10 OCTOBER 1840, Page 14


THE author of this work is the well-known " Vixen" Ram.; who, animated by zeal for Circassia, and in despite of the ill success of his former attempt, proceeded to that country in the spring of 1837. Escaping from the Russian cruisers through their want of seamanship, he landed in safety ; and was made much of by the people, who hailed his coming as an earnest of assistance from England. In Circassia 31r. BELL resided for upwards of two years, as a sort of public guest ; though the presents which Oriental custom requires to be made, probably rendered this a more expensive mode of living than 61 finding himself:" lie continually traversed the country, in different directions; and was present at many councils, not greatly differing front those of our Saxon ancestors, in which public atliiirs were discussed, and where lie sometimes figured as arbiter. Ile was also private adviser to many of the chieftains ; and strenuously laboured to establish union and a regu- lar government. lie pity-sicked the sick to the best of his ability ; and his medicine-chest, in their imagination, worked some remark- ble cures. Ile accompanied several gatherings of the Circassian clans /awards the enemy ; but his life was held to be too precious as a physician to the body politic, as well as bodies corporal, to be risked in an encounter with the Muscovites. So important, how- ever, did these worthies deem hint to the cause of the Circassians, that they offered a reward of " two thousand silver roubles " for himself, and half that sum for his dragoman. The only possession of the country. the Russians hold, is the land within gun-shot range of forts erected along such parts of the coast as have suffi- cient depth of water to allow men-of-war to Isc'ep up a cannonade whilst the troops disembark : and these mud-built fortifications were sufficient to resist the attacks of the Circassians, who had 00 artillery and little powder. Mr. BELL, however, formed a plan of carrying them by escalade; and though some attempts made before he left the country tidied, it seems by the last arrivals, that out' author had discovered a system of tactics which, unless counter- acted, may drive the Russians from the coast. ' " 1 We k." 511■'s he et the close of his work, " I cannot better conclude this publicatii a tl.an Ly pr,sotting my readers with the following translation of it letter lately received hy toe from tircass'a—one of the many corroborations of the ihtelligehce of the recent successes of the Circm,sia..s.

" Ny dear old friend Yak iii, Bey, how are you ? As for ourselves, thank God, we are doing very well. The news we hove for you is really interesting. On Wamesday, the Inch of immediately after the morning prayer, the fortress on the stream of the \VitIa was stormed in an hour. All the soldiers therein, together with the women, the guns, the anamtation, and stores, all were captured, and the houses were burned. We Lad in this affair but twenty martyrs, (i. c. killed.) "'Before thhi, the enemy marched from Sid...it'll upon ArtIter ; but was unable to effect any thing. Our friends having fr,ithered,1NIA them on their way, and took twenty-five prisoners. • IlAssAN BEY. "• 37th if Zd.hit Lela 12•15, (1st March. 18-40.') " 1st P.S. • 31v old friend—After the taking of the ahovc-named fort or Wula, on Thur:ulay the ti'th of M.,harrelo, after nr.riling prayer, we att.ieked the fort etf Toapse. Afn.r seven and a half boors' th'.• place and all it containe l fell into our hands. TII:s much for your infaination. " One wt,k after the above date, the tbrt of Abitu in Shapsnk was tat'. e. 'fl,at.ks he to the Almighty. "' At LI • •rout. my good friend, we arc aallwring again. "3(.1 P it E.; adi, tioc:ch Iladji Dukhitia-ukit, 11itssein Bey, and all our -•!,,1 ; .1.i their s•iltitatilis. '

