31 MARCH 1855, Page 2

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Eorss OF LORDS. Monday, March 26. Treaty with Sardinia; the Queen's Mes-- sage considered—Despatch of Business Court of Chancery Bill committed pro forma. Tuesday, March 27. Militia (Ireland) Bill read a second time. Thursday, March 29. Intramural Burials (Ireland) Bill read a second time— De- spatch of Business Court of Chancery Bill read a third time and passed. Friday, March 30. Ecclesiastical Courts Bill committed—Charitable Trusts Ex- tension Act Bill read a first time—University of Cambridge B.eform Bill read a first time—Lord Ellenborougb on the War.

Hotiss or CO4o407.48. Monday, March N. 'Treaty with Sardinia; Resolution on the Queen's Message—Newspaper-Stamp; Sir George Lewis's BM read a second. time—Criminal Justice; Lord Chancellor's Bill read a second time. Tuesday, March 27. Restoration of Poland; Lord Palmerston's Statement on Mr. Phinn's Motion—Army Appointments ; Major Reed's Motion negatived—Treaty with Sardinia Bill read a first time.

Wednesday. March 28. Bills of Exchange Bill read a second time—Bills of Ex- change and Promissory Notes; Mr. Keating 's Bill read a second time—Union of Be- nefices; Mr. Frewen's Bill thrown out—Vaoating Seats in Parliament; Mr. Wright- son's Bill thrown out— Treaty with Sardinia Bill read a second time—Education (Scotland); Lord Advocate's -Bill read a first time. Thursday. March 29. Lord Lucan's Recall; Mr. 11. Berkeley's Motion--Church- rates ; Sir W. Clay's Bill, leave given; Bill read a first time—Free Schools; Mr. M. Gibson's Mil read a first time—Parliamentary Representation (Scotland); Lord Dun- can's -Bill reads first time, Friday, March 30. New Writs for Kilmarnock, in the room of Mr. Bouverie ; for Lewes, in the room of Mr. Brand ; for Cork County, in- the room of Mr. E. B. Roche—Colonial Office; Sir John Pakington's Complaint—Reinforcements for the Army; Sir De Lacy Evans's Remarks—Aldershott; Sir J. Paxton's Complaint— Testamentary Jurisdiction ; Solicitor-General's Bill read a first!tims.


Monday: Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

The Lords.

Hour of Hour of Meeting. Adjournment.

Oh lh 25m Oh Oh COm No sitting.

Oh 6h 30m 5h 7h 30m Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

The Merman.

Hour of Hour of Meeting. Adjournment.

411 .(m) lh 30m Sh .(m) 125 45m Noon .... Oh 50m 4h .(m) Ilk 451n

4h .In) 125 80m

Sittingsthis Week, 4; Time, Di 5m Sittings this Week, 5; Time. 4th 20m this Session. 19; — $45 50m this Session. fa; — 311h 25na


The message from the- Queen respecting the treaty with Sardinia was taken into consideration in both Houses on Monday.

The House of Commons went into Committee for the purpose, as the treaty involved a money -vote ; and Lord PALMERSTON briefly-explained the grounds on which the Government asked the sanction of the House to the arrangements that have been made.

As we engaged in a war with a great military power upon a peace esta- blishment, it was requisite that our force should be more rapidly augmented than is possible with means which do not comprise compulbory conscription. With this view, the services of the Militia for the Mediterranean garrisons were accepted ; for this purpose her Majesty applied for power to enlist foreigners, and made a treaty with Sardinia. By that treaty we obtain an auxiliary force of 15,000 men. But as the sending them out involves im- mediate outlay, it was agreed by her Majesty's Government and the Sardi-

