Marshal Benedek's letter to the Emperor as to the great
defeat at Koniggratz has been published. In it he tells us that his position was "partly entrenched," a precaution no doubt abso- lutely essential to any success against the breech-loading rifle. But he ascribes his own defeat apparently to his own want of caution, for he says " the enemy succeeded in establishing them-
one can I selves unobserved in Chlum. The rain prevented the smoke of the powder from dispersing, and a dieainct mime of the position was therefore impossible. The enemy were thereby enabled to advance into a.poeition near Chime, -wheseethey sedeleidy and unexpectedly poured a heavy fire into ow flank and rear" and to this he traces the defeat., which he admits to have been a rout. Another account says that the Austrians kept the first army, under Prince Frede- rick Charles, at bay for many hours, till the second, under the Crown Prince, had time to come up from a considerable distance, when it gave way and fled towards Pardubitz.