Dori:4 Circassia, Mr. Behr. kept a sort of .journal of his movements, and of public rtinmurs, its well as of public events. which he transmitted to friends in the form of letters; and

of these letters Lis volumes consist, lie printed them, he says, as ttuy were osiglisilly written, reteii.i.:g even the flouting rumours and flu

man gotundleiS 11.111f thereom—a plan which no doubt gises a aotseal air to the %;ork, but is not altogether favourable to its interest. The reader, knowing tile Ciusyturu fu-

tility of Mr. hopes, and not perceiving any re• smetble grounds for his ever entertaining them, feels rather weary of baseless speculatioos, and longs for ssenething more real. Writing, too, to persons who had art interest in his topics, and some appa- rent itermaintance with their details, the author often deals alio- e.,sseially with names; so I het the reader having lost the

clay s o:' remarks, or never having had it, feels that sort of list-

leso.s %.!lich attends a conversation in which one can take no part. The journal manner of narrating conneeteil events, lia.4 also this obvious defliet, that we get at them piec< meal : to personal adventures it imparts a fresh awl lifelike character, but to any thing of a note general kind it presents historical materials instead of a history.

A skilful pruning of some parts, and a vigorous cot lensation of others, with a continuous narrative of the public events, would have rendered the book much more readable and attractive. As it is, many readers will he induced to think that the value of if Re- aideaes in Circassia is scarcely in proportion to the opportunities Mr. Baia. enjoyed, or to the length of time he scalded in the /Mint ry. The matter of Mr. book is various; consisting of a narra- tive of his journics, sketches of the scenery through which he passed, an account of the different characters he encountered, and a pretty full narrative of such public events as he observed or heard of, but intermingled too much with speculation or reverie. He has also described the customs and manners of the people, as well as given some description of the productions of the country, and the articles in which they trade, or in which a trade could most advantageously be carried on. The author's style is plain, and not without a certain liveliness ; but, either from the haste and often disadvantageous circumstances under which he wrote, or more pro- bably from the want of selection ire have already mentioned, his sketches arc sometimes deficient in character.

With the strong biases and quick impulses of the author, any conclusions his accounts lead to must be received with caution, Taking the general impression of his whole narrative, however, the hopes of continued resistance to Russia on the part of the people, seem more doubtful than we think they appeared in Mr. SPENCER'S Travels in Cire«ssia. It is not that their hatred of the Russians is subdued, or their courage evaporated; fbr we read of exploits that rival the devotion of chivalry or the finitasics of knight-errantry, and in a much more admirable cause. But many of the people appear to be getting tired of a warfare which, disastrous and discreditable as it is to the enemy, has led as yet to no favourable result towards themselves. On the con- trary, they sec their accessible fields annually ravaged, and almost every year brings another assailable point of coast under the do- minion of Russia—so far, that is, as the gulls of the forts can carry, This perpetual warfare, too, must thin their numbers; and the heroic hand-to-hand manner in which it is carried on, renders it fittal to the bravest. It is probable, too, that some feeling of dis- appointment is acting upon the tninth of the Circassians; for we find it noted more than once as their remark, that unless something were done tbr them by EnOand, they roust make peace.

And this leads us to consider how tar the well-meaning friends of Circassia have acted judiciously in holding out the hopes they have done. We say nothing of the propriety of individuals assuming a quasi public character, without proper authority, or without any authority at all, or not repudiating it when the hopes and ignorance of the people put it upon them : but it seems to us, that by encouraging the idea of tbreign interference, false expec- tations have been raised; which, when their fallacy became appa- rent, (as all such hopes are sure to do at last,) only rendered the

consequent reaction greater. It is possible that the delusive reports which seem from time to time to have been circulated amongst the Circassians, may have stimulated them to further re- sistance; though this is questionable. But if' it did, it was at best a contest without object—merely causing the sacrifice of brave men, and perhaps rendering peace obtainable on kiss advantageous terms. In these remarks we wish distinctly to be understo al as only opposing the Jesuitical principle that the end justifies the means; which end, by the by, is generally missed. The man is unworthy of freedom himself who does not wish well to the cause of the Circassians; and those are especially worthy of honour who have sacrificed time, and toil, and money, and risked life itself; hi endeavours to assist than:. It is possible that the resistance of this brave people may .vet be effectual : it is certain that a little chemical and mechanical knowledge, which should enable them to manufficture arms and gunpowder, would give them a flu. better prospect of success.

