17 SEPTEMBER 1859, Page 8

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/MIL—The Emperor and Empress have quitted St. Sauveur and have gone to Biarritz. The King of the Belgians, preceded by the Prince de Chimay, has gone to Biarritz on a visit to the Emperor Napoleon. Count Walewski is to go to Biarritz on Saturday.

The Alio:deur of Wednesday, at the close of an article on the oc- currences in the Pei-ho river, stated that-

" The government of the Emperor and that of her Britannic Majesty are devising measures in common for inflicting chastisement, and obtaining all the reparations required for an act so flagrantly disloyal.' It has been rumoured in Paris that " the Governments of France and England have both agreed that it will be necessary to hold a Congress for the settlement of the Italian question." Before leaving St. Sauveur, a deputation from Modena waited on the Emperor Napoleon. They expressed the confidence of their country in the liberator of Italy. In reply the Emperor is reported to have said- " I shall make it my happiness and my glory to reconstitute Italian nationality."

Prince Richard Metternich is again on the wing from Vienna for the capital of France.

The following is the text of the article in the Honitetcr, a summary of which appeared in our impression last week.

" When facts speak for themselves, it would appear at the first glance useless to explain them. Nevertheless, when passion or intrigue distorts the moat simple incidents, it becomes indispensable to reestablish their real character, in order that every one may be able, with a full knowledge of the facts, to judge of the progress of events.

"In the month of July last, when the Franco-Sardinian and Austrian armies were in presence of each other, between the Adige and the Mineio, the chances were nearly equal on both sides ; for, if the former had on its side the moral influence of successes obtained, the latter army was numeri- cally stronger, and leant for support, not only on formidable fortresses, but also on the whole of Germany, which at the first signal was ready to make common cause in favour of Austria. Had that eventually been realized, the Emperor Napoleon would have been forced to withdraw his troops from the banks of the Adige to direct them on the Rhine, and the cause of Italy, for which the war had been undertaken, would have been, if not lost, at least seriously compromised.

" In these grave circumstances, the Emperor thought that it would be advantageous to France in the first place, and to Italy next, to conclude peace, provided the conditions were in conformity with the programme which he had imposed on himself, and useful to the cause which he wished to serve.

" The first question was to know whether Austria would cede by treaty the territory which had been conquered ; the second, whether she would freely abandon the supremacy which she had acquired throughout the whole of the Italian peninsula ; whether she would recognize the principle of an Italian nationality in admitting a federative system ; and lastly, whether she would consent to endow Venetia with institutions which would make her a real Italian province.

" Relative to the first point, the Emperor of Austria ceded, without dis- pute, the conquered territory ; and with regard to the second, he promised the most extensive concessions to Venetia, admitting for her future organi- zation the position of Luxembourg as regards the Germanic Confederation ; but he made as a sine qui non condition for these concessions the return of the Archdukes to their States.

" The question was, therefore, very clearly set forth at Villafranca; either the Emperor Napoleon should stipulate nothing for Venetia and con- flue himself to the advantages acquired by his arms, or else, in order to ob- tain important concessions and the recognition of the principle of nation- laity, he should give his adhesion to the return of the Archdukes. Com- mon sense, therefore, traced out his line of conduct, for it was by no means contemplated to bring back the Arckdukes with the assistance of foreign troops, but, on the contrary, to effect their return, with serious guarantees, by the free will of the people, who would be made to understand how much that restoration waster the interest of the great Italian country. " Such, in a few words, is the real explanation of the negotiations of Villafranca ; and to every impartial mind it is evident that the Emperor Napoleon obtained, by the treaty of peace, as much and perhaps more than he achieved by arms. It must even be admitted that it was not without a feeling of deep sympathy that the Emperor Napoleon saw with what frank- ness and resolution the Emperor Francis Joseph renounced, for the interest of European peace and from a desire to reestablish good relations with France, not only one of his finest provinces but also the policy, dangerous perhaps but not devoid of glory, which sad secured to Austria the do- mination which she exercised over Italy.

