22 JULY 1927

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Vienna has been the scene of a brief but violent

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enieute, which apparently arose from resentment at the -acquittal after a long trial of. three young " Front Fighters," charged with killing a; Socialist and a child in the...

There is a pause at Geneva in the proceedings of

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the Naval Limitation Conference. A relaxation of the long tensItm is likely to -do good. Mr. Bridgeman and Lord Cecil have come home for a few days to report to the Cabinet. The...

On Tuesday Their Majesties opened the Gladstone Docks at Liverpool.

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This is the completion of a huge scheme which Liverpool has been doggedly carrying out in spite of such obstacles and interruptions as the War, the depression in shipping and...

EDITORIAL AND PUBLISHING OFFICES : 13 York Street, Covent Garden,

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London, W.C.-2. — A Subset-12;6am to the SPECTATOR costs Thirty Shillings per annum, including postage, to any part of the world. The SPECTATOR is - registered as a Newspaper....

No public announcement was made over Sunday. On Monday the

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chief delegates .met at the Villa of the Japanese delegation, and' afterwards issued a hopeful announcement. Japan, like the United States, fears that if Great Britain should...

So moving was the whole ceremony that the Moderator of

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the Church, preaching on Sunday at St. Giles's before the King and Queen, proclaimed his belief in the close actual presence of the spirits of the dead stirring the overwhelming...

News of the Week

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T HE annual residence of the Court at Holyrood Palace has been memorable, not only for the usual efforts of Their Majesties to see as many of their Scottish subjects as possible...

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On Monday also Lord Mildmay brought up the question of

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the pollution of rivers which Bishop Welldon and others have discussed in our correspondence columns: LOrd Balfour answered in one of those speeches with which he delights...

On Thursday, July 14th, the Trade Unions Bill passed through

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the Committee stage in the Upper House. There were no important amendments made, but the Lord Chancellor undertook to consider the introduction in the Report stage of several...

The foreign representatives in Peking have been seriously alarmed at

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the prospect of the action threatened by the Nanking " Government " in regard to fresh taxa- tion and interference with trade. That Government is marching to the ruin of the...

The House of Commons, on Thursday, July 14th, agreed to

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the Home Office vote and discussed the West Ham Guardians. Local Labour Members defended the. old Board and wanted to see the end of the present administrators. Mr. Chamberlain...

The Duke and Duchess of York received at the Guildhall

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on Friday, July 15th,.a formal welcome from the Corpora- tion of the City of London with the City's congratulations and appreciation of their services to the Empire. His Royal...

The death of the King of Roumania will be deeply

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regretted in Great Britain, where he has been popular ever since he came to court an English Princess over thirty years ago. His uncle, King Carol, whom he suc- ceeded, had done...

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.Those ever‘varying galleries, open free- to all lovers of things.beautiful

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or rare,. the rooms. of Messrs. Christie and Messrs. Sotheby, .have been centres of special interest in the culmination of the present season. A few days ago the masterpieces...

* * Mr. Robert T. Jones has retained at St.

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Andrews our open Golf Championship which he won last year. His play was as near perfection as could be. His victory was as popular as any British player's could have been, and...

We are delighted to see that Mr. George Trevelyan is

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to follow Professor Bury as Regius. Professor of Modern History at Cambridge. He is certainly a more " modern " historian, as his earliest theme has been the age of Wycliffe,...

The death at Lenox, Massachusetts, of Mr. Henry White will

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be deeply regretted in Europe as well as in the United States. Though he escaped appointment as United States Ambassador to the Court of St. James's, he was one of the...

-` We congratulate the British Academy on its twenty- fifth

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birthday and upon the present which Lord Balfour was able to announce at a luncheon held last week to celebrate the occasion. The Government will put at the Academy's disposal...

A White Paper (Cmd. 2904, 2d.) was issued last week

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in regard to East Africa. It is really the result of Mr. Ormesby-Gore's visit to those parts and the meetings in East Africa and London of the local Governors and chief...

Bank _ Rate, 41 per cent, changed from 5 per

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cent., on April 21st, 1927. War Loan (5 per cent.) was on Wednesday 1011; on Wednesday week 101*; a yeaz ago 101. Funding Loan (4 per cent.) was on Wednesday ; on Wednesday week...

The six territories concerned are working well together in joint

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research against disease and in other directions, in co-ordinating their Custom's arrangements, and in spending our money on ports, railways, and roads under the East Africa...