Of' Russian nautical skill, Mr. ilar.r., civilian as he is, entertains a contemptuous opinion. 01' this the chase of the vessel in which Ere reached Circassia is an evidence.

A nussms cuAcE.

The earliest dawn showed us the mountainR, 0;11.y f:0111:1 forty miles attend. The joy occasioned by this discovery was brief; for snow after, the mate, on going aloft, declared lie saw a sail to windward; and ti-Idle we were in spseting it runs narrowly through tete glasi.cs, another was di serietl, both vessels run- ning along the coast before the win I from the northward. All were now roused to action—filar more, iii all eight, oars were moaned, and studding-sails set. As we neared the land, the vessel: ii areal its, our cout stet ibrraig then an actin! angle, ;mil they were then ascertained to be two limNhitt men-of-war. The nearest one appeared to he a three •t»asted cutter of six guns; and the other, touch larger vessel, agar-brig. When the smaller one came within live or six mils of us, Khader cut adrift the float, during the voyage had been towed astern, \Vc a■ ion saw' a !mat with a sail put oh front the cutter, to t.,Ipture the persons whom they ton- eluded were endeavouring to ese•tpe, This had the effect of oet,....ing mtr energy at many hands less efficient. At this crisis, I strongly urged throwing over- oard every thing that wisest or immediate use, and staviug our only remain- ing water-cask. The 'forks, however, hod no notion of i.aeriiicing any part of their property ; so the only articles they heaved overboard were the gun• car- riage (the rusty little two-pounder was below and could not be gut et) turd my Circassian nag. The cutler commenced tiring the moment they. believed as to be within range. 'The first shots sill short, and only served to stimulate the exertions or the rowers. Aly experience of Russian svantati-liip led me to anticipate chances of escape. 1 wits not disappointed. if wiec heMie the cutter neared .is, way teas lost by the necessity or altering her cottr:;e, owing to her commander having endeavoured to run in upon us, imteitil of heading and getting between its and the part of the coast we were running Four or five times, while running alongside and nearly on our quarter, with her shot passing (hr beyond us, did she lose way by altering her course, either for the purpose of closing in with us or of brill;!jog liar broadside to bear, the guns at the how being apparently (front their report) of smaller dimensions. 'Ile Turks were now in despair, rand astriltiag the sails in token of snItiniS. shot. The mild-looking 'Fork with the Koran, when urged to join in rowing, replied, that he hall no strength left in hint. Bat the Cierassiatis were in it num.] to avail themselves of the Itildterliates:i of their puestrm. li.hatti, the hroritl-gritiniag old gentleman, from the neighbourhood of .kilapa, drew his dagger 1111011 Rhader the moment he talked of surrender. Ismael, the devout blollati, had the day befre, when the first vessel was sccu, prop1),41 that we S11011111 Iliad OUT fire-urine (setting at the seine time the cx.tomle) and die fighting rather than be taken. This restdutiott was now adopted. All the Circassians placed their daggers in their belts to keep the sailors to their duty.

This demonstration obliged two young Turks, who were crying, to hoist again the sails they had lowered in despair; and in their trembling hurry, they gave one of them (a studding-sail) a twist, which, for want of time to remedy, it was allowed to retain during our run. The dilatoriness of the Russians in firing was as remarkable as their • slovenly style of mamenvering ; yet some of their shots were well enough aimed. 1 I beard one pass between our masts, and another through one of the sails for.

