Fouigu Ault Calnuint Fnaxcs.—President Bonaparte has at length reconstructed his
Ministry* M. Achille Fould, of Hebrew origin, formerly Minister of Finances, has been placed at the head of the Council, under the title of Minister of State ; Casablanca lapsing into the snug post of Senator, with a salary of 30,000 francs. The official departments are filled by Bineau, Finance; Magne, Public Works ; Drouyn de Lhuys, Foreign Affairs ; Ducos, Marine ; Abba- tucci, Justice ; Fortoul, Instruction ; Persigny, Interior; St. Arnaud, War; Maupas, Police. This somewhat qualifies the Ministry of thei coup d'etat. The Moniteur hopes, officially, that it may be a permanent Ministry. But these are not the only nor the most remarkable appointments. Three Members of the. Council of State have "resigned" their posts—in other words, have been dismissed, because they opposed the Government on the Orleans confiscation question. Their names are Maillard; Cornudet, and Reverchon. Their successors are notable men,—M. de Cormenin, who under the name of " Timon" was a scourge to the Orleans dynasty ; and M. Persil, formerly an Orleans Minister. The other changes are unimportant—except that M. Giraud, formerly Minister of Public In- struction, has succeeded the late M. Eugene Burnout as Inspector of Su- perior Instruction. M. Proudhon has again forced himself into notice. He has written a book dealing hard blows all round, from the President outwards. The Minister refused permission for its publication • but Proudhon, nothing daunted, has written, it is said, to M. Bonaparte himself. The following is given as the postscript of his letter- " Your Police, i M. le President, is so well done that I have not been able to accompany this letter with a copy of the work which I announce to you. My publisher, of whom I asked a copy for you, answered that the prohibi- tion was so absolute as to admit of no exception. If, however, you should desire to read my book, perhaps the Minister of Police will allow a copy to be sent you.'" - The book, however, is now said to have been actually published on Wednesday !
Swazzawaan.—The Grand Council of Neufchatel held special sittings on the 29th and 30th July, and decreed the suppression of a society of the partisans of the King of Prussia, by 69 votes to 11.
Immr.—The reports from Florence, last week, of the fall of the Bal- dasseroni Ministry, turn out to be incorrect; and instead of leading a new Ministry, M. Bocella is driven from his post. Sir Henry Bulwer, it is whispered, has sustained Baldasseroni' and given the finishing-stroke to Eocene. Buonaroti, of the family of Michel Angelo, succeeds Bocella in the office of Public Instruction. He is said to be sufficiently favourable to reactionary views; but the saving virtue reported of him is, that he ad- vocates the mdependence of the State from the Church. Boodle. goes on a mission to Naples.
The Grand Duke issued a decree on the 26th, appointing a " Council of the Sovereign," to be composed of a President, eight Councillors in ordi- dinary, and an unlimited number in extraoservice, with two Se- cretaries. The President will have 9800 lire 3261.) per annum, the
ordinary Councillors 7000 lire (2331.) This will be a purely deliberative body, with the functions of a mere committee appointed to discuss and re- port. Ministers cannot be members of it, or ‘ avast " unless specially authorized.
Piedmont is decidedly going backwarks. Four new instances of severity towards the press have occurred. M. Ivan Golowine, editor of the Tour- tial of Turin has been ordered out of Piedmont, because he published an article against Austria, written by the Marquis d'Azeglio in 1848, with- Mt the name of the author; the editor of the Gazette of the People is fined 20/. and sentenced to one month's imprisonment, for an article in favour of mixed marriages, in which he said difference of religion ought not to form an impediment to marriage when the conduct of the parties was irreproachable ; the editor and the director of the Opinion have been fined and imprisoned for publishing an article against the Catholic reli- gion; and M. Viard, a refugee and director of the Patriote Savoitien, has been ordered to quit the country.
PORTITGAL.—Portuguese politics, generally so unintelligible and dull, are relieved and set off at present by the dissolution of the Cortes. The Chamber of Deputies, on the 23d July, rejected a species of act of indem- nity, prepared by the Saldanha Ministry for the acts of the Dictatorship. All Portuguese politics turn on finance, and this rejected bill related to a decree of December 3, containing a scheme for capitalizing the debt. A scheme for amortisation was also rejected.. The effect of this, it is said, will be to deprive the bondholders and other public creditors of the boon promised them as a compensation for the retained dividends. The Cortes was formally dissolved on the 26th.
TRIPOLI.—The French fleet from Algiers was before Tripoli on the 26th July ; and had orders to bombard the town, unless the Pacha gave up the French deserters. When the mail came away, the Pacha was resolute, and a bombardment was imminent.
