London is not fortunate in the season of its great shows. The Duke of 'Wellington was buried one cold Thursday in November ; the Em- peror of the French passed along our streets in the chill though bright air of April ; and this week the King of Sardinia, on a raw cold day of December, has, we cannot say enjoyed, but taken part in a promenade from Buckingham Palace to the Guildhall. The kind of show which we witnessed on Tuesday loses half its éclat when the principal figure is shut up in a close carriage, so that not the keenest-eyed of gamins can see him. Victor Emmanuel, we fear, was not impressed with what he saw of Lon- don streets on that day ; and certainly the Londoners were not at all im- pressed with the outside of his carriage. But, like many other British productions, although dull, cold, and muddy, outside, the heart of the crowd was warm. The King's reception was not so imposing as that of the Emperor, but the feeling in his case was not a mixed feeling, com- pounded of suspicion and admiration, but one of genuine esteem for a royal representative of civil and religious liberty, and plucky antagonist of Austria and the Papacy. But it is curious that Lord Mayor Salomons, himself a victim of religious disabilities, should have been the man se- lected by Fate to welcome the champion of tolerance in Piedmont !
A deputation of medical men, headed by Dr. Greenhow, waited on Sir Benjamin Hall on Monday, to submit suggestions respecting the carrying out of the clauses of tho Metropolis Local Management Act relating to the appointment of Medical Officers. They submitted, that as the Boards would be new to their duties, Sir Benjamin should issue a circular of ad- vice, pointing out the class of men required, and the best mode of ap- pointing them—by competitive examination. In order to secure uni- formity in the performance of the duties devolving on the Medical Officers, they suggested that it would be well if the Boards were induced to pass the same by-laws regulating those duties. Sir Benjamin Hall declined to adopt the course suggested, because it would be an interference with the principle of the Act—local self-government. But in drawing up the act, he had in view the appointment of competent persons of the highest stand- ing that could be procured—men who, in the event of a recurrence of tho cholera, for instance, could with propriety form a Medical Council for the whole of the Metropolis. Ho favoured the suggestion of a competitive examination. The Local Boards would do well to imitate the City of London, and appoint men like Mr. Simon. Parliament has placed an im- mense patronage at the disposal of the Local Boards ; and upon the due exercise of that patronage the further extension of the principle of local self-government will greatly depend.
On Sunday evening, Cardinal Wiseman delivered a discourse, in St. Mary's, Moorfields, in vindication of the Austrian Concordat. "The ad m is • Bien was by money taken at the door." Dr. Wiseman set out by remarking that it is the duty of those who can' to make a simple explanation of any subject connected with religion that seems to be misunderstood. He re- ferred to the ferment in the public mind respecting the Austrian Con- cordat; and severely rebuked the editors of the journals for the off-hand and ignorant way in which they had dealt with it, treating it as if it had been some miserable fiction or romance, or laughable production made. to amuse the world," instead of the product of two years' solemn deli. berations by two powers—a mighty empire drawing its multitude Of councillors from a variety of nations speaking many tongues, with im- mense resources, not merely of material but intellectual wealth, and the Pope, with his experienced councillors and the wisdom of the whole Church at his command. The Concordat was drawn up in the peculiar Latin of Catholic ecclesiastical diplomacy. Yet before it had been two hours in the hands of a newspaper editor, to whom the subject was alto- gether new, he with a dashing and a flowing pen wrote an indignant article blowing the whole thing to pieces. "It would almost appear to one who had watched the signs of the times in our day, that the religion of this country required to be kept alive by a perpetual ague fever of terror or amazement; that it was like a cauldron which from time to time must boil over and spread around it feelings and emotions that inflamed and burnt ; or rather, he would say, that instead of there being here in England a religion pure and undefiled—a perennial and inexhaustible fountain for sending forth waters that refreshed and in- vigorated all around, and diffused fertility, joy, and prosperity throughout the kingdom—there appeared to him to be something more like a volcano, which required for its relief from time to time not only an outburst, which was to be beard almost at the extremities of the earth, but which was to reduce everything around that was pleasant and lovely to look upon to desolation and ashes, to gratify the feelings of those who triumphed in the blaze and the destruction."
