17 FEBRUARY 1855, Page 4

farrigu out talnuid.

FRewem—The presence of the Prussian envoy, M. de Wedel, at Paris has given rise to much speculation. The most seemingly authentic state- ments say that he was received with scold politeness, and that the French Government manifested no eagerness to close with his overtures. The object of his mission was to bring about the restoration of Prussia to that position in the councils of the Allies which she has forfeited ; and to effect this purpose, it is said, M. de Wedel was empowered to state that his master would enter into a treaty with France and England similar to the treaty concluded between the Western Powers and Austria, and would place a Prussian corps d'armee on her Eastern frontier, provided the Western Powers would undertake that their troops should not enter Ger- many, and that Poland should not be reconstituted by revolutionary means. It would seem. that the stories respecting the success of the Prus- sian Minister, current in some quarters at Paris, are incorrect; and that Prussia, in her relations with the Western Powers, occupies her old un- satisfactory position. FRewem—The presence of the Prussian envoy, M. de Wedel, at Paris has given rise to much speculation. The most seemingly authentic state- ments say that he was received with scold politeness, and that the French Government manifested no eagerness to close with his overtures. The object of his mission was to bring about the restoration of Prussia to that position in the councils of the Allies which she has forfeited ; and to effect this purpose, it is said, M. de Wedel was empowered to state that his master would enter into a treaty with France and England similar to the treaty concluded between the Western Powers and Austria, and would place a Prussian corps d'armee on her Eastern frontier, provided the Western Powers would undertake that their troops should not enter Ger- many, and that Poland should not be reconstituted by revolutionary means. It would seem. that the stories respecting the success of the Prus- sian Minister, current in some quarters at Paris, are incorrect; and that Prussia, in her relations with the Western Powers, occupies her old un- satisfactory position. As a specimen of the stories afloat, we may take this anecdote, furnished by the Paris correspondent of the Daily .Yews— "On On the occasion of the Emperor's first interview with M. Wedel, he asked the Prussian envoy plainly, whether his Government would allow a French army to march against Russia across the Prussian territory. M. Wedel re- plied, that he had no sufficient instructions to answer such a question, but he thought he might safely say that the King of Prussia would not allow it. The Emperor rejoined, that in that case his army would pass without per- mission. M. Wedel retired from the presence-chamber pale and disconcerted." It is confidently stated in correspondence from Paris, that the Em- peror announced to a Council of Ministers that he intends to go him- self to the Crimea ; that the Ministers endeavoured to dissuade him from so doing; that this announcement was the principal topic at a recent diplomatic dinner given by M. Drouyn de Lhuys ; and that the Emperor has not yet intimated that he has abandoned the scheme. His object in going is stated to be that he might put an end to differences known to

exist among the French Generals. In the event of his absence, his uncle Jerome would be Regent.

GERMANY.—The armament of the federal contingents is advancing; and it has received the sanction of the Diet. At its sitting on the 8th instant, the Diet adopted the measures proposed by the united Military Com- mittees, in this form-

" That the Diet should adopt a resolution to the effect that the Govern- ments be invited to place the principal contingents, as fixed by the revised military constitution of the Confederation, on a war footing ; so that it may be equipped, armed, and ready to take the field, according to article 36 of the revised constitution, within the period of a fortnight. In order to attain this end, the Military Commission points out the following among the inea- sures to be taken—I. To fill up the ranks of the troops that are to be placed on a war footing. 2. To purchase all the horses necessary for the purpose aforesaid, in order to have them trained and accustomed to service. 3. To purchase stores and supplies, and all such other things as it might be difficult to procure at the moment of need. 4. To make all the necessary prepara- tions for the establishment of the administrative, sanitary, and other ser- vices which are not organized in time of peace. 6. To come to an under- standing with regard to the command and the common and respective positions of the mixed corps d'armee. 6. To invite the Governments to give notice of the execution of the said measures within the shortest period possible, but at the latest within a fortnight."