UNITED STATES.—By the Canada, which landed her mails on Satur- day, and the Atlantic, which reached Liv rpool on Tuesday, we have important news. A question has sprung up between England and the United States, arising out of the treaty of 1818 relating to the deep sea fishery on the coast of our North American Colonies. This matter has been brought before the public through an important despatch signed " Daniel Webster, Secretary of State," substantially as follows.
A convention was made in 1818 between Great Britain and the United States, by which it was stipulated that the United States should " re- nounce for ever" the liberty of fishing, drying, and curing fish on or within three marine miles of the coasts in the limits not included in the convention. The limits were, in the words of the convention, as follows-
" That part of the Southern coast of Newfoundland which extends from Cape Bay to the Ramean Islands, on the Western and Northern coasts of said Newfoundland from the said Cape of Bay to the Quirpon Island, on the shores of the Magdalen Islands, and also on the Southern coasts, bays, harbours, and creeks from Mount Jolly, on the Southern coast of Labrador, to and from the Straits of Belle Isle, and thence Northwardly indefinitely along the coast, without prejudice, however, to any of the exclusive rights of the Hudson's Bay Company; and that the Amencan fishermen shall also have liberty for ever to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbours, and creeks of the Southern part of the coast of Newfoundland here above described, and on the coast of Labrador : but so soon as the same, or any portion thereof, shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such portion so settled,. without previous agreement for such purpose with the mhabitants, proprietors, or possessors of the ground."
It is alleged that for several years the Americans have been allowed to encroach upon the best fishing-grounds ; and since the accession of the Derby Government to office, Sir John Pakington has determined to put an end to this encroachment, by sending a sufficient force to exclude or capture any American fishing-boats which may transgress the assigned limits. Not only this, but Sir John has intimated, in a despatch dated " May 26, 1852," that for the future the Imperial Government will sanction the granting of bounties by the local Legislatures to fishermen. "With regard to the question of promoting the fisheries of the British Colo- nies by the means of bounties, her Majesty's Government, though desirous not to sanction any unnecessary deviation from the policy which regulates the commerce of this country, are still disinclined to prevent these colonies, by the interposition of Imperial authority, and especially pending the nego tiation with the United States of America for the settlement of the principles on which the commerce of the British North American Colonies is hereafter to be carried on, from adopting the policy which they may deem most con- ducive to their own prosperity and welfare."
The Government of the United States raise a question as to the legal construction of the treaty of 1818. What is a bay? "A bay," says Mr. Webster, "as is usually understood, is an arm or recess of the sea enter- ing from the ocean between capes and headlands, and the term is applied equally to large and small tracts of water thus situated. It is common to speak of Hudson's Bay or the Bay of Biscay, although they are very large tracts of water. The British authorities insist that England has a right to draw a line from headland to headland, and to capture all Ame- rican fishermen who may follow their pursuits inside that line." And he argues that it was an " oversight " in the United States to make so "large a concession to England." In 1841, the Advocate-General and Attorney-General of England de- livered the following opinion upon the true construction of the conven- tion, upon a case prepared for them by the Legislature of Nova Scotia. The opinion was as follows- " That, by the terms of the convention, American citizens were excluded from any right of fishing within three miles from the coast of British Ame- rica ; and that the prescribed distance of three miles is to be measured from the headlands, or extreme points of land next the sea, of the coast, or of the entrance of bays or indents of the coast; and consequently, that no right exists on the part of American citizens to enter the bays of Nova Scotia, there to take fish, although the fishing, being within the bay, may be at a greater distance than three miles from the shore of the bay ; as we are of opinion that the term headland is used in the treaty to express the part of the land we have before mentioned, including the interior of the bays and the indents of the coast."
The English Government are now going to enforce this construction of the convention.
"The immediate effect," says Mr. Webster, "will be the loss of the valu- able Fall fishing to American fishermen—a complete interruption of the ex- tensive business of New England, attended by constant collision of the most unpleasant and exciting character, which may end in the destruction of hu- man life, in the involvement of the Government in questions of a very seri- ous nature, threatening the peace of the two countries. Not agreeing that the construction thus put upon the treaty. is conformable to the intentions of the contracting part-lee, this information is, however, made public, to the end that those concerned in the American fisheries may perceive how the ease at present stands, and be upon their guard. The whole subject will engage the immediate attention of the Government."
