12 JANUARY 1850, Page 2


A meeting of the National Reform Association (lately,the Metropolitan Financial and Parliamentary Reform Association) was held an Monday, in the large room of the London Tavern. Sir Joshua Walmsley, M.P., presided ; Mr. A. Anderson, M.P., Mr. B. Wilcox, M.P., and Mr. Feargus O'Connor, M.P., were on the platform.

The Chairman informed the meeting, that on the 20th of December the Committee unanimously agreed, first, that a fund of not less than 10,000/. should be raised, to be devoted during the present veer to the purposes of the Association ; secondly, that immediate measures slould be adopted to arouse by simultaneous meetings the entire country ; and thirdly, that a conference should be convened in London in the month of March next.

Mr. Samuel Morley moved the first resolution—one of confidence in the Committee. He declared that "men throughout the country are shaking themselves loose from political parties, and looking to measures alone. He believed that among a large majority of earnest Reformers the return of Sir Robert Peel to power would be hailed with the greatest satisfaction. Lord John Russell's aristocratic sympathies are too strong to enable him fully to appreciate the progress of public opinion on subjects connected with the rights of his order. Sir Robert Peel is at least far more willing to read the signs of the times, and carry his convictions to their ultimate result, than Lord John Russell is.

Mr. O'Connor told the meeting that he stood there not to make the slighket opposition to the gentlemen on the platform ; on the contrary, he came to withstand and brave all the insults of those foolish men who had "taunted him with giving his cooperation to the present movement." As to "pro- tection," they might as well talk of restoring the old jogtrot and giving up their railways, as think of going back to the bull-frog system of protection. At the close of the meeting, it was stated that the town and country subscriptions towards the fund of 10,0001. already reached about 1,5001. Most of the leading gentlemen subscribed 501.

The Protectionists met an unexpected defeat at a public meeting of the working classes convened at Stepney, on Monday, in favour of protection and "against the present unfair and ruinous system of competition." The meeting was got up by the National Association for the Organization of Trades : Mr. George Frederick Young presided ; and was supported by Mr. Oastler, Mr. Paul Foskett, and other members of the great Central Pro- tection Society : Mr. Samuel Kydd and Mr. Alexander Campbell repre- sented the Protectionist Chartists, and Mr. Clarke represented the Chart- ists who approve the political economy of the Free-traders. The meet- ing soon manifested a preponderance of feeling hostile to the Chairman and his party ; and Mr. Young had to interweave- occasional appeals to good feeling, and goodhumoured persuasions, with the general texture of his Protectionist speech, to obtain a full hearing even for himself. Mr. Alexander Campbell, the first speaker, stated that thameeting or iginated en- 'fireir with thatlatigates orthe London Trades ; a body which has been two years in existence, and hass for its.object " the social and political im- provement of the es:sedition of the working clams." Therwere metIliat night- "to discuss the rights of labour, on which all other rights depend." He moved the following resolution- .. That as labour is the source of all wealth, it evidently follows that the prosperity and independence of Great Britain and her Colonies will be best promoted by em- ploying and protecting the greatest number of a healthy, industrious, intelligent, and moral population, which can be educated and comfortably maintained by their own industry; and therefore, in the opinion of this meeting, it is the first and most im- portant duty of the British Legislature and her Majesty's Government, to adopt such measures as will best secure employment to every one of the flopulation, and for their labour an abundance of the necessaries and comforts of_ life_

He contended that labour is the source of all wealth, and, "by conse- quence, the greatest number of industrious, active, and intelligent labourers, which can be supported in any country, is the best guarantee for its pros- perity." (4 Voice—" Yes, if you do away with machinery.") The poli- tical economists, so called, say the Government has nothing to do with labour—has nothing to do but protect "property and capital." He main-

tained that the greatest capital in the kingdom is the labour of the people ; yet in proportion as our power of production has increased, the condition of her labouring people has deteriorated. They have been supplanted by scien- tific inventions, and by superabundance of labour in the market; and the have been put into competition one with another, and compelled to undersell each other in the market. That is the system a the political economists." ("Hear, hear !" "No, no !" Great disorder.) Their principle of buy-

ing in the cheapest market is working the most horrible conseqeences in the manufacturing districts. ("Ok, oh!") In the factories, male labour has

been successively superseded by female and child labour, merely because one is cheaper than the other. ("Is that the eject of free trader") Look at the destitution of Ireland. ("The landlords' doing !") [The speaker was inaudible through thereat of his speech, from the constant interchange of groans, hisses, and cheers.]

The Chairman asked attention to Mr. Ferdinando, a Spitalfields silk- weaver ; who commenced with a diseleimer of any league with any of the "various parties now offering themselves to_the_worlting classes of the country."