This exordium was followed by a lengthy dissertation on the doctrine of non-interference by a foreign power in this country, stoutly insisted on five years ago. How, after resisting "the Papal aggression," could we interfere in the matter of this Concordat ? Besides, the recent proceed- ings would not touch a single interest in this country—then why should England be so indignant ? Hem the Cardinal stopped short ; promising the " explanation " on a future occasion.
On Monday, the Cardinal delivered an inaugural address at the St. James's School-room, Winchester Row, intended as a reply to Lord John Russell's Exeter Hall lecture on the obstacles to moral and political pro- gress. The reply was a " tu quoque." While the Protestants were perse- cuted in the Low Countries and in France, severe penal laws were in full operation against the Roman Catholics of England. The origin of St. Bartholomew was a Huguenot conspiracy ; and the sack of Rouen, the burning of Cluny, the sack of Montbrison, and the massacre of Glencoe, were a set-off. The Dragonnades found their counterparts in the perse- cution of the Covenanters. The toleration of Locke, whom Lord John Russell recommended the " Christian Young Men" to read, stopped short of Popery, but included Atheism ; and Milton is a dangerous author in these times of Red Republicanism, especially in a country where prelacy is a paramount institution.
Mr. William Williams addressed a portion of the Lambeth constituen- cy at the Horns Tavern, Kennington, on Monday. He explained to them his Parliamentary doings last session ; complained of the ineffective man- ner in which the war was carried on in its early stages ; and expressed a hope that things are better now. The meeting passed a resolution of confidence in their representative.
A meeting was held at the London Tavern, on Wednesday, to consider the state of the monetary system and the influence of the Bank Charter Act of 1844 on domestic and foreign commerce. Mr. Francis Bennoch took the chair, and delivered a lecture advocating the repeal of the Bank Act. The other speakers were Lieutenant-Colonel Macdonald, Mr. T. C. Salt of Birmingham, Mr. Jonathan Duncan, Mr. Taylor of Notting- ham, Mr. Bronterre O'Brien, Professor L. Levi, and Mr. E. V. Neale. They resolved that the existing currency-laws are calculated to perpetuate fluctuations in the circulating medium, and thereby produce panics de- structive to industry and commerce ; that no system can be satisfactory that does not restore gold to its natural character as a commodity ; and that national paper should be issued, under conditions, calculated to remedy the objections usually urged against paper money. The pro- ceedings were not without interruption ; and one of the speakers up- braided the interruptors for disturbing a meeting that cast them nothing —the whole charge of the evening's proceedings being defrayed by Mr. Herbert Ingram of the Illustrated London News !—an announcement re- ceived with "laughter and derisive cheers."
What shall be done with the site of Smithfield market ? The Corpo- ration of London desire to erect thereon a dead-meat market. A strong feeling is entertained that whatever is done with the site it should be something tending to the benefit of the inhabitants of the neighbourhood, injured by the removal of the cattle-market. But to the project of a dead-meat market the authorities of St. Bartholomew Hospital raise strong objections, The City authorities have laid their plan before the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and on Wednesday a deputation in support of the scheme waited on hint Sir George Lewis's views had not as- sumed a settled form. The matter is therefore " under consideration."
The licensed victuallers, who feel aggrieved by the practice of billeting militiamen at their houses, held a meeting on "Wednesday at the Bald- faced Stag, Worship Square,—Mr. Deacon in the chair,—to take some steps for the removal of the evil. They allege that they are, as a body, all patriotic men, but they do not see why they alone ought to bear a burden that is equivalent to an additional tax of 201. per annum. The City of London is by charter exempt from the burden, but this only renders it the more onerous on the outlying districts. The licensed vic- tuallers are ready to accommodate troops passing from place to place ; but they think some steps should be taken either to equalize the burden or to build permanent barracks for the men. It was resolved to memorialize the Government to this effect.