ward, and several struck the water very near us. * * At length we got 60 near the coast. that we conk! see the natives rushing , down the hills and streaming along the beach from both sides, towards the I point for which WC tvere makiog. On seeing this, our Cireassians, who had been sitiving together their beautiful rowing chant, ' Arira-sa-ra,' set up a , scream or piercing shrillness; to which their countrymen on shore sent back an equally ear-piercing reply. In a short time, a boat, literally crammed with men, was alon;;side of us. We wished tliton to come on hoard, ti i1 tad our I rowing; but they prer.irred rowing in a half-Cr:de noon' us, as if to show the cutter we were moli r th. iv protection. 'Hie nussiaits seemed to think that this reinCoremo.ut of twenty-four or twelity-live men was not to be trillvd with ; for the cuthr v.-:,s immediately l.tyt.,I to ; while its crew vented their disappointment iii F.nic random shot,,, which :-ida,l,cd. Lore and there about us, The gnu-brig had by this time arrived in the olling„ where she also brought to, and t mit us all wocc-ional ball ; winch wit: treated by those of our side with much ittiliiroence, the shereward view having by this time became ninth more interesting.


Some nays T.en,re the alTival of the Vixen, Williamineff. finding his army almost broken nit by reheated lett i it•s. can I Ins so:diers so inspirited that nub bens had thrown away their arms,bad deter:oho d on recrossing the Kithan, and his artillery heal already done so (proit!tily to save them, whatever might be- come of the 1.;,-;,) ; and tie r, n.aiic:, r cf ll,e army would inevitably have been destroye.1 L.T.:e :; could have c.v•-,..ci, r • !I r. Cire.c,shms were in considerable three, hal Ito cc; itt,-tal himself by tin,. ,•,,...e. hie said the warwas at all end, as his Govern, oil. t ty:t : con vi,:oi..1 that the i:;P:t.i!-‘,. uere determihed to interkre, and the Emper,w h- al -,.nt a letter d. siritte; hi.» to cease hostilities. The eir- eassians still ■MilM:im Lin, he tendered Lis solmon cath as to the truth of whip he sai,l, and cofe,...a: to show the letter he l'...1 received. The o:ttli was taltvn in ;,,-, ..;...e ■,f. the Chief Judge and Om o.l...t. senors, and ll:e army was perinitt.ed to re; .,ss 1 :.e Bilbao. It is 1:obi:hie that, as clii.!er obsei-,:itti,m and specific accounts acquaint us more fully with the ;mow( r ;led customs of difibrent peoples, ciii'.1;IHL-17 LIS to take a more conniAilicursive view of society, it will be plantar tli.,t institutions :.e have hiain in the habit of con- fining to Eur li:,, or to tho .East respectively, are really a social ncecss:ty, :led c.vei'ywhere spring up of ihtine,elves in the progress (Stile hiillnill l';_.,:(s, Slil \ATy is (,l;0 a tl:CNC ill:itladlOnS, and seems to have c-..:1•:-•ted in some sliapu cr ( :I'm. in :ill countries; at least where t vhbechi:et:lela'lltletl.";'e% lel r'..,'.1.....‘ si.i.lei could front utriiii. ill haute ;1'11;1; i st 11-teu ilea bsrauv'er it.); seems to 11.1Ve tOilitionted in a state or serfilom, where the serf, though dei,rivcd of freQt.iont, had cct.taiii rights ; and coeval with this condition or the pc:Baldry, or closely following it, was the

. ,

feudal ::went, in which the 10■,:e l:11,Ol, and petty !wide, with, eventually. the !;usher class, rose, forming Iniks het ween the pea- sant and the ,ireat lord. The state of ab.iolute slavery we have been in the habit of cm:hiding front Europe, as we confined to that quarter of the globe scrfship, ft mbility, and chivalry. -Under the Romans and amongst the Grcelt, slavery, hewevtr, was in effect as complete as can it was in the \Vest Indies, though similarity of blood and colour might mod: 'y. its pi.detical operation. Late in- quiries have shown, that serfdom, with a sort of floidality, exists in the India Archipelago, and amongst the lizijpoots, aunt people to the West and North-west or the intlus, together with as nice a sensibility to the point of heni.tur as ever Chivalry' cuuld boast of. All these three conditions—serfship, Ibudality, and a sense of honour— exist in Circaiisia, together with that systent of combination in use amongst the Anglo-Saxons, to defend froia violence or to reveii,;e a member of the fraternity. licre is inr. l'.,! I's account- of