"In fact, if the treaty were sincerely executed, Austria would be no longer for the Italian peninsula that hostile and formidable power, thwarting all national aspirations from Parma to Rome, and from Florence to Naples, but, on the contrary, she became a friendly Power, since she consented wil- lingly not to be any longer a German Power on this aide of the Alps, and to herself develop Italian nationality to the shores of the Adriatic.

"From what precedes, it is easy to comprehend that if, after the peace, the destinies of Italy had been confided to men more anxious about the fu- ture of the common country than of petty partial successes, the aim of their efforts would have been to develop and not to thwart the consequences df the Treaty of Villafranca. What could be more simple and more patriotic, in fact, than to say to Austria, 'You wish to see the Archdukes return ? Well, be it so ; but then execute faithfully your promises concerning Venetia ; let her receive a life of her own ; let her have an Italian army and an Italian administration ; in a word, let the Emperor of Austria be no more on this side of the Alps than the Grand Duke of Venetid, as the King of the Netherlands is for Germany merely the Grand Duke of Luxembourg.' "It is possible even that by means of frank and friendly negotiations, the Emperor of Austria might have been induced to adopt combinations more in accord with the desires manifested by the Duchies of Modena and Parma. "The Emperor Napoleon, after what had passed, had a right to reckon on the good sense and patriotism of Italy, and to believe that she would under- stand the mainspring of his policy, which may be resumed in these words : —` Instead of risking a European war, and consequently the independence of his country—instead of again expending 300 millions, and shedding the blood of 50,000 of his soldiers, the Emperor Napoleon has accepted a peace which sanctions, for the first time for many centuries, the nationality of the Italian peninsula. Piedmont, which more particularly represents the cause of Italy, finds herpower considerably increased, and if the Con- federation is established, will play the chief part in it ; but one only con- dition is imposed for all these advantages, and that is the restoration of the old sovereign houses to their States.'

"That language, we still believe, will be understood by the well-thinking part of the nation, otherwise what will happen ? The French Government has already stated it ; the Archdukes will not be brought back to their States by a foreign intervention, but, a part of the conditions of the peace of Villafranca not being executed, the Emperor of Austria will be thereby liberated from all engagements in favour of Venetia. Disquieted by hostile demonstrations on the right bank of the Po, he will keep his forces on a war- footing on the left bank, and instead of a policy of conciliation and pence there will be seen to revive a spirit of mistrust and hatred which wilt lead to fresh troubles and fresh disasters.

" Some persons appear to hope much from a European Congress ; we are most anxious that one should meet, but we greatly doubt that a Congress can obtain any better conditions for Italy. A Congress can only demand what is just ; and would it be just to require important concessions from a great Power without offering some fair compensation in return ? War would be the only means ; but let Italy not deceive herself—there is but one Power in Europe that makes war for an idea ; that Power is France, and France has accomplished her task."

Staln.—A combined deputation from Modena and Parma arrived at Turin and had an interview with King Victor Emmanuel on Thursday. In his reply the King expressed his thanks to the people of Modena and Permit for the unanimity of their votes recorded for the annexation of their provinces to Piedmont, by which they have confirmed the wishes expressed by them eleven years ago to the King, his father. His Majesty continued thus :

"I agree with the desires you have the mission to communicate to me, they are fresh manifestations of the national will, to save the country from the disastrous consequences of a foreign rule, and to erect a barrier which would ensure to our countrymen the possession of Italy to the Italians. The deputations will understand in what manner the King must proceed towards the accomplishment of the wishes of the assemblies. Armed with the rights which I have acquired, I will support your cause before the great Powers, and especially before the French Emperor who, while leading the victorious legions of France, was fighting for the independence of Italy. Europe has recognized the right of other nations to provide for their security by con- stituting a government capable of defending their liberties and their in- dependence. She will be neither less just nor less generous towards the Italian provinces. The votes which your assemblies have recorded, and the numerous volunteers who have fought under the flags of Piedmont during the days of the late struggle, have proved that firmness is a tried virtue with the people of Modena and Parma. The speech of his Majesty concluded thus : " Therefore I need not say to you, P

.Persevere I will only congratu- late you upon the order and the moderation of which you have given such brilliant examples, in order to prove to Europe that the Italians know how to govern themselves, and that they are worthy to be citizens of a free nation."