It seems undoubted that Prussia is engaged in efforts to bring the minor courts over to her views; and envoys of all kinds flit about from state to state on their little special missions. It is also affirmed that the King of Prussia has been in direct communication with the Kings of Denmark and Sweden, for the purpose of securing their support. Prince Ester- hazy, the Austrian Minister at Berlin, caused some alarm by paying a flying visit to Vienna. This week he returned to Berlin.

The Daily News correspondent at Vienna professes to give the leading features of the military convention concluded between France and Aus- tria by Field-Marshal von Hess and General de Letang. "France un- dertakes to send an army, fixed for the present at 80,000 men, to Austria, to cover the rear and flank of the latter's army of operation in Galicia. The army will march in two columns of 40,000 men each, and by dif- ferent routes. The first will proceed through Switzerland and the Tyrol, the second through Piedmont and Lombardy. The two corps will meet and join their forces in Bohemia and Moravia. An Austrian General and a Civil Commissioner will be attached to the head-quarters of the French Commander-in-chief, in the same way as General Letang is attached to Field-Marshal Hess, whose head-quarters are at Vienna."

RIISSIA.—The Emperor of Russia has issued an ukase ordering an in- stant arming of the whole population throughout the empire.

It has been mentioned that orders have been issued for the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Austrian frontier ; but it would appear that this report had arisen in consequence of one of those changes which so frequently occur in the positions of the Russian troops. If we may be- lieve the accounts from Cracow Poland has been converted almost into an intrenched camp ; for the Chief rivers have been lined with earth- works; the fortresses have been most carefully strengthened ; and the whole so arranged as to present the greatest difficulties to an invading force.

A letter, dated St. Petersburg, the 3d instant, and published by the Con- atitutionnel, purports to give information regarding the feelings prevalent in the Cabinet of the Emperor- " It is reported that, on the arrival of the despatch from Vienna announ- cing that an Austrian General had been sent to Paris on a military mission, the Emperor Nicholas was engaged in a conference with the Minister of War and Prince Paskiewitch. The Emperor ordered the aide-de-camp who brought the despatch to read it to him—a course not generally pursued ; and, feeling surprised at the impression produced by it on the Minister of War, he said emphatically, Is that all ? There is nothing changed in the

state affairs.' This is not the first time it has been remarked that the Emperor affects the most complete impassibility even on receiving news of the most important character. I can assure you that at Gatschina the Court is convinced that the attitude of Austria towards Russia is less the result of necessity- than the consequence of the warlike sentiments which animate the young Emperor Francis Joseph, The Government continues to do all it can to render the war popular."

The writer also forwards a copy of a letter from the Czar "to our well-beloved community of Riga," thanking them for the "gift" of 50,000 roubles towards the expenses of the war. The Minister of the Interior had just issued two decrees which are not without importance : the first is for the improvement of the navigation of the Wolga from Astrakan to the Caspian Sea ; and the second forms a new joint-stock company, under the name of the Golden Fleece, for work- ing the gold mines of Siberia.

Tnz Cansna.—The intelligence by letter reaches down to the 3d February ; by telegraph through St. Petersburg to the 6th February ; up to which date nothing important had occurred. In addition to these sources of information, we have despatches from Lord Raglan and Sir Edmund Lyons.

The military operations had been entirely confined to the usual sorties. On the 27th, January the Russians assailed the French in the trenches ; the fire of musketry never ceased through the night. The French, as usual, drove back the Russians, and followed them in their retreat, and are said to have entered the first Russian parallel with the enemy.

