12 JANUARY 1850, Page 5

furrigu nub Culnuial.

FRANCE.—In the National Assembly, on Saturday, the adjourned de- bate on the Buenos Ayres question was resumed. In reply to K Em- manuel Arago, who asked if England had not made stipulations with Roses contrary to the interests of France, M. Rouher, Minister of Jus- tice, repeated Lord Palmerston's answer to the French Government.

Lord Palmerston said, that if the French Government had been told that such a treaty existed, it had been grossly deceived by a coterie—(.Displeasure at the word)—which was labouring to prevent an arrangement between France and the Argentine Republic. "England had concluded but one treaty, which had been communicated to the French Government and made public, and which was nearly the same as that concluded by France with the Argentine Republic. That treaty was now probably signed; but, he re- peated, no other treaty existed." (Silence on the Left.) M. Rouher stated that his Government had a fixed plan, which it would be blameworthy to divulge. He could not conceive that the question of war should be left at the discretion of an armed negotiator, at a moment when nothing was stable in France, and when difficulties might be daily expected to arise in Europe. France would negotiate moderately and frankly, ahd if disappointed would declare war and attack Buenos Ayres.

M. Thiers regretted to afford evidences of opposition in his words.

He had been a Ministerialist during two years, and still supported the Cabinet; but he had convictions which survived the Revolution. He made light of the objections urged against action on the ground of a probable Eu- ropean complication. Formerly, when the country could apprehend such a complication, he had recommended energy ; but now, the arguments founded on such a risk are not serious. The question was indeed purely American, and could produce no European complication. In the present state of the world, no doubt, it is the interest of France to remain faithful to a policy of pe7e ; and if peace were menaced by the question he would instantly recede. Rn land had graver interests at Buenos Ayres than at Monte Video ; but England was a great nation, who respected the right of France to wage war upon Rosas. She had given a proof of that respect for the laws of nation!i in the case of Morocco. The latter had not certainly given France such serious reasons of complaint. Rows had murdered several Frenchmen, and con- fiscated their property. England viewed the attack of France against Mo- rocco with an eye of greater jealousy, but England recognized the right of France, because, he repeated, she was a great Government, and respected the laws of nations.

The trade between Monte Video and France is important : it has increased in twelve years from 4,000,000 francs to 40,000,000 francs, and is not liable to rivalry. The commercial interests of France have not been transferred from Monte Video to Buenos Ayres; and it is not true that the great majority of the French have emigrated to the latter place : only a few have gone ; and these, not relishing the yoke of the tyrant, will gladly return to " But they cannot require from you that you should continue indefinitely,

much as possible, from the consequences of the civil war they themselves Erordium—" Fellow citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives : ' 46A"'"

tied by 338 to 300 ; the majority of 38 being deemed neither a triumph ment, by which Great Britain is brought within the terms proposed by the nor a defeat to the Government. benefit to both countries.

months. M. Dupin was chosen President, by a majority so much re- this Government and France, I am happy to say, has been terminated, and

duced below that of his last election, that he treated it as a vote of di- our Minister there has -been received. It is therefore unnecessary to refer miniehed confidence, and resigned. On Monday another ballot was now to the circumstances which led to that interruption. I neednot ox-

taken; and M. Dupin, having obtained nearly 100 more votes than on press to you the sincere satisfaction with which we hall welcome the arri- Saturday, accepted the office. The voting for the Secretaries also showed val of another Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from a sister Republic, to which we have so long been, and -still remain, bound by a disruption of parties : General Bedeau, though fourth on the list, had

mark in the jo effort to be free.

remain in office. These journals are or feign to be, ignorant of what is now

the position of the Ile head' of the Executive Government. In the "I recommend the observance of the same course fostering cordial rela- new order of things, so long as the Ministers enjoy the confidence of the Pm- tions of amityi towards all American States. The united States stands as sideut, they meet with no cheek. Once for all, we inform the obstinate de- the great American power to which, as their natural ally and friend, they

fenders of the old constitutional routine that the Chief of the State will re- will always be disposed first to look for mediation and assistance, lathe event

tam n his Ministers in spite of jealous attacks, and that the deplorable fact of of any collision between them and any European nation. As such, we may Ministerial instability will not be produced against the will of Parliamentary often kindly mediate in their behalf, without entangling ourselves in foreign