The members of the Modenese deputation were—Advocate Muratori, Count Ancini, Professor Zini, Advocate Brizzolari, Doctor Sacerdoti, and Professor Selmi ; and the Parmesan members were the Marquis Muschi, Count San Vitale, Maestro Verdi, Professor Fiarrozi, and Marquis Dolsi. It is proposed to erect, at the expense of the Italians, a monument of the Emperor Napoleon in Paris, as an expression of gratitude.

The well-informed Turin correspondent of the Daily News, who signs himself " A," makes the following statements in a recent letter-

" As to the interview between the Pope and the Duke of Grammont on the subject of the ultimatum which the latter brought back with him from Paris, I believe I can guarantee to you the correctness of the following par- ticulars. In the first place, the Emperor has repeatedly declared he will not send any troops into the Romagnas, or reduce them by force into Pon- tifical subjection. Cardinal Antonelli, on the other hand, is making un- heard of efforts to enlist mercenaries in every quarter. He offers to every man a bounty of 300 francs, and promises better pay than a private soldier can obtain in any service in the world. There is a curious circular from the office of the Viceroy of Venetia in existence, wherein he commands the au- thorities to allow such Austrian soldiers to pass as have been engaged by the Nuncio at Vienna to take service in the pay of his Holiness. Rome is dis- tracted with the brawls of these raw foreign recruits as they stagger out of the taverns. It is quite certain that the Duke of Grammont has communi- cated to the Pope his master's unchangeable determination to recall his troops from Rome, not in the course of November next, .tr some journals have stated, but in the early part of next year, and the Roman people have observed that the various supplies of the French army collected in the ma- gazines have recently been sold to the highest bidder. The Pope is terribly indignant, hardly affects to conceal his wrath, and, when alone, liberates his soul in smothered groans of anger and alarm. His Holiness will not listen to the plan of converting the Romagnas into a tributary province, a sort of hospodariate, because he thinks if he were to sanction such a compromise all the other provinces would be wanting to obtain the same or similar terms. In this opinion he is not mistaken ; and for once in a way he is not the victim of an illusion."

The National Assembly of Bologna has confided extensive powers to Colonel Cipriani. He is to preserve order ; cooperate with the Assembly in promoting a more intimate union among the Central Italian States; and he has the power of proroguing and convoking the National As- sembly. As soon as this decree passed, he exercised his power by pro- roguing the Assembly. At Florence, on Sunday, Signor Ricasoli reviewed the National Guard, the crowd of spectators shouting "Viva il Ile'." Signor Rica- soli had also published an order of the day, thanking the Guard, in the name of the country and the King of Sardinia, for their bearing and dis- cipline, expressing confidence in the future, and hoping that the Guard and the regular troops would support the wishes of the, country. The Assembly of Parma have confirmed the power of Farini as dic- tator, and have unanimously voted that Parma shall be annexed to Pied- mont. They have directed a medal to be struck to commemorate the war, and a monument to all patriots who have died for their country since 1848. The Statute of Piedmont has been proclaimed in Parma.

The Corriere Mercantile of Genoa states that the military forces of Ro- magna consist of the division of General Mezzacapo, of the flying columns of General Roselli, and of the Victor Emmanuel Brigade. General Mez- zacapo is commander-in-chief of his division, 8000 men, and of the flying columns, 3000, which together make 11,000 men. The Victor Em- manuel Brigade consists of a regiment of 1000 infantry, four squadrons of cavalry, and a battery of artillery. The force of the Papal Govern- ment which may menace these troops consists of 8000 men, with four- teen pieces of cannon.