Mr. Benson only a few days earlier announced that he

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had sold his own collection also for a very large sum indeed, presumably for dispersal. This was a well-known collection because the owner was a generous lender to exhibitions,...

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The Imperial Education Conference i s it because we are sated

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with discussions of political and commercial questions of the Empire that so little attention has been paid to the Imperial Education Conference that met nearly a month ago ?...

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Clearing the Slums

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W E outlined pur general proposals last week and appealed frankly to two powerful emotions— pride in our country and pity for our fellow men. We may, however, repeat that we...

Troubled Austria

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T HE outbreak of serious riots in Vienna last Friday -I-. need not have occasioned surprise. The wonder is that the great city has escaped such a disaster for so long, despite...

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The Week in Parliament

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T HE report stage of the Finance Bill was concluded on Tuesday night. Clauses 31 and 33 continue to excite apprehensions amongst Unionist members and in the City, which will not...

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How to Save £4,000,000 on the Army

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T HE Army Estimates of the years since the War show commendable progress in the process of reducing the annual cost of the Army to reasonable proportions. In fact, the figures...

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Harlech of the Sieges

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[Our valued contributor, Dr. Graves (the author of Fallvir 0' Flynn, which he wrote for the Spectator in 1872), draws attention to the festival which it is proposed to hold...

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Telling the World

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TT would seem that the old definition of advertising - 11 - as " a means of fooling the public about the goods offered for sale " is now, as one of Mr. Sean O'Casey's characters...

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The Booksellers' Conference

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THOSE who were privileged to attend the annual Conference of thc Associated Booksellers of Great Britain and Ireland at Cambridge last week-end will account themselves...

Sheep-dog Trials

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I N Scotland from Shetland to the Border, in Northern England and Wales, sheep-dog trials form a village festival of great importance. Since the 'War the number of such fixtures...

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Gramophone Notes

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[ORCHESTRAL RaconDs.] PARLOPHONE. This company has issued a very fine performance of the Rienzi Overture, played by the Berlin State Opera Orchestra and conducted by Edward...

Correspondence

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A LETTER FROM SIAM. [To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] is truly a pleasure in these troubled times to be able to write from a country which is at peace with the world and at...

The Cinema

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[" LET'S FIND ODT.1 THE British Instructional Films, Ltd., have recently made a film of the activities of the Malting House School, Cambridge, in order to place on record the...

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A LETTER FROM THE WESTERN ISLES. [To the Editor of

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the SPECTATOR.] Sia,—After being " dry " for six years, Stornoway voted " wet," and the public-houses opened on May 30th with a guarantee of three years without any further...

Poetry

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Translations from the Greek Anthology Id o - reOcipour LEONIDAS OF TARENTI131. THIS gentle ball, this spinning top, this rattle, that would never stop, - the bones of which...

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Country Life

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A TRIAL OF TRAPS. AMONG a great number of letters on the cruelty of the steel traps comes one from a landowner and farmer who has much trouble to keep down the rabbits. They...

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Letters to the Editor

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110W TO ABOLISH THE SLUMS [To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—I have read your articles on "How to Abolish the Slums" with great interest, and agree with much of it, but I...

[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.]

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SIR,—As one who has worked for years in the cause of better housing for the poorest working-classes and found private representations to public authorities very disappointing,...

[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sin,—Every enthusiast for better

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housing will be profoundly grateful to you for your article upon the subject. But many . will greatly regret the sentences in which you suggest that a large part of the blame...

[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.]

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Sin,—I have read your article of July 16th, on how to abolish slums, with great interest and much sympathy ; but the question of abolishing slums is a far more intricate and...

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] have read with much

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interest the various letters on the subject of rabbit catching, and sympathize very much with those who disapprove of the steel trap. To-day I have received a description of...

THE HORRORS OF THE STEEL TRAP [To the Editor of

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the SPECTATOR.] am one of those monsters who employ steel traps for the destruction of rabbits, and, although I must admit that your correspondents have not exaggerated the...

PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sin,—In recent issues of the Spectator your comments on this subject appear to overlook several points of vital interest. You commiserate with...

WHAT IS CONSERVATISM ?

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sin,—A correspondent in your issue of July 9th quotes Disraeli in answer to the question : " What is Conservatism ? " I venture to supplement...

THE CRISIS IN THE CHURCH [To the Editor of the

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SPECTATOR.] Sot,—The Spectator is apparently of opinion that the Bishops, as a body, will enforce, by legal process if necessary, the restrictive provisions of the Revised...