"You have," said he, "the Parliamentary and Financial Reformers— (Loud cheers)—the Free-traders of the Manchester school, and what are termed the Protectionists. (Hisses and shouts of disapprobation.) The trades have not leagued themselves with the Tory of .p ; and as to the Manchester School, we conceive their commercial principles are wrong, and we know full well that their labour principles are wrong. You have no power to regulate your own prices of labour; freedom of labour has no existence—it is rather freedom of robbery. (Cheers.) The regulation of the wages of labour by the law of supply and demand does not secure te, a fair day's wages for a fair day's work. Therefore the working men can't rely upon the Manchester School." But, on the other hand, "if we are to have protection again, the mere restoration of Sir Robert Peel's corn-bill won't do. It must be wide and comprehensive, and the home market must be secured -to our home industry-. The monetary laws must be altered too, and other changes effected. The old protective system, not the tariff of 1848, gave prosperity to the Spitalfields silk-weavers; but Mr. Huskisson's mea- sures in 1826 threw out of work 7,000 looms. Under the old protective sys- tem, the Spitalfields weaver earned his 14s. a week ; at ,present he gets no more than 6s. They are suffering, with their families, a lingering execution- -they are being slowly murdered by the cold-blooded philosophy of the Manchester SchooL" (Cheers, hisses, and uproar.)

Mr. Clarke, a Chartist working man, would move a direct amendment on the resolution, because he found, with all its talk about protection, it said nothing about the greatest of all protection, the protection of the vote."

The last resolution had a tail to it, which had been cut off since the meet- ing assembled. He alluded to the words "praying her Majesty to dissolve Parliament, and thereby give an opportunity to those who hold the elective- franchise in trust for the whole people to elett such representatives who will insure protection, to every class of her Majesty's subjects throughout the British empire." These resolutions, submitted by the trades' delegates, were therefore "an endeavour to seduce the intelligent working class of London into lending themselves to a wild attempt to resuscitate protection." He moved an amendment, which commenced in the same words with the original resolution, but in place of its second sentence substituted these words- " And this can be done, not by any further legislative interference, but by the re- moval of all the remaining impediments to the free exercise of industry, and by.the reduction of the amount and an alteration in the present unjust system of taxation ; by the repeal of the laws of primogeniture and entail, together with a system of Par- liamentary reform, embracing a suffrage which shall enfranchise the whole adult male population of the country." In speaking of Manchester, Mr. Gunpbell only told half the truth, and therefore it fell to his lot to tell the rest. He asked who they 'were-that composed the manufacturing population at that moment'? Were they not persons who had been driven by the tyranny of the landlords from the rural districts into the manufacturing towns ? Protection never could be re- imposed • and if it were, it could not advantage the Spitalflelds wearer; who for the last twenty years, under the influence of protection, had been suffer- ing evils that had been daily increasing. Protection was never intendedbut to increase the price of the working men's food. Indeed, the best protection. they could have would be the noninterference of Government with trade. The people knew their own business best, and could attend to it. Mr. Taylor seconded the motion. The only protection he delked was to be protected in his cheap loaf. "Government had no right to interfere with commerce or religion : it ought to confine itself to the administra- tion of justice." Mr. Richard Oastler endeavoured to obtain a hearing, but his rise produced an outburst of opposition_ Ho reminded his audience, that he could not now contend with noise, and was too &Land. feeble to be heard above many voices, Still he was only allowed to speak a few sentences. He by turns cajoled, defied, and "imperturbably surveyed" his boisterous interrupters. The Chairman interposed, at first with some effect, but at last only to be jeered at and shouted down him- self. Mr. Clarke bespoke a hearing for Mr. Oastler, and obtained a few moments' silence ; but the storm soon rose with additional fury : an uni- versal wrangle and gesticulating-match ensued; the excitement of action becoming so uncontrollable that when at last it ceased the disputants are said to have "contemplated each other almost in solemn silence" for many minutes. Mr. Clarke moved that the Chairman do leave the chair, as having lost the confidence of the meeting ; and the Horning Post admits the motion was carried. A Mr. Hackman...was voted into the chair; but Mr. Young would not be deposed; and by his resolute mien he so over- awed the new Chairman that the latter declined to take his place. A taproom-chair was supplied, and was " taken " by the new functionary ; Mr. Clarke's resolution was triumphantly carried ; the meeting was "dissolved," and the mass of it departed. When the "noisy- ones" were gone, the impassible Mr. Young and some few-faithful adherents attempted to carry out the proceedings in the Protectionist sense. No- thing more however, was done than- the passing- of votes of thanks to Mt Castle; and Mt. Young ; who with their few supporters "finally dispersed, amidst the hootings of the workmen that remained."' Tim. College of Preceptors held its half-yearly meeting on Saturday, at the institution in Bloomsbury Square ; Dr. Hodgson of -Manchester in t.hmehair.• The fumnoial report showed that the receipts: and debts for the yearcnake- a total of -1,5651. ; the payments and debts due from the College, 9221. Dr. Wilson, the Dean, read the report of the results of the examinations, and certificates were presented -to the twenty candidates who -had-passed. Amongst these were two ladies, who obtained. great credit -fbr the manner in which they had gone through tux examination in history and the elascsies. The Corporatioi then revised some by-laws.

