissal of M. Qainet, the Untvers states that a subscnption has already been opened to compensate him for the loss of his chair as Professor in the College of France. [This looks likes Ministerial blunder. M. Quinet's writings may be very troublesome; but suppression of literary discussion is apt to have con seq ences very embarrassing to the Ministers of a 'free" country.] ALGERIA.—The Paris papers of Tuesday contained a series of despatches from Marshal Bugeaud and other officers at the seat of war, all recounting victories over the Arabs; fruitless victories. The Manilla says that all the insurgents in the Eastern part of Oran are struck with terror, and that many submissions will be made. Colonel St. _Arnaud had discomfited Bou-Maza near Orleansville. In spite of these reverses, Abd-el-Bader had succeeded in carrying off, to Morocco, all the crops and property of an important emigrant tribe; the French troops being unable to preyaaa In a letter from Algiers, dated on November the 25th, published by th Journal des Dibats, this passage occurs- " A convorof two or three hundred women and some sheep entered Mostaganem about the 20th, in consequence of the razzias effected by General Bourjolly. Orleansville must contain nearly an equal number of the tribe of Medjaja. tJ these women are retained as hostages, until the genuine submission of their tribes."
CatzucE.—Athens papers of the 21st November announce that the Greek Chambers had closed on the 12th, to be convoked again on the 22d December. The Greek Government had replied to Lord Aberdeen, that they were ready to place at the disposal of Russia and England the interest of the loan taken from the surplus of the budget [if any!] Irrine.—An extraordinary express, in anticipation of the overland mail, conveys letters from Bombay of the 1st November. All the news that they contain may be told in a few lines. The affairs of the Punjaub con- tinued without material alteration, as distracted as ever. No attempt had been made to punish the slayers of Jowahir Singh; and, conscious of her weakness, the Ranee had offered the resignation both of herself and of her son, the Maharajah, if suitable provision were made for them. The story of Peshora Singh's assassination was not confirmed, though not contra- dicted. The Governor-General arrived at Agra on the 16th October, and was to proceed in a few days to Delhi. Some treachery had been dis- covered at Ferozepore; where the Lahore Government Agent had per- mitted ammunition and stores surreptitiously taken from the British maga- zines to pass the river.
The surrender of Serampore, from the Danish to the British Government, was effected on the 9th October.
There had been a dreadful fire in Bombay, on the first night of the Dewallee (Lamp Festival) of the natives. It took its origin from some fire-works in a shop where a quantity of gunpowder was stored. Having destroyed nearly two hundred houses of various descriptions, it was stopped by. the energy and activitLoefalei Europeans. Fifteen persons lest their lives. The city narrowly escaped a
calamity, for about 4,000 pounds of powder were removed from the houses on fire.
Maxico.—Advices of the 30th October by the West India mail state that the British Minister at Mexico bad successfully interfered to reconcile the Government with the United States: he had obtained the consent to receive a Commissioner from Washington, to make proposals. Meanwhile, the American squadron had withdrawn from the coast of Mexico.
The letters relate more squabbles, in which the Baron de Cyprey, the French Minister, was involved. A paper on Mexican affairs in the Journal des Debate had excited much anger in the capital, and the Siglo Dies y Nwzve retorted with an attack on the French in general and M. de Cyprey in particular. Meeting Senor Otero, one of the reputed editors of the Siglo, at the Italian Opera, the Baron put some catechizing questions, and receiving no satisfactory answer, spat in Senor Otero's face. The other answered in kind; and the Baron beat him with a stick. The Baron is about half the size and twice the age of his opponent; who was, however, rather slow to take the usual steps. When he did send a " friend " to M. de Cyprey, he accompanied his challenge with the peremptory con- dition that the duel should be fought with one pistol loaded and one un- loaded; possession of the loaded pistol to be decided by lot! This the Baron's friend positively disallowed. Meanwhile, the Government inter- fered; placing Sefior Otero under arrest, and requesting K de Cyprey to hasten his departure. Some signs of popular resentment having been ob- served, every effort was made to protect the sanctity of the Ambassador's person: a guard was placed at his door; and when he took his departure on the 9th, for Vera Cruz, he was escorted by a party of dragoons. Although public opinion was strongly excited against him, all the principal Mexican families called; to make their farewell compliments to Madame de Cyprey.