At a meeting of the Middlesex Magistrates, on Thursday, the case of Lieutenant Hill, Governor of the House of Detention, who had been suspended for violating the rules of the prison in favour of Strahan, Paul, and Bates, was dealt with. Mr. E. E. Antrobus moved that he should be dismissed. But this was supported by a very small minority ; the great majority agreeing in a resolution directing that Lieutenant Hill should be reprimanded; which, with the loss of his salary for six weeks, (501.,) it was thought would meet the justice of the case. Lieutenant Hill was called in and reprimanded. A resolution censuring the conduct of the Chaplain was also agreed to.
In the Consultor), Court, on Wednesday, Dr. Lushington delivered judg- anent in the suits of Westerton versus Liddell and others, and Beal versus Liddell and others, in the matter of the decorations in the churches of St. Paul and St. Barnabas. The court was crowded with interested auditors. It may be recollected that Mr. Westerton prayed for a faculty to remove from gt. Paul's the high altar, the cross, the gilded candlesticks and candles, the credence-table, and the coloured altar-coverings. Mr. Beal prayed for a monition to the Churchwardens of St. Barnabas tceremove various articles of a similar character, including a metal cross studded with jewels, a rood- screen and cross, and brazen gates. The articles must be separated into two divisions—such as are ornaments, and such as are not. The communion-table and credence-table could not be considered as ornaments. The communion- table used in St. Paul's is not stone, but highly-carved wood. As to ma- terial, therefore, it is in accordance with the law ; but as to moveability, one of the things enjoined, it is certainly very massive, and could not be moved with facility. But as it is of wood and capable of being moved, Dr. Lushington did not feel bound to pronounce it contrary to law. But the altar in St. Barnabas is of stone, and all tables of stone are illegal : credence- tables are not permitted by law. So much for what are not ornaments. The Judge next entered into a long and learned examination of the several questions touching the use of ornaments in the church, and especially such ornaments as crosses, candlesticks, and altar-cloths. No other ornaments, save thosein use by the authority of Parliament, are permitted. The learned Judge stated at great length the difficulties that beset him in the inquiry as to what orna- ments are permitted what prohibited. In the order in the Book of Common Prayer immediately preceding the Morning Service, it is stated " that such ornaments of the Church should be retained and be in use as were in this Church of England by the authority of Parliament in the second year of the reign of King Edward VL" 'But nothing has been prescribed by that au- thority. He had therefore determined to consider everything and follow a course not strictly conformable to legal rules, but least repugnant to them, and best calculated to meet the exigencies of the case. Following this Course, he found that nearly all the Bishops at the time of the Reformation protested against crosses ; and although Queen Elizabeth retained both crosses and crucifixes in her chapel, yet the Bishops persisted in insisting on their disuse. She gave way to their remonstrances, and again relapsed. The perseverance of the Bishops is the strongest proof that they believed they were supported by the law of the land. In fact, all crosses were abolished before the reign of Elizabeth ; under Laud they were again intro- duced ; but in the time of the Commonwealth they were destroyed, and not revived until within these few years. It was said that Bishop Butler put up a cross in his private chapel and a cross in his study.' What was the opin- ion of the Church, or of its head, expressed at that time ? The words of Archbishop Seeker, as reported by Bishop Halifax, are as follows—" As to
