24 AUGUST 1850, Page 4


Lord John Russell, with Lady John and the children, passed through Glasgow on Tuesday, towards the Highlands. In the afternoon, when visiting the Exchange, Lord John was recognized, and "very warmly received." A local paper reports that he is looking well, and as if suf- fering little from the labours of the past session; and surmises, from the fulness of his shooting-equipments, that he intends to devote some con- siderable time to the moors.

An interesting sketch of the progress made by Glasgow in wealth and extent during the past fifty years, has been abstracted by the journals from a paper read by Dr. Strang, the City Chamberlain of Glasgow' at the Edinburgh meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

The population of the city in 1801 was 77,385; in 1821 it had doubled this number and become 147,043; and in each succeeding ten years it made an addition equal to its integral number in 1801; increasing at this rate- 202,426 in 1831, 282,134 in 1841, and 367,800 in 1851. The sanatory con- dition of the city was so bad all this time, that the yearly births scarcely more than sufficed to replace the annual loss bydeath ; so that the whole of this immense development has been due to immigration. In 1845, the houses rented under four pounds a year were 16,399, those between five and ten pounds were 29,849, those at ten pounds and upwards were 18,780—the total number of distinct possessions being 65,028, rented at 866,1501.; in 1850 the total number of distinct possessions had increased to 7034, rented at 1,017,3621., an increase during the last five years of 151,2121. in rental. In 1800 there were within the districts now embraced by the Parliamentary city only thirty miles of streets and roads ; at present the paved streets alone ex- tend ninety-six miles. In 1800 there was little or no sewerage in the city ; at present there are forty-two miles of main sewers, the waking of which cost an average of 1,2001. per mile. The material causes of the prosperity of Glasgow are her situation in the centre of one of the richest mineral districts in the kingdom, and her possession of a river and stream-harbour which she has rendered second to hardly any in Europe for convenience and safety. "About the beginning of the present century, the depth of the river Clyde was scarcely five feet; there were few or no vessels to be found at its port, and these consisted of craft merely drawing a few feet water, none certainly exceeding thirty or forty tons burden. In 1820, the average available depth of the Clyde at high-water at neap tides was made nine feet, which permitted vessels of eight and a half feet to pass. In 1840, the depth was increased to fourteen feet:, and in 1850 the average available depth at high-water of neap tides is sixteen feet At spring tides there is an additional depth of about two or three feet ; which renders the greatest depth attainable, irrespective of the increased depth created by land floods or strong Westerley winds, nine- teen feet. The river has also been during the past ten or twelve years gradually increased in breadth ; and for more than a mile below Glasgow Bridge the water-way is now three times its former width. With respect to the harbour, the change has been equally marked during the last fifty years. In 1800, the whole quay was restricted to a space not exceeding a few hun- dred feet, and occasionally exhibited no vessel larger than a coarbarge or a herring wherry. At present the quayage extends to about 10,000 lineal feet, while hundreds of the largest-sized ships belonging to the mercantile marine of this and foreign countries are seen ranged three and four deep along its breast. Loaded vessels of 1000 tons register come up easily to the harbour of Glasgow, and are abreast of the quays in one tide; while steam- ships of 2000 tons have been built on the banks of the river, near to the city, and their machinery fitted up within the harbour." Another cause of the successful career run by the commercial metropolis of the Northern kingdom has been the cosmopolitan character of its industries. "Glasgow unites within herself a portion of the cotton-spinning and weav- ing manufactures of Manchester, of the printed calicoes of Lancashire, the stuffs of Norwich, the shawls and mousselines of France, the silk-throw- ing of Macclesfield, the flax-spinning of Ireland, the carpets of Kiddermin- ster, the iron and engineering works of Wolverhampton and Birmingham, the pottery and glass-making of Staffordshire and Newcastle, the ship-building of London, the coal-trade of the Tyne and Wear, and all the handicrafts con- nected with or dependent on the development of these. She also has distil- leries, breweries chemical works, tan-works, dye-work, bleachfields, and paper-manufactones, besides a vast number of staple and fancy hand-loom fabrics. In her commercial relations, she trades with every quarter of the globe and her merchants deal and dispose of all the various products of every country. It hence appears, that when one branch of manufacture is dull another may be prosperous; and accordingly, Glasgow never feels any of those universal depressions which so frequently occur in places limited to one or two branches of manufacture and commerce."