The special correspondent of the Times reports the result of a long sur- vey of Sebastopol and the lines of the besiegers from a mound in advance and on the left of the French picket-house. He found the aspect of Se- bastopol itself little changed ; but its suburbs were in ruins, and the streets blocked up by masses of rubbish. The only perceptible change in the works of the enemy is that they have been thrown further back, and that, in some places—as behind the ruined Flagstaff Fort, and the shat- tered round tower of Malakoff—they have thrown up works of a charac- ter still more formidable than those to which we were at first opposed. These works are most admirably constructed and highly finished. "One line of battery is neatly revetted with tin boxes supposed to be empty powder-cases. This is the mere wantonness and surplusage of abundant labour. Behind this work I could see about 2000 soldiers and workmen labouring with the greatest zeal at a new line of batteries, and labour- ing undisturbedly." "The Redan and Garden Battery, our old enemies, were silent. The houses near them, as well as those in front of the right attack and in the rear of the Malakoff Tower, are in ruins. The part of the city beyond them seems untouched." But, this writer adds, "our fire has undoubtedly done much damage; and steady, uninterrupted ap- proaches must give us possession of the Southern ridge of the town very speedily."

French rench works have been pushed to within 65 metres of the out- ermost Russian line ; and although not so solidly constructed as the Bri- tish works, yet they are well made, and the defects in the slighter erec- tions of the first bombardment, as well as the defects in the magazines— so disastrous on the 17th October—have been remedied.

"It is stated that the new French batteries will open fire with —guns, which will be more than twice as many as they had on the 17th of October. The guns of the Russian batteries inside the Flagstaff Fort are not plainly discernible, but the French have counted, on two or three occasions, when the enemy opened a general fire, about 200 breaches it feu, including the newly-erected batteries by the Quarantine Fort Many of their guns are as yet masked, but nearly all of them are in position, and each gun will be provided with 250 rounds of ammunition. The Russians have discovered some of the guns, and their fire has been particularly directed upon those pieces; but they have done little damage Our own batteries are in very good order, and are ready for the reception of the — pieces of artillery "; which can be put into them in three nights. Tomorrow • night [29th] our troops begin to arm one attack. Tonight the working parties will begin to place the guns in position in the other attack ; and we have a fine battery ready to open on the steamer which is anchored towards the head of the creek near Inkerman, and which has caused us so much annoyance by her shell If all goes well, the Allies will be able to reopen fire with about — guns and mortars, each with ammunition for forty-eight hours' sharp firing. It is to be feared there will be great difficulty in subduing the fire of Malakoff and of the Inkerman batteries, but the effort must be made, and, if it fails, there only remains what we had in much greater efficiency and force last November—the bayonet—to do the work."

The latest information indicates a better state of things in the camp itself. The warm clothing continued to be issued ; a special officer had been intrusted with the transport of the huts, some of which had reached "the front," and a special officer had been placed in charge of the trans- port-mules ; the rations were distributed with greater regularity ; and on the whole, aided by fine weather, the men showed more cheerfulness and a better state of health, although the high mortality and sickness still continued. Lord Raglan is now described as riding through the camp or down to Balaklava every day.

[From the Supplement to the London Gazette of Friday, February 9.]

Lord Raglan to the Duke of Newcastle.

" Before Sebastopol, Jan. 27, 1855.

"My Lord Duke—I have the satisfaction to acquaint your Grace that the weather continues fine. There are severe frosts at night ; but the sun shines brightly through the day, and there is an absence of wind, which, whilst it continued, added considerably to the sufferings of the troops. "Every exertion is making, by public transport and individually, in getting huts up; but this is a most difficult operation, and the ground is still so rot- ten that it is a most arduous labour to pass along it.

"The extremely confined space of Balaklava' and the vast accumulation of stores, has obliged me to erect huts at some distance outside the town for their reception.

"I enclose the list of casualties to the 25th instant inclusive.

"I have, &c., RAGLAN."

Return of Casualties from 22d to 25th January.

Scots Fusilier Guards-2 rank and tile wounded. let Regiment of Foot-1 rank and file wounded. 17th Regiment-1 rank and file wounded. 28th Regiment-5 rank and file wounded. 30th-Regiment-1 rank and file wounded. 38th Regiment —3 rank and file wounded. 44th Regiment-1 rank and file wounded. 1st Battalion Rifle Brigade-2 rank and file wounded. Total-14 rank and file wounded.

Sir Edmund _Lyons to the Secretary of the Admiralty.

"Agamemnon, off Sebastopol, Jan. 27, 1855.