putting up a cross n his chapel, the Archbishop frankly owns that for him- self he wishes he had not ; and thinks that in so doing the Bishop did amiss." Dr. Lushington came to the conclusion that the cross in St. Paul's and the two crosses in St. Barnabas are not warranted by law. With regard to candlesticks and candles he came to these conclusions : that lighted candles on the com- munion-table are contrary to law, unless used for the purpose of giving necessary light; that candlesticks and candles unlighted may stand on the communion-table for necessary purposes. With regard to the five differently- coloured altar-coverings.—a white one from Christmas to the octave of Epi- phany; a red one on the vigil of Pentecost to the next Saturday, Holy Innocents, if on a Sunday, and all other feasts; a violet one on Ash Wed- nesday to Easter-eve, Advent to Christmas-eve, Ember Week in September; Holy Innocents, unless on Sunday ; a darker violet one on Good Friday and funerals; a green ,one on all other days,—these were in accordance with the practices of the Romish Church, and there is no warrant-for engrafting theth on the Church of England. With respect to the brazen gates and rood screen of St. Barnabas, he was not satisfied that, although objections* they are contrary to law. The decree issued is to the following effect—" As to St. Paul's, that a' faculty do issue to the incumbent and both the churchwardens to remove the credence-table and the cross on or near to the communion-table ;' to take away all cloths at present used in the church for covering the communion- table during Divine service, and to substitute one only covering for such purpose of silk or other decent stuff; that this decree do not issue for ono fortnight from this present time ; and that, in case neither the incumbent nor Mr. Horne declare in writing to the Registrar his consent to take such faculty within the thin limited, the faculty do issue to Mr. Westarton alone ; that, if either the incumbent only or Mr. Horne only do so declare his con- sent, then that the faculty be issued to Mr. Westerton, in conjunction with the party so declaring his consent. With respect to St. Barnabas, that a monition do issue to the churchwardens to remove the present structure of stone used as a communion-table, and to substitute therefor a moveable table of weed: to remove the credence-table: to remove the cross on the chancel- screen, and that on or near the presentstructure used as a communion-table : to take away all the clothe at present used in the church for covering the structure used as a communion-table during Divine service' and to substitute only one covering for such purpose, of silk or other decent stuff; and further,. to remove any cover used at the time of the ministration of the sacrament, worked or embroidered with lace or otherwise ornamented, and to substitute a fair white linen cloth, without laoe or embroidery or other ornament, to cover the communion-table at the time of the ministration of the sacrament; and to cause the Ten Commandments to be set up on the East end of the church, in compliance with the terms of the canon. In the case of Faulkener versus Litchfield, Sir H. Jenner Fast reversed the decree of the Court below, granting the faculty which had been prayed, but he did not admonish the churchwardens to remove the communion-table or the cre- dence-table. It is necessary to explain why the decree was made in that form. The proceeding before the Court of Arches was not an original suit, but merely an appeal, and the only prayer which could properly be made by the appellant was the reversal of the decision of the Court below granting the faculty ; this the Dean of the Arches did, and he could not in that form of proceeding have admonished the churchwardens to remove the tables. I believe I take a correct view of what Sir H. Jeatter Fust did, and his reason for not doing more, because, having declared these matters to be illegal, I apprehend that, if the form of proceeding allow, no alternative 'is left to a judge but to cause that which is illegal to be removed : it would be contrary to all Bound reason for a judge to be called upon to pronounce his judicial opinion that things were contrary to law, and at the same time to leave them to continue in defiance of the law. For many reasons, I shall give no costs in either case. With reaped to St. Paul's, because many years have been allowed to elapse before resort was had to a judicial tribunal,' and be- cause neither the present incumbent nor the churchwarden was to blame for what was done before his time ; because, also, this long sufferance, and 'the opinion of a large part of the _cqiigregation, fully justified their appearance in this suit. The same reasons apply to St. Barnabas, and, though less for- cibly, still sufficiently to justify ray following the same course." The judgment occupied three -hours in delivery. On several occasions there were plaudits, which the officers of the court had great difficulty in re- pressing. On Mr. Westerton passing into the quadrangle outside the court, be was loudly cheered. An appeal has been lodged against the sentence in both cases.