In the Court of Bankruptcy, on Monday,. William Thomas Ferris applied for his certificate. He was opposed- by Mr. Walter Lockhart Scott, the grand- son of Sir Walter Scott, as creditor fin more than 6001. of costs incurred in defending an action brought by Ferris on a bill of exchange fraudulently ob- tained. The bankrupt's name will be recollected as that of the plaintiff in • actions against Mr. Scott and the Reverend Mr. Curzon,. tried some eighteen months ago, the particulars of which we published contemporane- ously.. Bills had been fraudulently obtained of those gentlemen without the payment of -consideration, and then Ferris had been. used as the "respectable tradesman into whose hands the bills had come honestly for full considera- tion.,----to. sue for, the amount. Mr. Scott successfully defended. the action against himself, and exposed the transactions of the gang of swindlers who obtained, the bill from -him. Commissioner Goulburn was convinr,ed that Ferris had been art and part in the conspiracy from commencement to close ; the. certificate was therefore refused.

At the Central Criminal Court, on Monday, Samuel Grieves Harvey, a tall, powerful man, was tried for an assault on James Dodsley Tawney. Mr. Tawney was a slender, diminutive attorney; Harvey was a stout horse- dealer.; . the two frequently met each, other at Messrs. Osborn and Co.'s stables ne Gray's Inn Lane. Mr. Tawney had, on behalf of clients, taken legal .measures against Harvey—sued him for debts, and opposed his dis- charge in the Insolvent Court; and Harvey had been much exasperated. The two meeting at Osborn's, Harvey charged Mr. Tawney with getting up the opposition, and wanted to know who were the opposing creditors. The solicitor declined to tell him. The defendant went out, and returned in a short time with two hunting-whips, one of them loM.W. at the end with iron, and the other a plain cane one. The defendant offered Mr. Tawney the latter.; .. saying, "Take -that." This was declined, and the defendant went. out. Mr. Tawney waited a short time' thinking he would go away : he then went towards his gig, which had been waiting for him; and he ob- served the defendant standing with the heavy hunting-whip in his hand. As he was about to get into his gig, Harvey attacked hun behind, beat him on the back and shoulders, and-tried to -beat him on the, head, but the pro- secutor held up his hands and warded off the blows. Mr. Banks, one of the partners, came up and-laid hold of the defendant, and said to him, "Good God Harvey are you mad ?" but the defendant threw him away from him, and continued his violence. Mr. Tawney had just succeeded in getting into the gig,- when the defendant struck him on the back of the head; the blow stunned him. for a moment; and his horse ran- off, but was stopped by some cabmen in the King's Road. When this assault took place, Harvey-well knew that his victim was suffering from a disease of the heart.-

As the prosecutor was about to leave the witness-box, he fell sense- less. Two surgeons immediately attended him. Mr. Ballantine, who ap- peared for the prisoner, was unable -to offer any defence. The Recorder briefly ; addressed the Tory, and they immediately gave a verdict of "Gullty." The Recorder said he would not- pass sentence at present on Harvey-for-his aggravated assault; if Mr. Tawney should die, he would have to meet a more serious charge. This had hardly been said when-the surgeons announced that Mr. Tawney had died, as he lay on the floor of the witness-box. The Recorder ordered Harvey to be clamed.

An-inquest-was-held on the body of Mr. Tawney, on Thursday. The evi- dence showed the ill health that he had suffered for years-; his medital at-, tendtmt stated that he had warned the deceased's relatives that he would die euddenly. Death had been caused by congestion of the brain, resulting from a disease of the heart. Several witnesses described the altercation between Mr. Tawney and Harvey. The Jury consulted for half • an hour, and then returned this verdict- " That James Dodsley Tawney died from congestion of blood on the brain, pro- duced..by disease of the heart ; and that on the 3d of November last, 1849, the said- James Dodsley Tawney -was cruelly and brutally assaulted by one Samuel Grieves Harvey, at the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, in the county of. Middlesex."