Slavery, tie ding to our acceptation of the word, does not exist here ; and

is not. at all the Term that should be used in sr:thing of the lowest „,rode of Cireassims. When nut individual of this Cl:-., is traiusferted noun One myopicr of land to :mother, an 311toIlld of Cattle or .:_!e■,I:. at preseot equivalent to from 15/. to girl., is paid for the right of his services ; but 1,t:ch transference cannot take plt.ke without the servant's consent: and he rectives lodgin g. maintenance, clothing, awl some !..ratitity yeally. kr hi, .lairs. When he ‘vishes to marry, his mastic :.:i-t pay the pureicr-numey , f iii; beloved ; and With regard to their tldbIrcti, the hoc:: contir oe sLe'vol,t of the roaster; and v.hen the tails are tearricd, the nuns V laid 14 timo. is divided between the master mat the father. It' I be master strike or otherwise ill-use his set-rout, he has the right to insist urn it 11 hug sold to another. Ile may also 1 ity his needom, the pre- sent price of at hid: is about thirty oxen. 'EMI; for his misdemeanours IMISt IAat paid by his mi=ter; and in thIs way our host paid, latdy, two hundnA oxen for homicide committed by one of his se;fs ; and he has at present to Pay sixty oxen on account of the same man, who has thAl. to Eassia wit!: anti- ther nunis wire.

These servants cultivate the :round, take air, of the horses and cattle, and

serve in the guest-house; butt the more menial duties—the hewing of wood and drawing water—are fomcrally C.,:!:;11rd to li'iSSiall captives. The Chans • span serf eannot le ewe], /1.,! by Li- ma,m.r to go to war; awl upon jeurnies, it is considered more ream,: ifti?ll/ to take a free man as un attendant.

The volume abounds with instances of heroic courage and manly feats, which carry one back in idea to the exploits of the Iliad. Here is an example, only remarkable on account of the age of the



le is seventy years of age, but appears tit teen years yminger; and his thick- set short form and hale look, give promise that fur romiy years to come he will still be able, if permitted, to early on his fara3s against the Russians, front which it would appear the great, r part of his substance has been !,rived. Ile has crossed the hidtm, frons which Ile is distant only twenty miles, annually and almost monthly :Cr the last iifty years. Lately lie was one of thirty who captured one Intildrcd and live Russian horses ; and 1 saw two of six

which lie had lately taken alone from five liassian peasants. Nor are his exploits merely predatory ; Ihr he goes to the wars accompanied by lug five sons, (le lust another lately in an expedition across the Ralban,) the eldest or whom be obliged the other day to /coin himself by attacking alone two out-posted Cossacks. The young man slew one mid captured the other. It was only last year that Zespli (the fattier) was engaged in an affair with the Russians, near Anana, when Alibi of Ozerek was made prisoner and carried otf by a party of twenty. Old Zespli followed them alone, and concealing himself and watching his opportunity till three of the party with their prisoner were separated front the rest, he rushed upon them with dt.awn sabre, and womuliog them all, mounted Ali-bi (who had received seven wounds) behind him, and galloped olf: CIRCASSIAN itot:sr.s.