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THE BEST RULE OF THE ROAD

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[To the . Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SJR,—There is now being pushed forward in Safety First and County Surveyor Committees, a patchwork plan which if adopted—as it will be if...

THE "SPECTATOR" OF 1852 AND INDIA

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sm,—On August 20th, 1852, a meeting was held in the Elphinstone Institution, Bombay. On that day was inaugu- rated the first political...

A FORGOTTEN SECT

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—The miscellaneous contents of Joanna Southcott's Box will perhaps remind people of the fictitious millions which were believed to be...

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APPLIED ART IN GERMANY

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Slit,—With reference to Miss Wrench's letter in your issue of June 25th, drawing attention to the Exhibition of European Arts and Crafts which...

AGRICULTURE ' AND • THE RAILWAYS

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—The letter from Mr. E. R. B. Roberts, comparing British railway rates with those of foreign countries, must baye been of considerable...

THE SHANGHAI SETTLEMENT

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[To the Editor of the SpEc.r.vron.] Sia,—There appears to be a great deal of misunderstanding at home regarding the origin and status of the Shanghai Settlement and Concession....

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THE LATE WILLIAM HEINEMANN: A MEMOIR

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—With the approval and assistance of the present directors of W. Heinemann, Ltd., I have for some months past been preparing a memoir of...

THE HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF ANIMALS

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sin,—With reference to your article on " The Humane Slaughter of Animals " in a recent issue, at least one regular reader would be interested...

AN INTERNATIONAL HOSTEL AT GENEVA

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—In August last you were good enough to publish a letter„ announcing the establishment of an International College at Geneva. It may be of...

-A DESCRIPTION OF THACKERAY WANTED

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Snt,-In Mr. Michael Sadleir's delightful book about Anthony TrollOpe the following passage occurs on p. 198 :— " At one place in his book on...

[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—The urgency of the

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Holiday Fund, administered by the Poor Clergy Relief Corporation, becomes more marked each year, and we confidently appeal to sympathetic friends to enable the poorer clergy in...

A CATERWAULING JAY

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sm,—In your issue of July 9th, under the title " Some Excite- ments of a Bird-watcher," Mr. E. W. Hendy writes : " Montagu speaks of the jay...

COMMUNITY FEEDING FOR CUCKOOS

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR, I think your readers may be interested in the following incident. Noticing a certain excitement amongst the birds in the garden yesterday,...

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e ctator

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FINANCIAL SUPPLEMENT BANKING AND INSURANCE No. 5,169.] WEEK ENDING SATURDAY, ItTLY 23, 1927. [Gri Ans.

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Central Banking Co-operation

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Its Advantages and its Drawbacks By ARTHUR W. KIDDY. ON another page of this Supplement Al be found an article by Mr. J. C. Backhouse dealing with the problem of gold...

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The Gold Position

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Is a Scarcity Impending ? By J. C. BACKHOUSE, LL.B. RECENT purchases of bullion in London by the Bank of France, with their effects on the Money Market, have brought the...

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The Banking Position Growth in Deposits and Loans AFTER .

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a period of contraction in banking deposits, following upon prolonged expansion, the totals are once again ascending, and the growth during the past year is fairly striking....

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Insurance

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A CLOCK that beats seconds does so about 314 million times in a year. If it were possible for an individual to have the whole earth constantly in view, he would see at every...

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London : Printed by W. SPEAIGHT AND SONS, LTD., 98

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and 99 Fetter Lane, E.C. 4, and Published by THE SPECTATOR, LTD., at their Offices, No. 13 York Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 2. Saturday, July 23,'1927. -

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Few, if any, naturalists know more about birds than Professor

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Landsborough Thomson, whose Birds : An Introduc- tion to Ornithology (Williams and Norgate, 2s.) is one of the recent additions to that excellently informative series, the...

Modern houses are planned primarily with regard to labour- saving,

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convenience, and the cost of materials, and the keynote of a modern garden is " simplicity and a subtle sense of the fitness of things." It is because we understand nowadays how...

This Week's Books

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Tun average book of verses purporting t3 be for children usually • infuriates us beyond words, perhaps because our memori e s of being " talked down to " are still as vivid as...

Two good hooks on motoring are Motoring without Trouble (Heath

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Cranton, 6s.), by Mr. George Morland, with a short Two good hooks on motoring are Motoring without Trouble (Heath Cranton, 6s.), by Mr. George Morland, with a short preface by...

.; Mr. Reginald Belfield is an enthusiastic amateur in the

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art of photography. To obtain the best results, he says, it is absolutely necessary to have been trained as a painter. Given this training, photography is really an art like...