Dim Government, that lication should be made to Parliament to enable the Queen to advance 2,1 IO00Ot. sterling for the purpose of-defraying the expenses of the expedition, at 4 per cent interest on-that advance, of which 1 per cent is to be a sinking fund. "The grounds," Lord Palmerston said, "on which I propose that the House shall sanction the engagement which her Majesty has entered. into are-that we want all the military assistance which we can obtain for the purposes of the war ; that the success of the campaign depends upon, the amount of force which we may be able to bring into a particular field of battle ; that by this treaty we shall obtain the. cooperation of a most-va- luable and efficient body of men ; that the alliance is honourable to all , parties concerned; and I also think: that this alliance, coupled with the good • understanding now happily prevailing between France and Austria, an un- derstanding which is a security for the peace of the-Northern parts of the Continent, may, by establishing a unity of feeling and of action between Sardinia and Austria, have the same beneficial influence upon. the Southern parts of Europe." The resolution proposed was to the effect that the Commissioners of the Treasury be empowered to advance 1,000,0004, by way of loan to the Sar- dinian Government, and a like sum at the expiration of twelve months, if the war should not-be concluded by that time. Mr. DISRAELI said he could not permit this resolution to-pass unnoticed, as-if its only importance was that it insured the ooOperation of Sardinia in a cause which "involves the-question of the civilization of the world." Last year we heard of some .ftnancial operations which were described as "loans in disguise," and he could, not help feeling that this is a "subsidy in disguise.' The Rouse should pause before it sanctioned a return to such a pernicious system, introduced by Lord 'Palmerstion under a cloak, and justifiable only in-a-case of extreme necessity. The country receiving such assistance places itself almost " in the position of a tributary" when' it ad-' cepts "mercenary aid" to accomplish results which should be achieved,by its own essential strength and resources. We are obliged to recur to this system in the first year of war, not because we have engaged in a contest with a great military power, on a peace establishment, but because of official neglect to prepare for war, which Ministers must have known was impend-, ing: Mr. Disraeli detained to take upoTn himself the responsibility of .op: posing the measure ; but he wished to impress upon the House that if the war is carried on it must be mainly carried on by the resources of England.. Lord PALMERSTON replied, that there is this difference between a- loan and a subsidy—while interest is paid upon a loan, a subsidy is a pure sacrifice.

Mr. Disraeli may think less highly of the respectability of Sardinia than her Majesty's Government ; but even if the loan were a sacrifice for a cer- tain number of years, which it is not, any one who examines the estimates' must see that 1000 men, on a peace establishment, cost 40,0001.; and if he consider the advantage we shall derive from 15,000 excellent troopi, for the loan of 1,000,000/., he will readily see the value of the contract. It was said that there had been neglect in not preparing for war ; but whet indig- nation would have been displayed had the army been placed on a war establishment pending negotiations whioh it was hoped would have aa amicable issue !

Mr. J. E. DENISON approved of the treaty, as honourable to both parties ; and expressed the warmest sympathy" with Sardinia: Mr. Bruorre, professing equally warm sympathy, condemned the measure, as leading a state to engage in a war in which it has no interest, and Which would stay her internal progress. Referring to the loan, he re- marked that Lord Palmerston had said it is not a subsidy, because the SardinianDovormnent is to pay interest : but he told them nothing about any security. Mr. BOWYER threw doubts on the soundness of Sardinian finances; and predicted that the loan, which looks like a subsidy, will never be repaid. As an instance-of the insecurity of financial affairs in- that country, he stated, that two years ago the Government sold by act of Parliament the estates of a large hospital at Turin, and gave the hos- pital nothing in return but "Government paper." Another instance of insecurity is the confiecation of Church property.

These statements were met by Mr. GLanrrorrn. He urged the claims to sympathy and respect which Sardinia has upon us, augmented by the fact that her internal difficulties are fomented from without, and that she has, by the firm and temperate assertion of the principles of freedom and order, established a free government. He rebuked Mr. Bowyer for cast- ing imputations on the trustworthiness of a Government which has "never broken its financial obligations." England- herself is very much in the habit of giving no other security for borrowed money than "Go- vernment paper." It is a good thing or a bad thing in proportion as the Government that issues it is good or bad. No doubt, there are many countries, and some states of Italy, where Government paper is of very little value indeed. But that is not the case with Sardinia.