ambition." wars or unnecessary controversies. Whenever the faith of our treaties catod on Monday, says— Transit of the Central Isthwits—" A contract having been concluded "This note, which was given in two of the evening journals, was for- with the State of Nicaragua, by a company composed of American citizens, warded to us under the cover of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with the for the purpose of constructing - a ship canal through the territory of that word 'communiqué.' In the evening, a person who declared himself to be State to connect the Atlantk and Pacific Oceans, I have directed the nego- an employe of the Cabinet, came and informed us that the-note had been tiation of a treaty with Nicaragua, pledging both Governments to protect sent without the consent of the Minister, and that we were requested to con- those who shall engage in and-perfect the work. All other nations are in-

sider the note as not having been sent." vited by the State of Nicaragua to enter into the same treaty stipulations The Napoleon is a paper newly started, and is deemed so immediately with her ; and the benefit to be derived by each from such an arrangement under the inspiration of the President that the sentiments of the article will be the protection of this great interoceanic communication against any

are held to be his. This was expressly contradicted from the tribune by power which might seek to obstruct it, or to-monopolize its advantages. All one of the Ministers ; but the National has since declared privately that States entering into such a treaty will enjoy the right of passage through the article was written either by or on the dictation of President Napoleon the canal on payment of the same tolls. The work, if constructed under

himself, these guarantees, will become a bond of peace instead of a subject- of con-

ITALY.—The Pope has addressed an encyclical letter to the Arch- time States of Europe consent to this arrangement, (and we have no reason bishops and Bishops of Italy, which couples the advance of Communism to suppose that a proposition so fair and honourable will be opposed by any,)

and the strides of moral anarchy in Italy with the operations of the Bri- the energies of their people and ours will cooperate in promoting the success lish and Foreign Bible Society of England. According to-the letter, the of the enterprise. I do not recommend any appropriation from the national new trade of book.selling and publishing serves mainly to propagate Pro- treasury for this purpose, nor do I believe that such an appropriation is ne-

testimtism and Communism ; it urges orthodox ecclesiastics to counteract cessarv. Private enterprise, if properly .proteeted, will complete the work, such publication by their more zealous preaching and ministrations, and shout it prove to be feacuble. . • . . Should such a work be construe :t.W,

by the issue through the press itself of sound .doctrines in equal volume. under the common protection of all nations for -equal benefits to all, it would

The letter commences with a paragraph of an extraordinary character— the communication - -recent times, predominance was obtained by lost men, the enemies of trn worthy of our serious consideration.. They did not fail to engage 'the atteh- of justice, of probity, who by fraud and artifice of every kind, or openly, an tion of my predecessor. The negotiator of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo throwing up, as a 'furious tea throws up its foam, the dregs of their confu- was instructed to offer a very large sum of money for the right of transit grion endmvour to spread in all -parts, among the faithfulpeople of Italy, the across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The Mexican Government did not mad licentiousness of thought, of speech, of every audacious.and impious act, accede to the proposition for the purchase- of the right of way, probably be- to ruin in Italy -itself the Catholic religion and, if thatwere.possible, to over- cause it had already contracted with private individuals for the construction throw the very foundations of justice. Tile whole plan of their diabolical de- of a passage from the Gussaculitee River to Tehuantepec. I shall not renew sign has revealed itself in various places, but above all in the well-beloved any proposition to purchase for money- a right which ought to be equally • city, the supreme seat of our pontificate, where, after forting us to nuit it, secured to all nationa, on payment-of a reasonable toll to the owners of the they were the better able to indulge for a few months in all their fury. fhere, mprovement

-Monte 'Video' the moment its independence is firmly reestablished. -The in-, in a frightful and sacrilegious mixture of things human and divine their depemlenee of the Uruguay is,of immense importance to France in South rage rose to such a point, that, 'tag the authority of the illustrioul oler- America, "whore her interest would otherwise be most precarious." So gy of Rome and of the Prelates w by our order remained intrepid at its Monte Video and Buenos Ayres must not belong to the same government. I head, they did not permit them even- to continuo in. peace the holy work of Brazil depends-on French support for its independence of Roses. In fine, I their ministry, and, without. pity for the unfortunate siek in the agonies of the honour of Franco is engaged. Monte Video had become the ally ofJ death, depnved them all of the succour of religion, :and compelled them to France to overthrow Oribe, who had opposed France in her endeavour t,o ob- I give up the last sigh in the arma of prostitutes." tain at Monte Video a point d'appui against Itosas, and had oppressed the UNITED STASYS.---The Hibernia arrived at Liverpool on Wednesday, French. residents : she compromised herself, not for any private interest, but for the interest of France. When the North Amencans had chastized having left New York on the 26th December. The news from,Wash- Mexico, and England, overcoming China, had compelled her to accept the ingten is interesting.

