7 SEPTEMBER 1934, Page 18


[To the Editor of TEE SPECTATOR.] SM,—There are statements in Prof. Ferrero's article" Fascism and Nazism—Diseases of Monarchy " concerning which it would be interesting to obtain other authoritative opinions First : "Fascism in Italy- has never had any important

following among the masses." Perhaps Prof. Ferrero has not visited Italy recently, where appearances (public enthusiasm at meetings of the masses) might lead him to revise that judgement.

He also states that Fascism was "actively supported by the old monarchic hierarchy and . . . was able to gain complete control of the army, &a" • • ' As a matter of fact, Fascism has had extreme difficulty in winning the support of the army ; it is in the monarchic and military-minded districts, such as Piedmont, that the Duce has been most unpopular ; the aristocratic cavalry regiments at Turin have always been opposed to him and still are. It is for that reason that he has set himself to whittle away their importance.

The main support of Fascism came from industry, not aristocracy. If it is to be described as a "disease," it is rather a disease of a panic-stricken capitalism than of a declining monarchy. Many autocratic monarchies have declined without bringing on Fascism ; but when the economic structure is endangered—whether in a republic as in the United States and Germany, or in a kingdom as in Italy— Fascist principles become immediately evident. It is the price—and a heavy one—that we have to pay in order to

ayoid Communism.—! am, Sir, &c., J. VERNON. . St. Leonards, Sussex.