Among us civilized folks it is too commonly the case that the air of heaven-1)11C of our lt,,t friends—is shunned and excluded as our worst enemy; but the Cireas.i.ins are ill the other extreme, and appear to me to admit it to too great ihmiliarity. lleides the way it makes through their thatching and abundant apertures left thy it its the walls, it has free admission, in all wea- thers, by the open door and windows, while the enormous funnel of a chim- ney creates a s.rong draught. This is the general state of the guest•Imuses, with a few exceptions; while others, owned by most hospitable landlords, are iert in such a slate of disrepair as would make many Englishmen hesitate about stabling their horses in them. Of this was the one I slept in at 1;.(11101461,, on my way to Khabl, with the thermometer 4 degrees minus. The end of the room, which coimminicated ‘tith a wicker stable. was itself not Much better tier' open wicker-work; while a mos< di h.• clay plaster behind the door, about as big as the doorway, had tulles 11•0:i the xvielser-work, and with other numerous apertures, left such live passage for the wind as made the room, at a few feet from the tire, little better shelter than the adjlining But an enormous lire is never wanting; :4) that the chief guests, whose divans are close beside it, me grilled mt une side and frozen on the other. At two or

three feet front the,: fires, 1 have frequently of LH:: int:Trained in writing, by the hilt fre.../..!. In my pen.


A con,i1.2raIle sensation was manifested tics eighom this in ighbourhood on time occasion tit one of our servants (the forc:..mers 8..col!z trinon Inure always

been called 1:.iglisleiten) having fallen in one : a: sirs. Ile resided at l'artlan, near a Tatkish vessel he was to have ,••ile.1 by with a large aceumu. Nation of our letters. Bat be had often 1 the wars, and, ereatures of

itahlt :is 1%■• air, he could not ali,tain .sing ii •.vhat ac,s going for-

ward V■ I:11 fr;i•1: In;c'tity,; interest at hut ,• '

(it the nitnit the 1:10t, he was ill td.. p t. y of about a thou- sand Cil'eft,,,:r,PF, WhO Viers reconnoitering I; ...•e'l th it lie miler the fort,

when a ball from it small vanillin, tired minutes; m pierced him fro the shoulder to the back. I

yet its tellre,'•scal tlmse around him—hi.P.,!. his hour was

come "—with its nnielt compotmre it - I believe,

a Pole by birth, and spoke, (as Pimple oi. . his native ,o, c,corgian, Siterpreter on , n rule ill nig

in that of .ot s..i.tned proud. l'sra tie po=sed by who have tra-

: ,I.tring adventures .is day. Dauntless were his chief • .r.1: ich can only be v. Ile prided himself

i•; the Scriptural i-iiiiiiiled" Hadjit,

• -•;i. for this .• deserts of which he pier. ht

-unit language, Cernan, halian, litisian, .

iluo,,moce, and unc bluicilgii: for during. ,• 1%,3111 C.' the bast India Cone: • I mil, tied ot'r:. sort ice Mr. Ellis, our 1 Inhe.,,,ador in Persia ; of enumvratiog. VI, hat his real name taste I '..

that of Paulo by which he must veiled in the Emit . •irlien; I have been told hi. were perhaps more ninth:wits than those of u

courage, and ,utm.,:dutal.le dexter:1y boat ;.. ' characteristics: a text in the ::chi,

acquired in such ,thool as Ice '

upon his of what he •`ri versatility with which he could heconle--m,1 sense—" all things onto all men "ht Lone, Frank ; among the more rigid 3.1usqllin:r.,-,

(fr he hail thrice the stirred he wet 11:11't' ••

.Araldu or the wine-tallies of these ir.iun

was t•.•••1 their hunting,, hav:kii:;... korsoloans'oip, :rot :;.I

was perfect, and thus gained army ' of the vcr,atility of his priticiples: 'tin I.

courage, catise his less to toe its •1 - ,‘ But I mnst give r•aa :11.,1

'.oats s•:, wlot ore I V, I?: •••••tiII/II; %LI!