Having disposed of Mr. Bowyer, Mr. Gladstone took up Mr. Disraeli's antithesis, that the loan is a subsidy in disguise. On the contrary, he said, looking to the circumstances of the transaction, it is stamped with all the character of a bona' fide loan. The reason the Sardinian Govern- ment did not go into the money-market was that money could be obtain- ed at a lower rate from the English Government. The Sardinian Go- vernment distinctly refused to accept any money grant from Great Britain—they were the parties least anxious for a subsidy. But this is not the first time that aid has been extended to foreign coun- tries during the present war, though it may be the first time that aid has been extended in the shape of money. It has been extended in ships; and the most important services have been performed in lieu of nioney—services which would, if estimated in money, have amounted to considerable sums— both in respect to the Baltic and to the Mediterranean. Mr. Disraeli would not go the extreme length of stating that we are entirely to abjure the principle of making the resources of this country available for the purposes of war except through the medium of our own military establishments ; for while the system of subsidies, as carried on in the last war, was both in its nature very dangerous and in its consequences very hurtful, there are circumstances attending the position of this country, with respect to the im- mense amount of its pecuniary means and resources as compared with its mi- litary means, which make it obviously reasonable that, in a choice as to the mode of giving effect to the principle, you should not absolutely cut your- selves off from granting to foreign 'nations assistance towards the prosecu- tion of the common object through the medium of money. It was not in the last war alone, but in every war in which you have been engaged since the Revolution, that you have found it absolutely necessary to act upon this principle : and the whole question is, is the form in which it is done safe and judicious, and is the necessity which prompts it adequate to demand and sustain its adoption ? In the present ease, the form in which it is done is a safe and judicious form. As to asking for pecuniary aid for a foreign power at the end of the first year of war, if it is to be done at all, the sooner the better. There is no good policy, no humanity, no economy, in protracting the operations of war. To accumulate means for your undertaking, and-to strike a blow at a vital part, these are signs of a sound policy ; and it is an ample justification of the Mi- nisterial proposal that the Sardinian contingent is to assist in giving effect to such a policy.

Mr. ADDERLEY echoed Mr. Disraeli's view of the loan; and urged the necessity of developing the resources of the Colonies for war. Mr. KINNAIRD took Mr. Disraeli to task for talking of a "tributary and mercenary army." Such language of disparagement, indulged in during the discussion of the bill lately, before Parliament, had nullified the efforts of Government to raise troops in Switzerland, which would otherwise have been successful. This Mr Kinnaird could certify on the authority of his own correspondence with Swiss officers, whokonipurest Sympathy would have enlisted in our cause, but who said that nothing could in- duce-them to do so after the manner in which-they had been spoken of in the House of Commons.

Mr. Disitenu,-nettled at Mr. Kinnaird's reproof; expressed his astonish- ment in turn that it could be supposed that the motion should have been passed over in indecent silence. He declared that he was proud of having contributed, however slightly, to the defeat of the proposal of the Go- vernment for raising a foreign legion. Lord PriareitsTort returned to the charge; saying that he should hardly have expected to hear Mr. Dis- raeli take credit for having, by the indirect means of casting imputations on foreign troops, marred the effeot of a measure which had received -the sanction of Parliament. But that success has-not raised the character of the country abroad, and Mr. Disraeli is somewhat•lasty in hie self-con- gratulations. FALPOLE idly admitted that the course takeeby the Government is "safe and judicious," and justified by necessity ; but said there was a difference of opinion as to the causes of that necessity. Mr. COBDEN regretted that Sardinia, the only antagonist to the power of Austria in Italy, had been led into the war ; and asked whether the vote could not be postponed, pending negotiations ?