UNITED STATE8.—The packet-ship Fidella brings intelligence from New York to the 17th November; but it is uninteresting. The Union expli- citly contradicts the report that Mr. APLane had solicited his recall from London because the Oregon negotiations were not intrusted to him: be- fore his appointment, he concurred in the opinion that they ought to be carried on at Washington. The papers received by the Caledonia reported a speech which Mr. Webster had delivered at Faneuil Hall in Boston, and which was very briefly mentioned in our second edition last Saturday. It related to a variety of subjects, apropos to a local election which approached; but the points of interest in England are the Oregon question and the Tariff. In respect of the Oregon, Mr. Webster took for his basis the assumption that the peace between England and America ought not to be lightly dis- turbed; and he considered the difference between the two countries a sub- ject for negotiation for discussion, and for amicable settlement- " I read with interest, of course, the discussion upon this subject in the House of Commons three months ago, resulting in an expression of opinion from the British Premier which received the sanction of that House: and I am willing to avail myself of the language of that Minister upon this subject, and apply it to our side of the question as he did to his. I have nothing to complain of as to the temper of that language: I am free to say that it was a temper becoming a minded, liberal, and just statesman. But what the British Minister said in use House of Commons, in its sum and substance, was, that England had rights in regard to this question that must be and would be respected. I adopt the same language on our side, and say that we also have rights that ought to be, must be, and willbe respected." He has the utmost confidence that an adjustment can be made, by wise and moderate measures, in a manner quite consistent with the honour and with the rights of all is s thegon? On the shores of the Pacific, 3,0G0 miles from US, and twice as far from England. Who is to settle it? Americans mainly; some settlers undoubtedly from England; but all Anglo-Saxons; all men educated in notions of independent government, and all self-dependent. And now let me ask, if there be any sensible man in the whole United States who will say for a moment, that when 50,000 or 100,000 persons of this description shall find themselves an the shores of the Pacific Ocean, that they will long consent to be under the rules either of the American Congress or the British Parliament? They will raises standard for themselves; and they ought to do it. I look forward to the period when they will do this as not so far distant but that many now present, and those not among the youngest of us, will see a great Pacific Republican nation. I believe that it is in the course of Providence, and of human destiny, that a great state is to arise of English and American descent, whose power will be establish over the country on the shores of the Pacific; and that all those rights of natural and political liberty, all those great principles that both nations have inherited from their fathers, will be transmitted through :ns to them so that there will exist at the mouth of the Columbia, or more probably farther South, a great
pacific Republic, a nation where our children may go for a residence, separating themselves from this government, and forming an integral part of a new govern- ment, half-way between England and China; in the most healthful, fertile, and desirable portion of the globe, and quite too far remote from Europe and from this side of the American continent to be under the governmental influence of either country. This state of things is by no means so far off as we may imagine—by no means so remote from the present time as may be supposed; and, looking to this state of things, this question becomes one upon which intelligent and well-disposed men might very readily come to an agreement. But, gentlemen,
in this point of view, is this a subject upon which it is proper by popular appeal, or by loud representations of patriotism' or by a sort of stormy defiance of the
power of a great nation on our side—is it proper on the other side, by cries about the maritime ascendancy of England, the great wealth, the dignity, the power, the martial prowess of England—is it a question on which, by outcries of this
sort on either side of the ocean, these two great communities are to be embroiled and plagued in all their commercial and friendly relations, or to be compelled to ran into the horrors of war ? No, gentlemen; the spirit of the age is against it" Without expressing an opinion as to the way in which the question ought to be settled, he would say what appeared to be natural. "It is well known that the 49th degree of North latitude is the boundary-line between the Western part of this country and the British provinces as far as the foot of the Rocky Mountains. It seems to be natural enough, if the two Governments contemplate a change, that they should agree to an extension of this same line Westward; that the two should keep on abreast, side by side, with the same-line of division till they reach the Pacific Ocean. It is well known, that about where the Columbia river crosses the 49th parallel, it makes a tarn and flows nearly Southward. Very well. Suppose it made as sudden a sweep to the Northward. England would then na turas, say= This river, which has been making Westward, sweeps to the North- ward: instead of making with it a great bend to the North, we will leave it, and go on straight to the Pacific Ocean on this parallel of 49 degrees.' For the same reason, it is not unnatural for the United States to say—' Since it proves that the river makes a circuit to the South, instead of following that circuit we will go straightforward upon the 49th parallel till we meet the shore of the Pacific Ocean." This proposition had thrice been made to the British Government within eighteen years, and as often rejected: be would not say that it was the proper mode of settling the question; but it is an admission fMr. Webster means, of course' an admission on the American side,] that there is something to negotiate and treat for on either side—that it is not a question free from difficulty on either side. "Now, gentlemen, who is the man at the head of either Government who will take upon himself the responsibility of bringing on a war between two nations like Great Britain and America upon a question of this End, until he is prepared to show that anything and everything that he could do has been done to avoid such a terrible ultimate result ? If a British Minister, under whose administration a war should ensue on the question cannot stand up in Parliament and show that it is not his fault--cannot show that he has done everything which an honest and sensible man can do to avert the conflict—I undertake to say that no power or popularity can uphold his shaking position for