" Sir—I have the honour to report, for the information of the Lords Com- missioners of the Admiralty, that since my last general letter of the 231 in- stant (No. 60) the weather has been particularly fine. The health of the Army has been much benefited by the change. A good deal of progress has been made in hutting the troops, and distributing the clothing which has been so liberally sent out from England ; so that the men express themselves as being comfortable. "The health of the Fleet and of the Naval Brigade is excellent. The men are well supplied with fresh meat and vegetables, and also with oranges sent from Malta by Rear-Admiral Stewart. "The fire from the batteries of the Allies has increased during the last week, and that of the enemy has not slackened. New guns have becn mounted in our batteries during the last four days. "On the 24th instant I passed the day at Balaklava to superintend the service going on there, and to make inquiries and examine into matters con- nected with the duties of the port and the transport service. I met Lord Rag- lan there, by appointment ; and we made some arrangements which will, I trust, have a beneficial effect.

"I have, &c. , E. C. LYONS, "Rear-Admiral and Commander-in-chief." The Medical Department.—" A eit cumstance occurred in Balaklava today which I will state for the calm consideration of the public at home, without one single word of comment. The Charity, an iron screw-steamer, is at pre- sent in harbour for the reception of sick British soldiers, who are under the charge of a British medical officer. That officer went on shore today, and made an application to the officer in charge of the Government stoves, for two or three to put on board the ship to warm the men. 'Three of my men,' said he, 'died last night from choleraic symptoms, brought on in their pre- sent state from the extreme cold of the ship, and I fear more will follow them from the same cause.' 'Oh!' !' said the guardian of the stoves, 'you must make your requisition in due form, send it up to head-quarters, and get it signed properly, and returned ; and then I will let you have the stoves.' 'But my men may die meantime.' 'I can't help that ; I must have the re- quisition. 'It is my firm belief that there are men now in a dangerous state whom another night will certainly kill.' 'I really can do nothing ; 1 must have a requisition properly signed before I can give one of these stoves away.' 'For God's sake, then, lend me some; I'll be responsible for their safety.' 'I really can do nothing of the kind.' 'But, consider, this requisi- tion will take time to be filled up and signed, and meantime these poor fel- lows will go.' I cannot help that." be responsible for anything you do.' 'Oh, no, that can't be done!' ' Will a requisition signed by the P.M. 0. of this place be of any use ? "No.' Will it answer if he takes on himself the responsibility?' Certainly not.' The surgeon went off in sorrow and disgust. Such are the ' rules ' of the service in the hands of in-

capable and callous men. But here is especial fact for Dr. Smith, the head of the British Army Medical Department. A surgeon of a regiment stationed on the cliffs above Balaklava, who has about 40 sick out of 200 men, has been applying to the authorities in the town for the last three weeks for medicines, all simple and essential, and cannot get one of them. The list he sent in was returned with the ob- servation, We have none of these medicines in store.' Today this poor

a,urgeon, too, name down with his last appeal : 'Do, I beg of you, give me any medicine you have for diarrhcea." /Ve havn't any.' Anything you may have rn take.' 'We havn't any.' Have you any medicine for fever you could give ? Anything you can let me have I'll take.' 'We havn't any.' I have a good many cases of rheumatism among my men : can you let me have any medicines for them?' ' We hamlet any.' Thus, for fever, rheumatism, and diarrhcea, the most prevalent complaints of the army, there were no specifics whatever ; and the surgeon returned up the hill-side with the bitter reflection that he could give no aid to the unfortunate men under his care. Can any one of the facts I have stated be denied ? Certainly not by any one who regards the truth, and who is not a shameless utterer of falsehoods."—Times Correepondent, Jan. 25.

The Sixty-third.—" The Sixty-third Regiment—or, rather, the remains of it—marched on the 21st to Balaklava, there to embark either for Scutari or Malta. It left the Fourth Division 30 strong ; every officer, regimental staff, and all hands included, (scarcely a sufficient escort* for the colours,) after landing in the Crimea about 970 strong, and having since received a draught of 30 men. There was one sergeant only to represent the grenadier company remaining out of 120. The returns show 400 men in hospital at Scutari.' —Times, Military Intelligence.