$111/il trlant.—The Zurich Conference has died out. Intelligence from that town, dated September 13, state that " the Conferences are suspended for the present, until Count Collorcdo receives fresh in- structions from Vienna. Count Wimpffen, Secretary of the Austrian Embassy at Naples, has arrived on a visit to Count Colloredo."

ETIIIIII14.—We learn from Berlin that an address has been presented to the Government by the principal inhabitants of Stettin concerning the question of the German Confederation. Count Schwerin, to whom the Prince Regent, on the proposition of the States Ministry, had referred the address for a reply, answered as follows :- " That his Royal Highness the Prince Regent was rejoiced by the feelings of fidelity and confidence expressed towards him by his subjects in the ad- dress, and likewise by their expressions of devotion to Prussia and the Ger- man Fatherland. lie then stated the views the Prussian Government considers it its duty to take in reference to the reforms of the German Con- federation. He stated that the late events and experiences had created a conviction in Germany, in spite of all the different views, that the inde- pendence and power of Germany, as regards her exterior relations, and the development in the interior of their material and intellectual powers, render a strong and energetic union, and the reform of the Federal Constitution, to obtain this end, necessary. The Government of Prussia acknowledges the justice of this public opinion. But the Government will not allow itself to be led away by the manifestations which that national feeling causes, nor will its own conviction of that which might at first appear to it as best cause it to deviate from the way which is pointed out by its consideration and conscientious esteem of the rights of others, and by its regard for that which is at present possible and attainable. "The same esteem for right and law which characterizes the state of affairs of Prussia in the interior must also rule her relations with Germany and her German Confederates.

"Germany will render to herself a greater service at the present time by endeavouring to further the common interests of Germany in such a way that practical results will ensue, by the increase of the armed forces of Ger-

many, and by strengthening the certain footing on which rights are now es• tablisied throughout the whole Federal country, than by premature proposals

for changes in the Federal Constitution. The Prussian Government, being. de- termined to devote its energies for the furtherance of these objects, considers itself entitled to claim confidence that she will, when called upon, find ways in which the interests of Germany and Prussia will be compatible with the commands of duty and of conscience."

The Vienna Gazette has published an article expressing great satisfac- tion at the article in the Moniteur on Italy. It is of opinion, that in considering the state of affairs in Italy from this point of view, the Moniteur increases the hopes for peace, and banishes the fears which had been entertained till now.

The patent granting concessions to the Protestants of the Austrian Empire has been published. It is a long document containing fifty-eight articles. For the government of the churches it establishes parochial, district, superintending, representative, and administrative bodies, and over these a general Conference and Synod. The right of superintendence will be exercised by the Imperial authorities in the usual legal manner, " unless the Emperor should on particular occa- sions make exceptions." A department, with employes who shall be members of the one or other confession, shall be formed in the Ministry for Ecclesiastical Affairs.

Protestant ecclesiastical courts arc to be established, and when this is done " the imperial authorities will cease to have jurisdiction in matri- monial matters." These courts will take cognizance of infringement of ecclesiastical discipline. The clergy are subject to the civil courts in civil matters.

-" The right of the Crown to superintend the Protestant schools is to be exercised by members of one or other of the two Protestant confessions. Should a school become morally or politically pernicious, the police of the district and a representative of the superintendency are to examine into the matter, and, in case of need, to close the school. "The Protestant schools are for the future to be under the direction and inspection of their ecclesiastical organs. " Protestant children aro bound to study all the secular subjects taught in Roman Catholic schools. No books can be used in Protestant schools which have not been approved by the general conference and by the Ministry for Ecclesiastical affairs. " The head master is responsible to the Imperial authorities for the state of his school. Any seminary in which the prescribed subjects are taught can lay claim to the rank and title of a _public school. " If a Protestant school is established at the expense of the state only Protestant teachers can be employed in it." Protestant communities have a right to acquire property. They are to manage their own church, school, and foundation property. " Each parish has a right freely to elect' its own rector, vicar, and schoolmaster.