In reply to Mr. Mostar:sox M/LNES, Lord PALMERSTON explained that some expense had already been incurred, but that if peace be made earlier than is contemplated in the treaty, fresh arrangements will be made with regard to the loan.

lathe course of his first speech, Mr. DISRAELI charged against Lord Palmerston that his neglect of the English Militia in 1853, and subsequent neglect with especial regard to the Scotch and Irish Militia, not called out until months after the declaration of .war,—that this impolioy, this official negligence and want of confidence in the resources of England, had-rendered it necessary to recur to the system of subsidies. Lord PALNLEILSTON'S defence was, that the Militia Act passed by Lord Derby's Government only gave power to embody the English Atiiitia in case "of actual invasion or danger thereof." Sixteen regiments were embodied, not by the power of that bill, but in consequence of their voluntary offers. So that it was those who sat around Mr. Disraeli who had shown a want of foresight. Then as regards the Scotch and Irish Militia, would those raw untrained troops, had they been embodied, have proved substitutes for the well-trained Sardinian army ? Mr. Disnazu excused Lord Derby for the omission, by saying that had he proposed a clause giving power to embody the Militia at that time, the measure could not have been carried.

The resolution was agreed to.

In the House of Lords, the Earl of CLARENDON moved an address, which was an echo of the terms of the Queen's message ; and made a statement to the House, which elicited no debate. The address was agreed to.


Mr. PRINN moved the following resolution-

" That an humble address be presented to her Majesty, praying that she will be graciously pleased to command that, in the event of negotiations being commenced with a view to peace, her Majesty's envoys should use their best exertions for the reconstitution of the kingdom of Poland within its ancient limits, as a measure just and necessary in itself, in accordance with the ancient policy of this country, and as absolutely essential to the due maintenance of the balance of power in Europe."

At the outset of his speech, which was mainly historical, Mr. Phinn disposed of objections which had been raised to any discussion of this question. He observed that it created great interest at home and abroad ; that Lord Palmerston had characterized Warsaw as "a standing menace to Germany " ; that no inconvenience could arise from the discussion ; and that, instead of being Quixotic, it is a question of great practical con- sequence taken in connexion with passing events. The partition of Po- land was a contequence of the policy of Peter the Great, who desired to aggrandize his country at the expense of Poland, in order that he might extend his frontier to Germany and destroy ita unity of action. But it was asked, what would be the effect of this motion upon our alliances ? Mr. Phinn's answer was, that the policy of Austria with regard to Po- land is identical with that of England. To make this out, he quoted ex- tracts from the correspondence of the Empress Maria Theresa, Count Kaunitz, and Prince Metternich, showing that Austria was soon aware of the false step she had been compelled to make in taking part in the par- tition; and that she desired, in accordance with England and France, to restore Poland, in 1814. The policy of England he illustrated by a copious reference to the confidential correspondence betraven Lord Castlereagh and the Emperor Alexander, so honourable tri the British statesman; and the policy of France, by quoting the declaration of Louis Philippe in 1831, and the reply of the Chamber, that they were rejoiced to receive assurances that "the nationality of? Poland should not perish." Thus, three great powers of Europe have always been of opinion that the maintenance of Poland is necessary to the security of the public law of Europe. There is a fourth power, Prussia, whose conduct has been characterized by a slavish submission to the will of Russia, but who may yet find that it would be her interest to support the representations which a British envoy might make at Vienna. It is true the reconstitution of Poland does not come within "the- four points" ; but that is no reason why some alternative proposition should not be propounded to Russia ; and it will be as well to have a kind of menace in the background against Russia, and let her know what might happen if she do not uphold the faith of treaties and the equilibrium of Europe. In conclusion, he espe- cially appealed to Lord Palmerston,--the descendant of that able man who, in joining the triple alliance' curbed the rising ambition of Louis the Fourteenth ; the pupil of Lord Chatham' "a greater kingmaker than Warwick himself" ; it is to him the country looks for a solid peace. Mr. Phinn did not put it as a question of sympathy, but as a question in- volving the interests of England and of the whole of Europe ; and he was perfectly ready to leave it in Lord Palmerston's hands. Mr. SCROLEFIELD seconded the motion.

