The Bushman; or Life in a New Country. By- E. W. Landor Bentley. Senostar, Oteervatforis on some of the Parts of &Weal Practice l's Which is prenzed an In- quiry into the Claims that Surgery may be supposed to have for being clawed as a Scienoe. By John P. Vincent, late Senior Surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. FINE ARTS, Longman and C.o. Ancient Art and its Remains ; or a Manual of the Archseology of Art. By C. 0. Muller, Author of" The Illsf.ory and AntitItitties of the Doric Race," "A Scientific System of Mythology," Ste. Tfantastel &eft Me dermas by John Lettch. FICTION, Ira:lama* and CO. Jane Eyre; an Autobiography. RAW by Cowes AM. Twill/se volumes. Smith arid Elder • LANDOR''S BUSHMAN OE LIFE FE A NEW COUNTE.Y. Sonce years ago, Mr. E. W. Landor found himself at Western Australia, or Swan River, accompanied by tvro of his brothers. He had been ad- vised thither for a pulmonary complaint ; his elder brother was a medical man, and went to watch the invalid, as well as any colonists who might require attention ; his younger brother, not eighteen, had been designed for the church, but felt no vocation, and accompanied the elders en their pilgrimage. Besides the peculiar objects of the elder brethren, the trio had visions of fortunes to be made by modern expeditions after the Golden Fleece ; and they seem to have been not altogether unsuccess- fid. Our author settled at Perth, apparently in some legal capacity ; Henry, the medical man, established himself at York, (though he now ap- pears to be Colonial Surgeon on the Western coast of Africa); and the two elder brothers, christening the younger Meliticeus, sent him into the bush as manager of the joint stock docks. This volume contains the result of Mr. E. W. Landor's oolonial ob- servations, various " sketches " of colonial manners, and personal ad- ventures in a small way,—such as boating shooting, kangaroo and wild cattle hunting; with a narrative of the first impressions and doings of the new settlers on arrival. The shepherd contributes extracts from a journal kept in the bush ; which describes the daily life of a youth some- what dissatisfied with his position in a free and easy way, bat which was not perhaps designed for publication. Mr. Henry Landor, the surgeon, furnishes one paper on the character of the Aborigines, and another de- scriptive of an exploring tour and of the geology of the country ; in both of which the effects of professional training are strikingly visible, in the specific character of the matter and the greater closeness of the style. A useful paper on the botany of the colony is contributed by a Mr. An- It will be seen that The Bushman is of a miscellaneous cast ; and, unless in the graver subjects, it is mostly of too slight and sketchy a cha- racter to have a value proportioned to the author's opportunities, and to the novelty of the subject—for Swan River is the most slighted of our colo- nies. The topics are mostly articles, and Mr. Landor is too much of a writer to satisfy the mind either as to the exact truth of his pictures or the precise accuracy of his statements. They are as true, we dare say, as the sketches of " Boz " or "Nimrod," or similar writers. But this is not the sort of truth that we require about a new colony ; especi- ally as Mr. Landor has a tendency to the wordiness and fine writing that distinguish the Colonial school of authorship, and resembles "Boz " and "Nimrod" rather in their artifice than their art. The character of the work requires a specific narrative ; but the author seems too often, in painter's language, composing—making up a whole front various parts, with inventions of his own. In more serious topics, though the cacoethes scribendi still peeps out, Mr. Landor's papers are of rester solidity. The following picture of Colonial character is, we fear, a "relation too nice
and yet too true."