Already one American fishing-vessel has been captured in the Bay of Fundy by the British cutter Netloy, and carried into St. John's, New Brunswick. In addition to the Imperial force engaged in the protection of the fisheries, the Colonies have several armed cruisers in those seas. Since the publication of Mr. Webster's despatch, there has been a good deal of excitement in the United States; increased at the appearance of a despatch from Mr. Everett to Mr. Buchanan in 1845, now sent to the Poston Courier by Mr. Webster ; and then the excitement is further inflamed by a debate in the Senate. The despatch relates the substance of ne- gotiations with Lord Aberdeen on the question of the fisheries,—to the effect that the British Government would concede to the United States the right of fishing in the Bay of Fundy ; and that the extension of the same privilege to the other great bays was left a matter for negotiation. But the Colonial Office, then administered by Lord Stanley, which was con- sulted as to this further extension, adhered to the rigid construction of the treaty of 1818, except in so far as related to the Bay of Fundy. Since that time the matter has remained open; and the Americans, in accordance with custom, have fished in the prohibited waters nearly as much as they pleased.. But it seems generally admitted that the right to fish within three miles of the shore can only be maintained by a lax construction of the treaty. So far the matter, as it appears under the light of despatches and letters. In the Senate, a resolution, calling for copies of all correspondence on the subject since 1818, has been passed, on the motion of Mr. Mason of Vir- ginia. The resolution has a further direction. ." That the President be also requested to inform the Senate whether any f the naval forces of the United States have been ordered to the seas ad- jacent to the British possessions in North America, to protect the rights of American fishermen, under said convention of 1818, since the receipt of the intelligence that a large and unusual British naval force has been ordered there to enforce certain alleged rights of Great Britain under such conven- tion."
Mr. Mason, who is chairman of the Committee of Foreign Relations, expressed great indignation at the conduct of the British Government ; which he called a "far higher offence than a breach of national courtesy —as one of insult to the American people," in not attempting negotiation before it appealed to force. The American people would not negotiate "under duresse." But they would expect the President to say in reply, to the resolution of inquiry—" I have ordered the whole naval force of the country into those seas, to protect the rights of American fishermen against British cannon." The succeeding speakers, from Mr. Cass to Mr. Seward, agreed with Mr. Mason ; but they trusted that the dispute would not lead to war. Mr. Cass said, that " the treaty was now over thirty years old, and it recognized clearly the right of Americans to fish within three miles of any shore" !
It seemed to be felt, both in the Senate and out of doors, that the fleet was intended to support the Colonial demand for commercial reciprocity, and that this abrupt enforcement of the strict terms of the treaty was in- tended to make the Americans feel that if they refused to agree to a treaty of reciprocity the British could shut them out of the cod-fisheries. A memorial was in process of signature at Boston, stating that 2100 vessels and 30,000 seamen are now engaged in the fisheries, representing property valued at 12,000,000 dollars ; that the people of New England and their fathers have enjoyed free right to fish in the now proscribed waters; and that the enforcement of the new construction put upon the treaty of 1818 will ruin many families in New England. Therefore the memorialists pray the President to send a naval force to the British North American waters, sufficient to protect the fishermen in their lawful occu- pation.
The British force off the coasts of our North American Colonies consists of the Cumberland, 70 guns, bearing the flag of Sir G. F. Seymour ; four sloops, one of 12, two others of 6, and one of 4 guns ; a ketch, 3 guns ; four schooners, one of 3 and two of 2 guns ; and three brigantines, two of which carry 2 guns. One schooner and one brigantine appear to be un- armed.
CANADA.—Accounts from Quebec, to the 17th July, have been received. The number of houses destroyed in the great fire at Montreal is variously estimated as high as 2000 and as low as 1100; while the number of people left houseless from the same cause ranges between 12,000 and 15,000. Subscriptions for the sufferers had come in from the Govern- ment, from Montreal, Quebec, and New York.
A land-slip from the heights on Abraham's Plains had killed a whole family. The strata had been loosened by the heavy rains. M. Papineau has been elected for the district of Two Mountains.
Wax Irtnres.—The Orinoco reached Southampton on Monday, bring- ing news from the West Indies and South America to the 18th July. An earthquake was felt at Kingston in Jamaica on the 7th July, more severe than any since 1812 ; but it bad done no damage beyond shaking down some old houses in Spanish Term and stopping the clocks. Small- pox was prevalent. Labour continues in great demand, especially in Jamaica, Grenada, and British Guiana ; and the planters still look for a "helping hand from the parent (the Morning Herald writes "present") Government." Some of the Coolies in Jamaica, who had been imported five years ago upon a promise that at the end of that period their return- passage to India should be paid, now demand to be sent back. The cost - of the transit will be about 20,0001. ; and the Legislative Assembly, while admitting the justice of the claim, is at a loss to know how to raise the money. The question will come before the Assembly at its next meeting, and it was thought that the Governor would hold a special session to consider it.
Tanrri.—.Among the ups and downs of Tahitian affairs, after a Re- public declared under American patronage, and flight of Queen Pomare, the last report, by way of San Francisco, is that the Queen has beaten the Republicans and returned to power under the guns of French war- ships.