Provisions for the Enemy.—"Just as I write, a vast number of covered waggons, drawn by two horses or bullocks each, have arrived from the Northward, and are going into the North side of Sebastopol. I counted eighty, but they are still arriving. This will prolong the resistance. How strange, that we cannot get waggons along in the same manner, or keep our cattle alive to convey our clothing and provisions to our suffering soldiers on the heights over Sebastopol, only eight miles off. These Russians must have come from Simpheropol, thirty miles off."—Letter from the Fleet, Jan. 23.

ITAIX.—As our readens are aware, the treaty of alliance between the Western Powers and Sardinia was adopted by the Legislative Chamber on the 8th instant. The majority in its favour was 101 to 60. The par- ticulars of that debate have been meagrely supplied, with the exception of the speech of Count Cavour, who gave a history of the treaty. It appears that in November, the British Government sent instructions to Mr. Hudson directing him to ask the Sardinian Government whether it would place a body of troops at the disposal of the British Government. 'These instructions miscarried, and did not reach Turin until the 12th December. At that time, however, despatches had arrived from the French and English Governments, inviting Sardinia to join the alliance. The Government replied, that it never would have cemented to place a body of troops at the disposal of England, but that it was inclined to treat for adhering to the treaty of April. This led to the military and financial convention actually under discussion.

, Count Cavour read a letter from Lord Clarendon, expressing the very friendly feelings entertained in England towards Sardinia. He showed that the preponderance of Russia in the Mediterranean would have a fatal effect upon the moral, material, and political interests of Italy.

Piedmont has been able to overcome many obstacles and to consolidate her political institutions' because she has been invariably supported by the opinion of the civilized world. Had she preferred neutrality, she would have forfeited that support, and would have been condemned by all the en- lightened men of England, Germany, and France. All great enterprises de- mand risks and sacrifices, and this will prove no exception. "The unani- mous praise bestowed on the treaty by the most illustrious Liberals in Rome, Florence, and Milan, sufficiently proves the alliance to be favourable to Italy; and as to our contact.with Austria, I will only say that Austria has placed herself among the defenders of civilization, and that we did not seek her alliance. The conspiracies and dark intrigues of factions have destroyed Italy in the esteem of Europe. We must now convince Europe that Italy possesses that political good sense which renders liberty practicable, and that in Italy valour keeps pace with reason. The Parliament and population. of Piedmont have demonstrated the first of them truths, and the other will be proved by the alliance and the conduct of our army."

The Duke of Genoa, brother of the King of Sardinia, died on the llth instant ; the third death in the house of Savoy within a few weeks. He was two years younger than the King. He married in 1850, the Prin- cess Elizabeth, second daughter of the present King of Saxony ; by whom he had the Princess Maria Theresa, born in 1851, and Prince Thomas Albert Victor, born last year. The Princess Elizabeth, thus left a widow, is only twenty-five years of age.

A telegraphic despatch from Naples, dated 5th February, states that "on the 4th the King presided at a Cabinet Council, at which the ques- tion of Naples joining the treaty between the Western Powers and Tur- key was discussed. The Russian Minister, Count Orloff, has left, with his Chancellerie, for Caserta."

Sesur.—The debates on the constitution continue to occupy the Cortes. On the 8th instant, the friends of liberty of conscience received a cheek in that assembly. As the constitution is drawn, the Roman Catholic religion alone is recognized as the religion of the state. Seiler Run Pons moved, as an amendment, that liberty of conscience and worship should be allowed to the same extent as in Rome. Strangely enough, Sefior Los:Herm opposed the amendment, as unsuitable to the present situa- tion of the country ; and it was summarily rejected. Next, Orense and his friends proposed an amendment placing religious liberty under the guarantee of the constitution. This was rejected by 139 to 73. It would SeSID that the Queen herself expressed a strong wish that nothing should be done that would trench upon "Catholic unity."