"I have already observed that a good and kindly feeling towards one another prevails in this colony among the settlers generally. But I must qualify this re- mark by adding—in all cases in which individual interests are not concerned. There is less perhaps of the apiri of ckaiing in this colony than in any other of the British empire. Ours is not a mercantile community, and the farm-settlers generally are young men of good birth and gentlemanly spirit. Still, even here, beyond all question, exists the same odious tendency (though less apparent) which prevails more or less in all colonies, to advance self-interest on every possible oc- casion, without being deterred by any scruples whatsoever. "When men become emigrants, they leave behind them their relations, friends, connexions and all their old associations, and appear upon a new theatre of ac- tion, where they have no feelings to consult beyond their own personal wishes and interests. "They find themselves suddenly emancipated from all those restraints which formerly acted with a salutary influence upon their natural inclinations; and having no one near them whose opinion they regard, or whom they care to con- ciliate, they fall rapidly into the belief that they have no one to live for but them- selves, and consequently make self the dole guide of all their actions and sole god of their idolatry. "This spirit of Yankeeism is the prevailing spirit of colonies. It is the natu- ral consequence of the isolated state in which men reel themselves to exist, when they have no longer those less selfish motives of action that influenced and regu-
lated their conduct under other circumsttmees. • •
"We can now understand the origin of that intense selfiehnese in the American character which has never yet been cast aside, mid whieh, in feet, is perpetuated by a Republican form of government."
One remedy for this state of things which Mr. Landor Suggests is more
clergymen and a Bishop. Another is education.
"So soon as ever Government can afford the grant of a few hundreds a year, free schools ought to be established in various districts. Such is usually the scarcity of money in a colony, that parents cannot afford to bestow even the com- monest education upon their children. Of coarse I allude only to the general condition of society; there are individuals who educate their families in a judi- cious and sufficient manner; but the great prevailing want is not the less felt and deplored. Boys, the sons of men who have themselves been well educated, are early made to supply the place of labourers and servanta. Hardy and manly in appearance, they are naturally rough and uncouth in manner, and unhappily Possess no mental stores beyond those early principles of gain which have grown with their growth. In their anxiety that their sons shoald do well in the world, the parent's first object is to impress upon them the necessity of making the most of everything. Their early powers are exercised in selling stores, sheep, cattle, or other produce; and they are applauded in proportion to the hard bargain which they have driven. -If a man, threatened with law proceedings, is compelled to
sell his whole crop of potatoes at a ruinous loss, our keen and knowing youngster glories in the opportunity of making a bargain by which he shall profit to the amount of a hundred per cent, though the seller return to his agitated family writhing with despair. The malleable intellect of our youth LS annealed by the demon of Gain upon the anvil of Self-interest. •
" The young women inevitably grow up mere creatures of impulse. Where are those high qualities which are necessary to give them their proper influence over the minds and aotMns of the other sex ? Where is that powerful sense of the duties of their calling and position that is necessary to create confident* in the breast of the lover or the husband? Where are those unswerving principles which alone can keep them through trial and temptation, in the right way.? " Woman, alas! has lost her power when she ceases to inspire veneration and command respect."
It seems to have escaped Mr. Landor, that want of population—want of labour—is as important as want of money or schools. Where wealth exists, a means of payment for a commodity in the neighbourhood can always be hit upon ; but in default of labonr, a gentleman, as our author says, has to send his sons to the plough. The true remedy is, revive the ancient system of colonisation, and send out an organized society. Such a colony would carry the public opinion of the mother-country with them : under the " spontaneous emigration" of Lords Russell and Grey there is no " opinion " at all, except the vulgar one of " every man for himself."
With an allowance for the failings we have mentioned, the reader may gather some useful information upon Colonial matters, and some insight into Colonial society, from Mr. Landor's book. We have touched enough upon this political subject, and will make our other extracts of a more miscellaneous kind. In the following account of the superstitions of the Natives, the first part is by the younger brother.