Mr. MONCKTON MILERS, perfectly agreeing that the position of Poland is a menace to Europe, could not but see that the subject is surrounded with difficulties. It is only by a firm maintenance of the Anglo-French alliance that this subject can be pressed upon the Russian Government. Lord ROBERT Cztm took a totally different view. As we cannot take Sebastopol, it would be absurd to attempt to restore Poland. If the par- tition of Poland is a scandalous violation of public law, the same charge may be brought against every country—especially England, who has in- creased her territory by the same process of aggression.

Lord PALMERSTON dealt with the arguments of Lord Robert Cecil be- fore he commented on Mr. Phinn's motion. "I cannot coneur in the observations of the noble Lord who has just sat down, when he compares the conquests of the British arms in different parts of the world with the transactions which have obtained the reprobation of all Europe connected with the partition of the independent kingdom of Poland. The conquests we have made have been made from great and powerful ene- mies, and by wars undertaken for our own defence and in vindication of the liberties and independence of nations. Some of those conquests we kept, some we gave up ; but,- to talk of the oppressed nationalities of conquered colonies, obtained either from France or Holland, or any other power with which we may have been engaged in war, is a total misapplication of the term. Again, in regard to India, so friffrom our 'conquests there having been attended with the oppression of nationalities, I ask any man who knowa anything of the interior of India, or who has compared the modes of our • government with those of the' native princes whbee territories we took pea-

session of, whether, so far as the inhabitants of those countries are concerned, the effect has not been to relieve them from the tyranny and sway of those native chiefs under whose oppression they groaned ?" With regard to the motion, he perfectly agreed that there is no reason, policy, or good sense, in trying to shut out the House from the fullest dis- cussion of diplomatic and international questions; and that, when con- ducted with moderation, they are a good instead of an evil. But he would not go at length into the topics touched on by Mr. Phinn.

"I hope no man will suppose that her Majesty's Government differ in opinion with him as to that violation of public right, that violation of moral law, which was committed when those different partitions of Poland took place in past times. It is perfectly demonstrable, that neither with regard to Austria nor Prussia was any adequate compensation in interests acquired to counterbalance the blow which was inflicted on moral principles by that spoliation to which they allowed themselves to be parties. But with regard to the practical question, every one must see that it is desirable that the House of Commons should not dictate to the Executive Government respecting pending negotiations, because the House cannot be in posses- sion of the nicely-balanced considerations on which depend the expediency of this or that demand. The motion is one which the House should be very slow to sanction, even if it were advisable on principle. "Observe what are the words used by my honourable and learned friend. He proposes the reconstitution of Poland within its ancient limits as a measure just and ne- cessary in itself,' and as 'absolutely essential to the due maintenance of the balance of power in Europe.' If the House were to adopt that opinion, and carry that opinion by address to the foot of the Throne' then the resolution ought not to stop where it does. My honourable and learned friend ought to propose to the House to enable her Majesty to carry on war till she had accomplished these objects, which the House declares to be absolutely necessary and essential to the welfare and interests of Europe It is well known that the Government of this country, in conjunction with the Government of France and in concert with the Government of Austria, has agreed to enter into negotiations with the Government of Russia on these arrangements that are generally known under the denomination of 'the four points.' Poland does not enter amen.. these four points; and I think the House would not feel it expedient,' considering the great diffi- culties which are likely to be found to exist in arriving at a satisfactory conclusion of the war upon the conditions comprised in those four points, that we should add to those difficulties by deeming it absolutely necessary to take away, not merely the kingdom of Poland and the duchy of Warsaw from that connexion with Russia which was established by the treaty of Vienna, but to reconstitute Poland in its ancient limits, and to wrest from Russia that which she has held for a great length of years, and which has been so long incorporated with the body of the Russian empire. That is an enterprise which I doubt much whether the House will be disposed to consider as a necessary and absolutely essential task." The war was undertaken to protect Turkey against the claims and aggres- sions of Russia. "The question of Poland no doubt embraces interests which affect Germany, and, through Germany Europe' and through Europe this country ; but it is a question not of yesterday or the day before, or of this year or last year, but, as any honourable and learned friend in his his- torical narrative has shown, it dates back from far earlier times. It is not a danger that has suddenly and recently grown upon the world, and which enters into those motives and fears that would justify or require at present an appeal to arms. I should be unwilling in anything I might say upon this general question—whatever may be the feelings which any Englishman must necessarily entertain on the subject of Poland—I should be unwilling to enter into a discussion that might have the least effect on the negotiations which are now pending." On these grounds, and considering that the motion had been chiefly made to enable Mr. Phinn to record his sentiments on the subjent, he called upon the House not to adopt the motion. The address, if agreed to, would be at variance with the position of the House, and one which it would not be fitting to carry to the foot of the Throne. He trusted Mr. Phinn would not put the House to the necessity of a division, "the effect of which might be misconstrued ; for if, on the one hand, the House should negative the motion on the grounds I have stated, that negative might, on the other hand, be misconstrued as implying dif- ferences of opinion from him on the abstract question of justice ; which dif- ferences I am persuaded would not be found in the minds of the Members of this House."