On Tuesday, John M'Loughlen, a respectably-dressed young man, wait in- dicted for the misdemeanour of attempting to extort money from the Hud- sonts Bay Company, by threats to publish certain libellous matter.' Prior to 1846„ two persons, M‘Dermot and Sinclair, who were employed at the Red- River settlement, made a- claim against the Governor of the place, which was referred to the Company in. England. M‘Loughlen, MeDermot-'s nephew was authorized to prosecute the alarm here ; the-Company would not accede to the arrangement he proposed ; and in February 1846 he sent a letter in whieh he expressed a desire to keep from the public eye, and also from the knowledge of the Government., certain matters connected with the manage- ment of the Hudson's Bay territory, and which. he -represented; would be likely, to involve the Company in eternal disgrace ; and at the same time the letter expressed an opinion that his claim upon the Company would, have been settled much sooner if he had adopted another course with regard to these matters, and-had- not relied upon-his own-talents to induce the Come pany to satisfy the claim that was made upon them. The prosecution had been lyingiweeso long because the aecumd could not be found after a bill had been returned against him by the -Grandelury. M‘Dermot and Sinclair- had since been paid- 1001. each on account of their:claims. Mr. Clarkson. proposed to read-the threatening letter. The Recorder asked to whom it was addressed.? Mr.Clarkson-replied, "To the Governor, Deputy-Governor, and Committee." The Recorder decided that the prosecution-could not be main- tained—the act. of Parliament onleferrM, to attempts to extort money from individuals, not corporations. The prisoner might- be amenable to a charge of attempting- to extort money-at 'common law. Previously to the Jury's returning their verdict of." Net guilty," the opposing counsel made- some statements. Mr. Parry, for APLoughlen, mid his client had never made any claim but what he considered just, and the Company had-acknow- ledged this by paying some 300i. or 400/. to the claimants : as to his being out-of the way since 1846, the man had actually been- in the em- ployment of the Company at Red River settlement. Mr. Clarkson denied these assertions.

On Wednesday, Edward.Nairne, a stock-broker, was indicted for refusing

to surrender to be examined under a fiat of bankruptcy. But this indict- ment failed, on the ground upon which two others fell through in the last Sessions—an old statute had been repealed by the new Bankruptcy Act with- out provision for retaining certain penal clauses. A verdict of "Not guilty was returned.

Nairne was then tried for a, misdemeanour. This charge was one of seve- ral preferred against, him at the Police. Office. A publican. intrusted him with nearly 2,0001. to buy; Exchequer Bills; • they were bought, and Nairn°. declared that he had deposited them in the safe at the Stock-Exchange ; but they were subsequently sold by the broker, and the proceeds were appro-- priated. Counsel attempted to show- for.the prisoner, that one Beaton, who had been his confidential clerk, who drew cheeks, and who sold the bills, might have been guilty of the fraud himself, and not acted merely as the servant of Nairne. This Boston has absconded. But the Jury thought there was no doubt that the accused was really the guilty party, and they found him guilty accordingly..

There were other mclictments against Naime, and an inquiry was made of the Court whether it was necessary to proceed with them. The Judges, after conferring together, intimated that . it would be more satisfactory to have another case tried before judgment should be pawed.

On Thursday, Sarah Drake was tried for the murder of her child. During the trial, she sat in a chair with her head resting on her breast, in a state of the utmost depression. The evidence was the same as that given before the Magistrate, and the Coroner, and very clearly made out the facts. It was evident that the prisoner had been much alarmed by the nurse's suddenly leaving the boy with her at her master's home; she had previously ex- hibited afffietion for the child ; and there was no proof that crime had been premeditated. On these things Mr. Collier built up a defence for -the pri- soner; urging that she had killed her boy during a sudden fit of 'delirium, induced on an ailing body and a mind oppressed by COnsCi01113 poverty and by the leaving of the child with her. But Mr. Collier called no witnesses to support the plea of insanity. Mr. Justice Patteson warned the Jury not rashly to acquit on-this ground. They consulted together for a quarter of an hour; and then -returned a verdict of "Not guilty," on the ground of insanity..

At Lambeth Police Office, on Monday, Cape and Pile were finally examined on a charge of conspiring to defraud the public, by obtaining postage-stamps for a report, never issued, respecting the Industrial Exhibition of 1851. The Magistrate thought the evidence sufficiently supported the charge.; and the accused were committed.

Louis Joel has been fully committed for trial, by the Marlborough Street Magistrate, on the charges of forging a bill for 1,000/. and fraudulently ob- taining bills for 7501.

Blackmore, the shoemaker who stabbed Policeman Mattham, was finally examined at Guildhall Police Office on Saturday, and committed.