Of I0,•L• ..4.' .1 1.,,,Mg sum I •••21 your: t!,

• you may r , t,..,t.

that if the I fte suwit the Cr..ifivr cannot be rcap. ort, ?Ir. and Ilattav he e anti e,teem each other, not only aainad. wife, but ,Itey each perinrin • 2 0.teeta ; lie c-oe Mussulman,

hand, a 111,4 1 m•ron- friend, a lively LIO,O•.01.1,11. , holustrions person, in Ise ti pt,,lic 'mil private affairs; toad \sire, ;ma 1 think that . the many !,:Quid folks I have ktur.vit in this country ; . p unit me to

iir:e•rih; then :1 little. Ile is: a very stronl:,.. or about

bury-five. with a \IT,V determined and !deli ::.leant out his

peir of fiery, r 11,!•-ti from on cad' side k I I. r• !: lioaket1 nose, bite two li.utimo- fir,: treat on each side of a 11E. V. lie is not a pert,011 with W1,111 one may skirmish, eve:. io a slovenly 71n11111C1'. for his reply is often :l sudden and no • •d Isis is for Hie point. fence, and force of what I, : .71:::Plia


who utters it. Ile is precisely the sort of :11) of quality and wealth should be j,:al:,:, his plating

make Lim i•how Id: real metal. But humour

blended and t..,:opor.at with great and real Li', - ,,.t-nature, and by self-rospect. Ilk invitation of me haul been very pre,,dag. and .•., wv:ks' stantling; and he no sot ater entered the guest -hott.e, where 1 held arm ived to his al,seneet than he eatigiit me in his him-constrictor :11111S, t11, 11,t big nose it: ray face, and gal-e me a hiss on each cheek. Thank :\ lereary, tido is not a common selotation among men here I Ile then went and ttomell his wife, notwith- standing my remonstrances, out of their best chainb..r; an li.is eiljoining it the only conifortai•le rcom I know of in the whole emintry, being weather- tight—saving the winsl,wv-holes, for which lie b. gge.1 paper eoverings—and heated by a large earthen stove to about summer tellip,•rature, %%bid' in the present bitter weather is highly agreeable. Into this (not ti.e stove) he forth- with inducted me "scrip and scrippage," telling me it ets I:mit:forth mine; and his attention since is unwearied, keeping iny room ilt order, trimming my pipe, keeping me company, and bidding toe rep:at...Al:: tell what I choose to cat. Ile has also arranged. Mr me parties fur the showing of ducks and geese, .1; host and • i vet acle r. as i-es, and *way, as 1 bad made her in love with me, having cured her headache by merely feeling her pulse. So much for the efficacy of-imagination. Now her visits are frequent, with or without her husband's presence ; and she says—" Lay by your paper; you have written enough, and I come here to be merry." He tells me, in her presence, with a aerie-comic expression, highly characteristic, that "women have a very small mind," and should never be consulted in im- portant matters ; and that, as he bought and paid well for " that one," it is her duty to serve and obey him in every thing. Then she in reply catches his grizzled pate, and bows it—which never stooped to a foe—into her lap. A threat to buy a young wife is retaliated by him; which I repel by objections as to his personal beauty ; and by so doing incur the common penalty of those who interfere in such skirmishes, in having both man and wife attack me as to the heretical supposition that good looks should be at all deemed requisite on a man's part,-provided he be brave. But his pride of her is shown by his telling me that he leaves her at liberty at all times to kill a sheep or even an ox to regale visiters in his absence ; to entertain them, otherwise, with the best of every thing; and to present any one with a bee-hive of honey, or what she thinks proper : and her pride of him, by her telling me that, when the great Russian force was here two years ago, instead of seeking safety as most of her female neighbours did, she went in high spirits to the brow of the neighbouring hill to see him fight in the valley below. They have no progeny ; but the parental yearnings seem solaced by the nephews and nieces who swarm ever m this cheerful domicile. Their young Polish serf declares that he has refound in them a father and mother ; evidence of which kindness 1 have seen ; and that living could nut be better, as he has with the rest meat, pastry, honey, &c. every day. Heaven grant them still a long lease of their plenty and content, nnembittered by the dominion of the Muscovite