an hour. And n the same sense and spirit I say, that if in this country any party shall, before we are aware of it, plunge us into a war upon this question, it must expect to meet a very severe interrogatory from the American people—must expect to prepare itself to show that it has done all it could, without any bias from the pride of successor the love of war—all that it could do, to keep the nation safe from so great a calamity, with the preservation of its rights and its honour. Gentlemen, it appears to me that any man—Prime Minister of England or Presi- dent of the United States—who should unnecessarily light up the flames of war upon such a subject—flames, let me add, that will burn over the whole globe- maj well consider the genius of his country addressing to him the words which the orator of Rome supposed the genius of his country would address to him if he did not quell the estate conspiracy—"An cum hello vastabitur Italia, vexabunter urbes, tecta ardebunt; turn te non existimas invidiss incendio conflagra- turam: No' gentlemen ! the man who shall incautiously, or led on by false am- bition, or party pride kindle those fires of wars over the globe on this question, mast look out for it—Lust expect to be himself consumed in a burning conflagra- tion of general reproach." * "Now, gentlemen, I do not propose that on this subject we take any alarm. I propose that we keep ourselves cool and calm. In some of the Southern cities there is now some agitation for fear of a war. I regret this much. I hardly sayI regret the feeling—that is natural. But I regret the cause. It is a common mistake of men, not in the most elevated position, that they think they can play the small patriot safely, in a small style. These are those who think that they can talk of a war with England and any other nation, and get credit for their patriotism and lofty love of country, but keep the game in their own hands. That may not happen. At any rate, that is not the way nor the course which just and lofty and respectable men feel on the great question of peace or war. This constant speculation, this supposition that war may come, is half as bad as war itself. It Interferes with all the business and arrangements of life. It confounds,and confuses men in regard to their own business plans. What we want is settled peace, and the conviction that peace will remain until there is some just and sensible cause for war." On the subject of the Tariff Mr. Webster took up very narrow ground. "Every man expects a ferocious attack upon the whole system. Every man ex- Nets that since the Government now in power was established by the general voice of the Anti-Tariff States, that an attempt will be made to destroy that whole policy. How far they will succeed I know not. There are circumstances of encouragement—circumstances of the opposite character. But my question is With the people of Massachusetts. What have the people of Massachusetts to expect from any change?" After arguing at some length for a protective policy, Mr. Webster said, "Let every man, when he is told of the aggrandizement of the great capitalists at Lowell, and Dover, and Providence, and elsewhere—let him look at the many hundreds of thousands of small capitalists, hammering over their own anvils, making hats in their own shops, obtaining by these processes of manufacture support and education for their families; and then let him remem- ber, that without the duties at the Customs there is not one of these manufac- turers that could survive twelve months."
Alluding regretfully to the secession of the "Native Americans" from the Whig party, Mr. Webster expressed a strong coincidence of opinion with them as to the desirableness of excluding " foreign " votes. He also referred to the subject of Texas, speaking as if it might yet prove not to late to mist the consummating of the annexation. "I can only say for one, that if it should fall to my lot to have a vote on such a question, and I vote for the admission into this Union of any State with a constitution which prohibits even the Legislature from ever setting the bondman free, I shall never show my head again depend upon it, in Faneuil HalL"
[Throughout the whole of this speech Mr. Webster was greatly cheered.]
Cawarse.—The accounts from Montreal, which conic down to the 13th November, represent Lord Metcalfe's health as decidedly improved.
The Fire Relief Committee of Quebec publish accounts periodically; and from a recent one it appears that their gross receipts had been 64,5741.; their gross payments, 30,3711. A sub-committee was appointed to ascer- tain whether any abases had crept into the distribution of the money; but Meanwhile the Committee thought proper to make a peremptory contra- diction of an assertion which had appeared in a London journal: they re. solved- " That the assertion contained in an article in the Illustrated London Newt of the 4th instant, that twelve thousand pounds had been expended by this Com- mittee in improving one street in Quebec is utterly without foundation; and that no part of the funds at the disposal of this Committee has been appropriated to any such purpose."
The first snow on the mountains near Quebec was seen on the morning of the 9th November.