" Either confession can hold a synod once in six years. All the laws made by the synod will require the Imperial sanction. " Every teacher and ecclesiastical employe shall swear inviolable fidelity to the Emperor and to his house.' " The superintendents of both confessions arc to receive a certain yearly allowance from the State Treasury. " The ecclesiastical authorities to have the support, and, in case of need, the assistance of the civil power." This decree has been well received. It looks well on paper, and re- verses much that was done by Haynau and others in Hungary.

11188ia.—The position of the press in Russia has attracted much at- tention. It is far freer than it was under the late Emperor ; but not so free as the Journal of St. Petersburg, in the following article, would have us believe.

"Since a greater latitude has been granted in Russia to the expression of opinion the Russian press has taken its place in Europe as a new element in the domain of general publicity. The Russian journals arc read, quoted, and commented upon abroad ; men seek in them for a manifestation of a public opinion which hitherto had few occasions of producing itself. " There is, however, a certain hesitation visible in the organs of the foreign press as regards the real significance of that voice which they had not been accustomed to hear. They do not know exactly how to appreciate what weight ought to be attached to it. Thus, a journal published at Brussels is looked upon as an organ of the Russian Govern- ment, for the sole reason that it was founded by private Russian capital. Again, the daily papers or periodicals published in Russia are supposed to be more or less inspired by the Imperial Government, upon the sole ground that they are subjected to a preliminary censorship. Such an appreciation is neither correct nor just. We shell endeavour, once for all, to rectify it. "It is evident that by granting a broader field to the Russian press the Gm eminent mean to withdraw its own responsibility, except the obligations which emanate from the social and international principles respected by all civilized States. The preliminary censorship to which the newspapers are subjected has no other object. The mission of the censors consists in seeing that nothing shall appear in print contrary to religion, morality, and social order, or contrary to the consideration due to Sovereigns and Governments. Moreover, any honest opinion may be published in Russia, and the Russian press, authorized to discuss internal matters in a fair measure, enjoys the same privilege as regards foreign political questions. " We therefore think it our duty to give a formal denial to any assertion tending to misrepresent the position of the press towards the Goveniment. We are authorized to declare in the most categorical manner that the Russian journals, or those supposed to be such, do not represent anything else but their own opinions; that the Government is not in a position either to ap- prove or disapprove them, still far less to accept the responsibility under any form whatsoever."

Advices from St. Petersburg contain news from the Cauca 4us to the 26th August, and report the capture of Schamyl. Flom a Ike Russian source it is affirmed that this capture had been preceded by ::everal im- portant Russian victories.

118 i .—A telegram tells us that " letters received from Madrid to the 5th instant state that the English Ambassador had addressed in- quiries to the Government of Spain concerning the concentration of Spanish troops in Algeciras. The reply of Spain is said to have been drawn up with great courtesy, but did not fully explain the reasons of the concentration of troops at this point." [We take leave to doubt the correctness of this. The object of the gathering Spanish troops near Gibraltar is accounted for by the war between the Spaniards and Moors in North Africa ]

QIIrktgq.—The Sultan nearly lost his life on the 3d September. An Ionian captain commanding an English steam-tug drove his vessel twice against the Imperial calque, and the Sultan was saved with great diffi- culty. The captain has been arrested, and Sir Henry Bulwer has assured the Government that the most searching inquiry shall be made into this affair.

The Governor of Candia has sent in his resignation. The smuggling of arms continues there, and a seizure of a bomb-vessel charged with powder has been made. The political agitation in Servia is on the increase. The National As- sembly (Skouptschina) has been convoked.

