10 DECEMBER 1948, Page 15

SIR,—Does Mr. Happold really mean that examining bodies are so

much at the mercy of their candidates that a sufficient number of failures will lower the standard of an examination ? If this is indeed so, why should this be confined to the General Certificate ? Surely the barriers to universities and the civil service could be lowered by the same shock tactics. And could Mr. Happold explain what is meant by " parity of