" They have no religion whatever; but they believe in some kind of an evil spirit [Chingi]. I have often tried to discover, but could never clearly under- stand, whether they believe in only one all-powerful evil spirit; or whether it is merely the spirits of their departed friends that they fear; or (as I am inclined to believe) they fear both; and for these reasona. Whatever there is a large en- campment of Natives, each family has its own private fire and hut; but you will always perceive another fire about one hundred yards from the camp, which ap- parently belongs to no one, but which the old hags take care shall never go out during the night; for they will frequently get up and replenish that fire, when they are too lazy to fetch fuel for their own. They call that Chingi's fire; and they believe if he comes in the night he will sit quietly by his own fire and leave them undisturbed. That they likewise believe in the reappearance of departed spirits, may be easily proved by the manner and the formalities with which they bury their dead. In the first place, they cut off the hair and beard; they then break his finger-joints and tie the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand to- gether; so that if he rise again he may not have the power to use a spear and revenge himself. They then break his spears, throwing-stick, and all his other implements of war, and throw them into the grave, over which they build a hut; and a fire is kept lighted for a certain length of time. It is likewise customary for his wife or nearest relation, if at any future period they should happen to pass near the grave, to repair the hut, rekindle the fire, and utter a long rigmarole to the departed, to induce him to lie still, and not come back and torment them. Nothing will induce a stranger to go near a new grave, or to mention the home of the departed for a long time after his death. They always speak of him
as So-and-so's brother or father. • • • "Besides Chingi, the evil spirit who haunts the woods, there is another in the
shape of an immense serpent, called Waugul, that inhabits solitary pooh. Snakes that frequent both water and land, of great size, twenty feet long accord- ing to some authorities, have been .occasionall y seen, and give a colour to this be- lief of the Natives. One day, whilst bivon aelimg at a lonely and romantic spot in a valley of rocks, situated some forty miles North of Perth, called the Doo&- mya, or the Abode of Dogs, I desired a Native to lead my horse to a pool and 1st him drink. The man, however, declined with terror, refusing to go near the pool, which was inhabited by the Waugul. I therefore had to take my horse myself to the spot; whilst the Native stood aloof, folly expecting that the Waugul would seize him by the nose and pull him under water."
AUSTRALIAN TENACITY OF LIFE.
The Natives are very tenacious of life; and so are all the birds and animals in- digenous to the country. The Natives often have spears thrust completely through their bodies, and without any serious injury receive wounds that would prove mortal to the Whites. A vagabond who had speared one of those noble rains of ours, of whom honour- able mention has been already made, was shot by our shepherd whilst in the act of decamping with the carcase. The ball passed completely through his lunge, and would have made an end of any White man; but the Native recovered in the course of a few days, and walked a hundred miles, heavily ironed, to take his trial for sheep-stealing at the Quarter-Sessions.
WINE OF AUSTRALIA.
There is every reason to believe that Western Australia will one day become a great wine country. Its vineyards are becoming more numerous and extensive every year; and the wine produced in them is of a quality to lead us to believe that when the art of preparing it is better understood, It will be found of very superior quality. It will, however, be a new kind of wine; and therefore before it will be prized in Europe, prejudices in favour of older wines have to be overcome. Soil and climate combined, give to different wines their peculiar flavour. The vines which in Madeira produce the wine of that name' when brought to another country, even in a corresponding latitude, and planted in soil that chemically ap- proaches as closely 28 possible to that which they have left, will produce a wine materially different from that called Madeira. So with the vines of the Xeres and Oporto, of Teneriffe or Constantia. Different countries produce wines peculiar to themselves; and the wines of Western Australia will be found to be entirely std generis. All that I have tasted, though made from the poorest of grapm, the common sweet water, have one peculiarity: a good draught, instead of affect- ing the head or flushing the face causes a most delightful glow to pervade the stomach; and it is of so comforting a nature, that the labourers in harvest prefer the home-made colonial wine to any other beverage. Every farm-settler ia now adding a vineyard to his estate.
THE JARRA TREE.
This extraordinary timber grows to a size that would appear incredible to readers in England. It is, perhaps, only manageable and remunerative from forty to sixty feet ; but in the Southern districts of the colony, especially to the back of Nornalnp and Wilson's Inlet, it is found growing to 120 and 150 feet in height, before the first branch appears. My brother and his servant, when exploring in that district, took refuge once from a storm in the hollow of an old j arra tree, which not only sheltered themselves but their horses; and the interior actually measured in diameter three times the length of the largest horse, an animal six- teen hands high and very long backed. This may appear an astounding AS- sertion, but the following is not less so. The same Fumes found a jarra tree which had fallen completely across a broad and deep river (called the Deep Ri- ver) running between high precipitous banks, thus foeming a neutral bridge, aloug which a bullock-cart might have passed I Timber of such large dimensions is perfectly useless; but there are, of counts, trees of every size, growing ia boundless profusion.