Itti 8.—Advices from Calcutta to the 8th August have been re- ceived this week. The most prominent piece of news is a warning letter addressed by Lord Clyde to the malcontent troops. He informs them that if they persist in accepting their discharge they will lose the benefit of their former services, and expresses a hope that the old soldiers will be wise enough not to throw these away. Very few men were influenced by this sage exhortation. All the men going home were to be armed. The last provision is the consequence of a direct order from Lord Stanley, instructing all the Indian Governments, "in the disturbed state of Europe," to send all invalids and discharged men home with their arms.

The 28th of July was kept throughout India as a day of thanksgiving by all orders of Christians. After twenty-eight months of battle and massacre—after destroying a regular army of 100,000 men, and dispersing an irregular one of as many more—after losing and regaining thirty cities, and conquering four separate kingdoms, besides our own provinces, the British force in the North-West is more than three times as numerous as in 1867.

The Friend of India, always alarmist, and always assailing the Government, speaks of men of all classes, soldiers, civil servants, planters, as desirous of quitting India. There is sure to be great diecon- , tent, but this is obviously a highly imaginative statement.

The Enam difficulty is said to be settled. All Enam lands are to be taxed at the rate of one-fourth the average taxation of the district. Pro- vided always that any bolder of Enema may, if he pleases, apply for in- quiry, and prove his right to remain absolutely free. This settlement will probably be accepted, the Enam class preferring anything to an inquiry which may last for forty years, and oust them after all. The order affects lands with a rent-roll in Madras and Bombay of nearly four millions a year. There has been some excitement among the Mahomedans of the Pun- jaub, and several native preachers have been fined for preaching of coming prophets and revolutions. The vernacular papers have taken a similar line. A fakir has been arrested, and treasonable papers have been found on him. Muzbee Sikhs are expressing everywhere an incli- nation to become Christians. A number were baptized, and the Govern- ment compelled Mr. Cust, the Commissioner of the district, to explain why he attended the baptism. Mr. Cust says he attended in his private capacity. Two regiments of the Madras cavalry "have shown symptoms of dis- affection " at Hyderabad. This will be no news to those in England who have been long aware that the late Bengal system, which it required a mutiny to destroy, has tainted the whole of the Madras army, but es- pecially the cavalry, and has rendered it unsafe. The exhibition of symptoms of disaffaetion on a wider scale would not surprise us. The whole system requires a radical amendment, and a return to sound mili- tary principles.

fittiffir Attitts.—The Asia has arrived at Liverpool with advices from New York to the 31st August.

Colonel 1'. B. Shaffner had sailed from Boston in the bark Wyman, on a voyage of exploration to the North Atlantic, in search of a feasible route for a line of telegraphic communication between this country and Europe, by way of Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Scotland ; his object being to examine the seas, the bays, and the lands contem- plated to he traversed.

The papers contain notices of the brilliant appearance of the aurora borealis.

The Ohio Stale Journal mentions the manumitting of twenty-one slays, men and women, the property of the late Mr. Pleasant Burnet, of Mecklenburg, county Virginia. Only those of his slaves who had served faithfully, and who were capable of taking care of themselves, were ma- numitted. Some good land and tools were provided for them.

Mr. Fortune, in a letter to the Washington Constitution, says his suc- cess in cultivating the tea plant in America far exceeds his most san- guine expectations. He also states that the tea plantations in Upper India are sueccoding admirably.

Vice-President Breckenridge had deprecated the use of his name as a candidate for the Presidency.

The amenities of American journalism are freely illustrated by the following extract from the Polo Transcript : " Another Editor Dead— William Fiske, Esq., editor of the Mendota Press, is dead. Mr. F. was a poet of no mean pretensions, as our readers will testify from the speci- mens we have given them. For some reason or other Mr. Fiske did not like our views upon the merits of his poetry, and so cut us off from his exchange list. We, however, continued to send him the Transcript, and yesterday it was returned to this office, marked Send this paper to .' This was the first intimation we had of Mr. Fiske's death, and we suppose that he left word with his son to send on his exchanges to his new abode."—Criiic.