An action for criminal conversation was tried in the Court of Common Pleas on Monday. The plaintiff was Mr. Hawker, a Devonshire gentleman ; the defendant Sir Henry Seale, a Major in the -Devon Militia. Mrs. Haw- ker, formerly Miss Polkuighorn, married Captain Murray, who was killed in
the Caffre war. On her return' to England ahe marrietMr. Hawker. Un- fortunately, although much attached to each other, they perpetually quarrelled about trifles, and separated in the end. In 184, however, Mrs. Hawker made advances toward a reconelliation, and wrote a tender appeal to her hus- band, promising that there should be no more temper on her part, and that she would try to win back that affection that seemed to be gone from her. Friends were deputed to bring about a reunion of husband and wife ; but in the mean time, Sir Henry Seale a married man with a-family, appeared on the scene, and won the -wife's alfections. Mrs. Hawker lodged at the house of a Miss Sperling at Clifton. Here Sir Henry paid her frequent visits; oc- cupied a dressing-room adjoining her bedroom ; dined, with her; staid in the house until midnight, sometimes all night. On onueecasion his red sash was found on Mrs. Hawker's bed. Miss Sperling said, that so long as her rent was paid, what went on did not concern her. The evidence in one in- stance direct, led to the belief that the husband had been wronged. He only sought damages sufficient to enable him to obtain a divorce. The defence was limited to the efforts of Sir Frederick Thesiger to make out that the evi- dence for the prosecution was weak and inconclusive. The Jury found a ver- dict for the plaintiff, and awarded him* 100/. damages.
The Court for the Consideration of Crown Cases Reserved has quashed the conviction of Cosmo Gordon for felony in not surrendering to a fiat in bank- ruptcy. At the trial, eight legal objections were reserved ; the Judges soon decided seven against the prisoner, but they took time to consider the eighth, and even had it reargued before them. The eighth objection WaB; that only one copy of the notice of adjudication of bankruptcy was left at the counting- house of Davidson and Gordon, whereas there ought to have been two, one for each partner : on the back of the document was a' form of protection from arrest; "each bankrupt," said Mr. Chambers, "had a right to a copy which he might carry in his pocket." Lord Campbell, Barons Parke and Alderson, and Justices Cresswell, Williams, and Crompton held that two notices should have been left at the bankrupts' place of 'business ; Lord Chief Justice Jervis, Baron Platt, and justices Erle and Willa, thought one notice sufficient. Conviction quashed. [To appreciate this decision in a non-legal point of view, the reader must remember that at the time when two notices ought to have been left for the bankrupts, that each might have one, with the necessary protection, Davidson and Gordon were traversing the Continent in the ultimately vain endeavour of ,finding a refuge where their creditors and accusers could not reach them to call them to account for their gigantic mist:1010gs.] Mr. Coates, a watchmaker in Ecoleston Street South, has been remanded by the Westminster Magistrate on a charge for.detaining watches and clocks left with him to be repaired, and for pawning, the watch of Dr. Scatliff. When he was arrested, no fewer than sixty-four pawnbrokers' duplicates for watches, clocks, and other articles, were found upon .him. Mr. Arnold re- fused to 'take bail. Coates's shop had so "respectable" a look, that no one would have hesitated to leave property there for repair.
A gentleman has been fined 10s. by the Greenwich Magistrate for smoking in a railway-carriage on the Croydon line.' The -Brighton Railway Company have resolved to cheek the prevalent-practice of smoking in trains.
Mr. Leopold James Lardner,• assistant Librarian at the British. 'Museum, his committed suicide during a fit of insanity. On Tuesday, sennight, as he was proceeding in his brougham to the Museum, the horse 'knocked down a, man; Mr; Lardner, being. of a very excitable temperament, was much agi- tated at the occurrence, and at the Museum-showed signs of insanity. He
was conveyed home, and a female servant directed watch him. Unfor- tunately, she obeyed his order to quit' The retelli--;thetihr. lArdner, seizing the opportunity, threw himself from the second-floor 'Window. He was so
much hurt that he died in -a few minutes. -- The *erilict of a Coroner's Jury , ... was; "Temporary insanity." • -
An explosion took place in the rocket dePartbiefit'.14,1tripiWich Arsenal on Monday. Nine men were badly hurt ; one died illerpit,:untnadiately, a se- cond the next day ; and when theCoroner'e inquiry, wee- opened on Thurs- day, a third had sucetanbed. From the evidence taken, it would seem probable that the disaster arose. from a steel " rymer" or gimlet being used to,pick out putty from holes its the end of a rocket ; the friction caused the composition within to ignite, .and.the fire spread to loose powder.