At the sitting of the Cortes on the 5th, the bill for the *sale of eccle- siastical property was introduced amid a great deal of cheering. On the next day, the sixteenth basis of the Constitution, decreeing the 'necessity of the Royal sanction to the acts of the Cortes, was carried by a majority' of 130 votes to 107. The Ministry then announced that they should submit to the Royal sanction the laws already voted. The Democratic members grew furious at this proposition ; but Espartero and the other Ministers showed great firmness, and impressed on the Cortes that the Carlists based all their hopes on the divisions in that assembly.

HOLLAND.—The bill for abolishing the duties on flour and the tonnage- dues has been introduced in the Legislative Chamber of the Netherlands. The loss of the Treasury, which will amount to five millions of guilders, will be partially compensated by an increase of the property-tax and the excise on sugar and spirits.

INDIA AND CHINA.—The fuller accounts received by the overland mail mention matters not indicated in the telegraphic summary. Gee of these is a meeting at Bombay, on the 31 of January, in aid of the Patriotic Fund; Lord Elphinstone in the chair. It was attended by a great con- course both of Europeans and natives. The most notable incident WSS

the appearance of Sir Janisetjtie Jeejeebhoy, now an infirm old man, who, unable himself to speak, obtained permission for his youngest son to read an address to the meeting : for himself and his three sons he subscribed 7500 rupees to the fund. The speeches showed an intelligent apprecia- tion of the state of affairs in the East, and were full of loyalty to the Queen and to Great Britain. According to the latest accounts, the sub- scriptions to the fund in Calcutta amounted to 70,000, in Madras to 30,000, and in Bombay to nearly 65,000 rupees : these being only the amounts subscribed at the several presidencies; the contribution from the Mefusell will doubtless swell the number materially. The Burmese Envoy, it seems, reserved his startling proposal for the complete restitution of the conquered provinces until his audience of leave. Lord Dalhousie, although taken by surprise, did not permit his astonishment to be Been, but desired the Commissioner, Major Phayre, to reply to this effect, in their own language—" Tell them, that as long as the sun shines in the heavens the British flag shall wave over those pos- sessions." After this, it may be imagined, the interview did not last long.

Among the many entertainments given by the Governor-General dur- ing the stay of the Burmese Envoy at Calcutta, one is- remarkable as a novelty and a curiosity. It was a lecture delivered on the 19th January, by the Reverend J. M. Bellew, on the discoveries made at Nineveh, ac- companied by colossal scenic illustrations faithfully copied from the books on the subject. The closing scene was a view of an Assyrian Palace, which was theatricallyconsumed by fire, while the reverend lecturer read the last speech of Sardanapalus from Byron's tragedy ! It fortunately happened that Lady Sarah Ramsay, the daughter of Lord Dalhousie, arrived on the 19th, and gave a new grace to her father's festivities.

The intelligence from China is unfavourable for the rebels. The Pekin Gazelle states that they have recently been defeated in many encounters, and that several important cities have been retaken from them. There was a large British and American force at Canton assembled to protect the foreign residents in case of an assault by the rebels.

AIISTRALIA.—Advices from Melbourne down to the 23d November state that Sir Charles Hotham had given the Royal assent to the Convict Prevention Bill, under which convicts with conditional pardons are pro- hibited all entrance into Victoria. Our readers may remember that a similar bill has been already disallowed by the Imperial Government. In consequence of abuses which have crept into the administration of every branch of government, Sir Charles Ilotham has issued commissions of inquiry into the finances, the police, the gold-fields, and the squatting question.

The estimates for the year, laid before the Legislative Council on the 23d, had astonished the public. A sanguine estimate of revenue for 1855 places it at 3,015,6831. The expenditure is coolly put down at 4,801,2921.; the deficiency being 1,785,609/. There was a general impression two years ago that the attractions of the gold-fields would deprive the wool-growers of labour to an extent to cause a very considerable decrease in the production of wool. This fear has not been realized ; for the quantity exported has increased from 21,765,104 pounds in 1853 to 22,598,688 in 1854.