Lieutenant Muller, the well-known author of My System; who Must

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have earned the gratitude of many healthy millions of us, publishes his new book under the patronage of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. There are few things more important in the...

Mr. Edgar Wallace has some singularly delightful pieces in This

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England (Hodder and Stoughton, 7s. 6d.). Possibly the best chapter is " Our Burglars," describing the ease with which crooks can enter a house. House-breakers can open even the...

General Knowledge Competition Tim prize of one guinea which the

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Editor offers weekly for the best thirteen - General Knowledge Questions (with answers) is awarded to Mr. Arthur E. Shaw for the following : Bible Questions from the Old...

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Don Quixote on the Ivory Coast

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THERE are two ways of looking at this unique book. You may read it as a record of adventure among savage beasts and savager men : " Aye, I've been fighting all the time and...

A Statesman's Faith

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The shades of Sir Thomas Browne, master of the jewelled prose Having said this much, we wish at once to express a most of the Religio .111e . dici and of Coventry Patmore, with...

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Mediaeval Matters

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Trails - of the Troubadours. By Raimon de Loi. Illustrated by Giovanni Petrina. (John Long. 12s. Cd.) The. Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. By C. H. Haskins: (Harvard...

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New Fire out of Ireland

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The Dark Breed. By F. R. Higgins. (Macmillan. 3s. Cs.L) The Son of Learning. By Austin Clarke. (Allen and Unwin. 5s.) Mn. HIGGINS defines something of the peculiarly capti-...

Life and Matter

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Changing Backgrounds in Religion and Ethics. By H. - Wi!don Carr. (Macmillan.- 7s. &J.) THE reasonable man's cOncept'ons of goodness and of God will be determined in part by hiS...

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THE QUEST OF THE GOLDEN STAIRS. By Arthur Edward Waite.

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(Theosophical Publishing House, Ltd. 10s.)— It is impossible to give the plot of The Quest of the Golden Stairs. One does not give the plot of a fairy story and this one is more...

The Architect in History

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The Architect in History. By Martin S. Briggs, F.R.I.B.A. (Oxford University Press. 10s.) The Architecture of the Renaissance in France. By W. H. By William Bell Dinsmoor....

BLUE MURDER. By Edmund Snell. (Fisher Unwin. 7s. 6d. net.)—Blue

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Murder does not give us a quite coherent account of the terrible plot for the conquest of the world invented by the mad scientist Ahlborg. Readers who do not like to study "...

address at the following rates :— into every chapter, and

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sometimes both. This, he was assured, would make the book popular." There are a great many meals in this story and many descriptions of the way in which two young doctors manage...

Fiction

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THE BARKRY WITCH. By Anthony Richardson. (Constable. IA. 8d.)—" Dank " is the adjective that most nearly describes Mr. Anthony Richardson's new novel. It is totally unrelieved...

DEW OF THE SEA, AND OTHER STORIES. By Horace Annesley

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Vachell. (Cassell. 7s. 6d. net.)—Mr. Vachell gives us under the above title over a dozen short stories. Most of them are concerned with persons desirous of acquiring " easy...

7s. 6d. net.)—This is a readable book in which the

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author THE SPECTATOR. carries out her own prescription for a successful novel ; the affairs. The d detail, some of which is almost too technical for the ordinary

DARK ANN. By Marjorie Bowen. (John Lane. 7s. 6d. net.)—Miss

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Marjorie Bowen is more at home in the fifteenth century than in the twentieth, and her attempts at psycho- logical insight into the minds of the moderns are, to say the least of...

THOU SHALT NOT KILL. By Mrs. Belloe-Lowndes. (Hutchinson. 7s. 6d.

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net.)—The devices by which Sir Ambrose Gilks tries to make away with his ward are almost too crude to be interesting ; time after time the hero has to save the unfortunate girl...

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ANCIENT PERSIA AND IRANIAN CIVILIZATION. By Professor Clement Huart. Illustrated.

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(Kegan Paul. 12s. 6d.) —So far as may be, this volume brings into comprehensive synthesis all recent theories and findings that relate to Ancient Persia, but, as its author...

THE HERRING AND THE HERRING FISHERIES. By J. Travis Jenkins.

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(P. S. King. 12s.)—The most surprising thing about this book is that it was not written years ago. We have had statistics about the herring fisheries, statistics galore,...

THE HOMELAND OF ENGLISH AUTHORS. By Ernest H. Rann. (Methuen.