opium, he blushed to be told that France could not achieve equal results The contest in the House of Representatives had been brought fa a

against Re:sas. " It is impoesible that the arrival of an armed negotiator in close. Five days were spent in further negotiations and divisions— the river Plate, with a few ships and some troops, can be the signal of war. without any effect in bringing over to either side the small compact body Let us restore to words their real meaning. It 18 not war—a word which of the Free Soil party who held the balance of power. Itwas at last naturally alarms certain minds; it is war with Roses, a war not more im- resolved to elect the Speaker by a bare plurality of votes. At the sixty- portant than that which we waged upon Mexico and Morocco ; it is one of third ballot, the supporters of Mr. Cobb and Mr. Winthrop remustered those wars which maritime nations should not hesitate to undertake when

they wish to bo respected." in their original strength, and the former was elected as Speaker by 102 M. Rouher replied by quoting as follows from a despatch by M. Thiers votes to the 100 votes of his opponent. As 20 totes were given to himself, instructing Admiral Mackau regarding his auxiliaries-- " other candidates," Mr. Cobb is after all only elected by a minority of the Representatives. The two Houses having perfected their organize- on their account, a straggle in whkh we did not involve them, which they lion, they met in the thirty-first Congress of the United States on the Spontaneously and willingly commenced themselves, and for the success of 24th of December.

which they demanded and obtained our cooperation without rendering us as On that day, President Taylor .delivered his message. The document many serums as they received from us. Nevertheless, if they succeed in is dated 4th December : it is not so long as has been usual of late years. . negotiating with President Roses, you will enter into communication with We extract those passages which will be of most interest to the English them, offer them your friendly intervention, and save them, in a word, as reader.

. Thiers here interrupted the Minister, and said that the pia-ties above Sixty years have elapsed since the establishment of this Government, and the Congress of the United States again assembles to legislate for an empire referred to were not the Montevideans, but the insurgents of Corrientes and of freemen. The predictions of evil prophets, who formerly pretended to

Entre Rios, commanded by Lavelle. foretell the downfall of our institutions, are now remembered only to be M. llouher could not accept the explanation of M. Thiers—his recollection derided, and the United States of 'America at this moment presents to the must fad him : having read the entire document, he had not perceived in it world the most stable and permanent government on earth. Such is the re- the distinction made by the honourable gentleman. With regard to Um- suit of the labours of those who have gone before us. Upon Congress will guay, ?if. Rouher admitted that France was bound to guarantee the inde- eminently depend the future maintenance of our system of free government, pendence of the Republic ; •but only agreeably to the stipulations of the and the transmission of it, unimpaired, to posterity. We are at peace with treaty of October 1840. M. Thiers had said that South America offered all the world, and seek tormaintam our cherished relations of amity with the France a considerable market : he might rest assured that the Cabinet would rest of mankuid." not compromise the influence in that quarter by abandoning Monte Video. Foreign Relations--" Our relations with Great Britain are - of the most

Peace, however, was the only natural means of developing commercial rein- friendly character. In consequence of the recent alteration of the Bri- lions. The Cabinet would not ratify the treaty nor abandon Monte Video, tish Navigation-acts, British vessels, from British and other foreign ports,

nor recede before the consequences of the war ; 'but there were duties to be will (under our existing laws) after the 1st day of January next, be ad-

fulfilled before coming to that extremity. nutted to entry in our ports, with cargoes of the growth, manufacture, or The Assembly rejected a number of amendments ; among others, one production of any part of the world, on the same terms as to duties,. sin- proposing to refer the question between the two belligerents to the joint posts, and charges, as vessels of the United States with their cargoes ; and mediation of Great Britain, France, and the United States. The motion our vessels will be admitted to the same advantages in British ports, enter- of M. Rance was put last, and on its being put M. Itouher declared that big therein on the same terms as British vessels. Should no Order in Conn, it received the adhesion of Ministers. M. fiancé's amendment was car- cil disturb this legislative arrangement, the late act of the British:Parlia- act of Congress of the lift of March 1817, it is hoped, will be productive of The Assembly, on Saturday, elected its officers for the ensuing three "A slight interruption of diplomatic intercourse which occurred between the strongest ties of amity." . . . . not enough votes on the first ballot to secure his election as fourth An agent had been despatched to Hungary, to declare the willingness of

secretary; but he secured his election on Monday. the Muted States promptly to recognize her independence, in the event of