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7s. 6d.)—If this little book has any merit, it is because of its attempt to include within one cover matter which can be found elsewhere within many. The word " Homeland,"...

THE RURAL INDUSTRIES OF • ENGLAND AND WALES.—III. DECORATIVE CRAFTS

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AND RURAL POTTERIES. By Helen E. • FitzRandolph and M. Doriel Hay. (Clarendon Press. 5s.)—Two ladies, working on behalf of the Agricultural-Economics Research Institute at...

PREHISTORIC MAN. By Keith Henderson. Illustrated. (Chatto and Windus. 7s.

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6d.)—This is the first of a series of handbooks which is intended to explain what is newest in modern Science and Art, and which shall at the same time be written in simple...

THE MIGRATION OF BRITISH CAPITAL TO 1875. By Leland Hamilton

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Jenks. (A. A. Knopf. 18s.)—Vnder a somewhat forbidding title, Mr. Jenks, a young American economist, has written an intensely interesting book on the • development of British...

OLD ENGLISH MILLS AND INNS. By R. Thurston Hopkins. (Cecil

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Palmer. 12s. 6d.)—It is high time we did have an authoritative book on the old windmills and water- wheels of England, for it may not be long, unhappily, before the oldest and,...

Current Literature

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SPRING FLOWERS OF THE WILD. By Edward Step, F.L.S. (Jarrolds. 5s.)—Hitherto most books about wild flowers have been arranged alphabetically, Black Medick following Bitter Vetch,...

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SILVER CITIES OF yUCATAN. By Gregory Mason. (Putnam. 15s.)--Mr. Mason's

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lively narrative of an expedi- tion to North-eastern 'Yucatan would interest any reader who cares for adventurous travel, while at the sada. time it is a notable contribution to...

THE VICTORIA COUNTY HISTORY OF BUCKING- HAMSHIRE. Vol. IV. (St.

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Catherine Press. 63s.)—Since to review any of the volumes of the Victoria County Histories in a manner adequate to its merits would require almost a whole issue of the...

NORTHUMBRIAN CROSSES OF THE PRE-NORMAN AGE. By W. G. Collingwood,

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M.A., F.S.A. Illustrated. (Faber and GWyer. 30s.)—" Augustine," wrote Bishop Lightfoot, " was the Apostle of Kent, but Aidan was the Apostle of England." Aidan it was who,...

THE POLITICAL IDEAS OF THE GREEKS. By J. L. Myres.

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(Arnold. I.4s.)—Professor My - res in this very able and interesting book examines in turn the Greeli notions of society, initiative, justice, law and freedom, discussing in...

Key to Old Testament Questions

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1. Numbers xvi. 12-13.-2. Ezekiel xii. 13 ; Jeremiah Ili. 10-11.----2. Nehemiah ii. I Samuel iii. 23. — 5. Nehemiah 12.-0. 2 Chronicleslcvi. 0.-7. 2 Kings xi. 18 ; 2 Chronicles...

lith LIFE AND FAITH OF THE BAPTISTS. By H. Wheeler

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Robinson. (Methnen. 5s.)—Men and women who enter in adult years through a dramatic act of baptism upon the Christian life are likely to seek to live piously. The author does...

A Library List

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MiscELLafcgous :--Fewness of My Days. By Lord Braye. - (Sands. 18s.)---Enemies of Society. By Charles Kingston. (Stanley Paul. 12s. 6d.)--American Opinion of France. By...

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Motoring Notes

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Romantic Rockingham Forest THE traveller with an eye to the picturesque and an ear atune to the tales that may be told by old stone houses, ruins and ancient camps, will find...

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MIDLAND BANK FIGURES.

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In articles which appear this week we deal with the general question of the growth in banking deposits. Special mention, however, must be made of the particularly large increase...

NEW PROPOSALS.

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In future these Income Bonds will be subject to British Income Tax, but, on the other hand, the company will have no right of redemption until June, 1929, after which they will...

ENTEnraisn REWARDED.

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Having watched with interest the progress of Welwyn Garden City from its very beginnings, I am glad to note that, judging from the proceedings at the seventh ordinary general...

• UNDERGROUND INCOME BOND Scnnstn.

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The directors of the Underground Electric Railways Company 61 London must be congratulated upon the eminent fairness of the scheme proffered to holders of its 6 per cent. Income...

Financial Notes

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TILE AUSTRIAN CRISIS. FOREIGN Government securities have been somewhat disturbed during the past week by the unexpected sensational develop- inent in Austria. The revolution...