The following note appeared in the Mon iteur du Soir, La Pattie, and the her ability to sustain it. The feelings of the nation were strongly inlisted Napoleon of Sunda evemng, and has since been the subject of much re- in the cause of a brave people who had made a gallant though unsuccessful

"In- consequence of the feeble majority obtained by the late measures of "'With the Republic of Mexico it-is our true policy to cultivate the most the Government, certain journals, whose intentions are open to doubt, advise friendly relations. Since the ratification of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo+. -the Ministry to retire. They pretend, in arguing on certain customs of the nothing has occurred of a serious character to clisturb them. A faithful ob- past, that after such cheeks 'Ministers who respect themselves can no longer sennnee of the treaty, and- a sincere respect for her rights, cannot fail to secure the lusting confidence and friendship of that Retrublic

The Legitimist journal the Union, to which this note was communi- with " any of them shall require our interference, we must necessarily inter- ose.p tention and strife between the nations of the earth. Should the great marl-

be neither just nor expedie-nt.thatany- weal maritime State should command "You know and see with us, venerable brothers, by what perversity, in "The routes across the Isthmus, at Tehuantepec and Panama are also ",We have reason to hope that the proposed railroad across the Isthmus of 'Panama will be successfully constructed, under the protection of the late treaty with New Grenada, ratified and exchanged by my predecessor on the 10th day of June 1818, which guarantees the perfect-neutrality of the Isth- mus, and the rights of sovereignty and property of New Grenada over that territory." Finances of the Union—" The receipts into the Treasury for the final year ending on the 30th of June last, were in cash 48,830,097 dollars, and 111 Treasury notes funded 10,833,000 dollars, making an aggregate of 69,663,097 dollars ; and the expenditures for the same time were, in cash 46,798,667 dollars, arid in Treasury notes funded 10,833,000 dollars, making 'an aggregate of 57,631,667 dollars. The accounts and estimates which will be submitted to Congress in the report of the Secretary of the

show that there will probably be a deficit, occasioned by the expenses of the 'Mexican war mid treaty, on the 1st day of July next, of 5,828,121 dollars, and on the 1st day of July 1851, of 10,547,092 dollars ; making in the whole a probable deficit to be provided 'for of 16,375,214 dollars. The ex- traordinary expenses of the war with Mexico and the purchase of California

• and New Mexico exceed in amount this deficit, together with the loans here- tofore made for Os-, Objects. I therefore reoommend that authority be given to borrow whatever sum may be necessary- to cover that deficit. I re- commend the observance of strict economy in the appropriation and expendi- ture of public money. "I recommend a revision of the existing tariff and its adjustment on a 7baths which may augment the revenue. I do not doubt the right or duty of "Congress to encourage domestic industry, which is the greatest source of tnational as well as individual wealth and prosperity. I look to the wisdom and patriotism of Congress for the adoption of a system which may place home labour at last on a sure and permanent footing, and, by due encourage- ment of manufactures, give a new and increased stimulus to agriculture, and promote the development of our vast resources and the extension of our commerce. Believing that to the attainment of these ends-(ss well as the necessary augmentation of the revenue and the prevention of frauds) a sys- tem of specific duties is best adapted, I strongly recommend to Congress the adoption of that system ; fixing the duties at rates high enough to afford substantial and 'sufficient encouragement to our own industry, and at the same time so adjusted as to insure stability." Among other subjects of the message are, the recommendation of a mint in California, and a railway to it.

The extension of Pacific territory leads to the recommendation of an in- crease in the several army corps at the distant Western ports. A. reduction of postage charges is submitted; and the confident belief is expressed that a mu.form rate of five cents per single rate, without regard to distance, would

-compensation for the service. Postal re lions have been framed under not impose a greater tax on the Treasury would be a very moderate

• the postal treaty with Great Britain : t attempt to extend the same ar- rangement through England to France has not been equally successful, but is' not abandoned.

Peroration—The President expatiates on the constitution of his country. 4 4 Our Government is one of limited powers, and its successful administration eminently depends on the confinement of each of its coordinate branches within its appropriate sphere." The independence of the Representatives is guaranteed by the Constitution, and they owe no responsibility to any hu- man power but the people. The Executive has authority to recommend (not to dictate) measures to Congress." "The check provided by the Con- stitution in the clause conferring the qualified vote will never be exercised by me except in the cases contemplated by the fathers of the Republic. I view it as an extreme measure, to be resorted to only in extraordinary cases ; as where it may become necessary to *defend the Executive against the en- croachments of the legislative power, or to prevent hasty and inconsiderate or unconstitutional legislation. By cautiously confining the remedy within the sphere prescribed to it in the contemporaneous expositions of the framers -of the Constitution the will of the people legitimately expressed on all sub- jects of legislation through their constitutional organs, the Senators and Re- presentatives of the United States, will have its full effect." . . . . " But attachment to the Union of the States should be habitually- fostered in every American heart For more than half a century, during which kingdoms and . empires have fallen, this -union has stood unshaken. The patriots who formed it have long since descended to the grave ; yet still it remains the proudest monument to their memory, and the object of affection and admi- -ration with every one worthy to bear the American name. In my judgment, its dissolution would be the greatest of calamities, and to avert that should be the study of every American. Upon its preservation must depend our own happiness and that of countless generations to come. Whatever dangers ma threaten it, I shall stand by it and maintain it in its integrity, to the full extent of the obligations imposed and the power conferred upon me by the Constitution."

The reports of the Secretaries of Departments have also been received ; -voluminous documents, chiefly of permanent statistical interest. The Treasury report gives the result of a statement prepared to show the ex- penses of the Mexican war. Those expenses are summed up at 63,605,621 dollars. Of this sum 49,000,000 dollars have been paid by loans and Trea- sury notes, authorized by acts passed in 1846, 1847, and 1848. The re- port proposes to raise 16,500,000 dollars by the issue of further stock or :Treasury notes. The same report proposes "some alterations in the ex- isting tariff, with a view as well to the necessary augmentation of the revenue as the encouragement of industry." Mr. Meredith supports this proposition by an elaborate explication of the doctrines of protection to native industry, in their most antiquated form.

In principle, he proposes that " the duties on the staple commodities (whether raw material or manufactured articles) in which foreign nations compete with American productions, be raised to a point at which they will afford substantial and sufficient encouragement to our domestic industry, pro- videlor the necessary increase and due security of the revenue, and insure the permanence and stability of the system." Specifically, he Rroposes these changes in the tariff-1. A moderate increase of duties on articles, such as • cotton, woollen, and hempen goods, iron, sugar, salt, and cod ; 2. A return to the system of specific duties on articles on which they can be conveniently laid ; 3. Where the ad valorem duty is retained, the duties to be levied on the market value at the time of arrival ; 4. Non-enumerated articles to be subject to a higher duty than others. "We have," says the report, "been perhaps too long hesitating and yacill ding on the threshold of a great career The short duration of some of the Tariff Acts—the great ex- pansion of the currency which occurred during their operation—the Com- promise Act—finally, the unexpected repeal of the act of 1842—these circumstances have certainly been of a retarding character." Yet great ad- vances have been made, and ground gained has not been entirely lost. "All that is wanting is a general determination that industry shall be encouraged and supported by the home production and manufacture of iron, wool, cotton, sugar, and our other staples, and that the legislation necessary to sustain it shall be firmly adopted and persevered in."

7Her Majesty's steam-sloop Hecate, with Sir Henry Bulwer on board, arrived in the Potomac on the 21st of December, from Bermuda. Sir Henry was received by President Taylor, at Washington, on the 24th; and made a complimentary speech on presenting his credentials ; to which the President replied with an expression of personal and national. friendliness beyond the usual warmth of diplomatic courtesies.

Advices from California to the 16th November had been received by the regular mail-steamer. The new Constitution, of which we some time since gave the marked features, had been adopted almost unanimously. The rainy season had set in; the streams in the mining country were already much swelled, and large numbers of miners had returned to the coast for winter quarters. In consequence, there had been a sudden rise in the cost of provisions, &c., and an increase of disease : the -cholera, dysentery, and fever prevailed—though not so fatally as to cause much alarm. The gold-digging of the year is thought to be only about equal to that of last year—about 8,000,000 dollars' worth. On this subject the Peetfie News (San Francisco) of the 16th No- vember quotes the opinions of an intelligent gentleman just returned from a long tour of observation through the mining district— He saw personally diggings even far richer than any yet publicly de- scribed; but such are rare, and their aggregate yield is soon exhausted, or they are soon reduced to the common level of productiveness ; he places the average gain of the whole body of miners now employed at a consider- ably lower figure than is usually given; he thinks the time of chance is passed, and that "mining is now about to become a lees hazardous game of BIM and scientific calculation, at which good and experienced players, and they only, will be sure largely to win."