After this appeal, Mr. PRIME said he had no alternative but to with- draw his motion.


The second reading of the Newspaper-Stamp Bill, on Monday, occa- sioned a debate and division partaking somewhat of the nature of a party contest. As an amendment, Mr. DEEDES moved the postponement of the second reading until the 30th April. The measure, he said, besides being in itself objectionable in principle and details, involves a loss of 200,0001. to the revenue, and should not be proceeded with until the financial statement of the Chancellor of the Exchequer have shown how that de- ficiency is to be made good. In making this motion he had no intentions hostile to the Government ; in fact, it was because he did not desire to turn out the Government that he abstained from moving the rejection of the bill altogether.

Sir EDWARD LYTTON, referring to his own share in the agitation against the "taxes on knowledge" twenty years ago, insisted at great length on the benefits which would flow from the removal of a tax origi- nally devised for the suppression of political opinion. He made an espe- cial appeal to the Conservative party, which is so inadequately repre- sented in the press under the present system : with the facilities of an unstamped press, able Conservative writers would come forth to address the people, affixing their names to their writings, and thus do more to popularize the great principles of Conservatism than half the party speeches made in Parliament. Conservatives have nothing to fear from cheap knowledge. It is not the working classes, but the clubs and draw- ingrooms, that support scandalous publications. The working classes de- light in the same kind of refined literature that instructs and charms our- selves. In the course of his speech Sir Edward strongly urged the aban- donment of the anonymous. We feel uneasy in social intercourse with the men who clasp us by the hand today, and may, in the discharge of professional engagements, sting us to the quick tomorrow. "Mr. Fox once told this House an anecdote of a witness on a trial, I think, for murder, who gave his testimony against another man on the ground that a ghost had appeared to him and said so and so. Well,' said the judge, who was a person of considerable humour, I have no objection to take the evi- dence of the ghost; let him be brought into court.' (Laughter.) These anonymous newspaper-writers are as ghosts. We do not object to take their evidence, but there are times when I should like them to be brought into court."

The ATroluisy-GENERAL showed how the present difficulties had been brought about by the relaxation of the law in favour of class newspapers; and maintained that the law must either be repealed, or uniformly en- forced. Sir Paestum Bean.° treated it as a fiscal question, and dwelt on the inconvenience of departing from precedent in dealing with the reve- nue before the financial statement is made. Mr. PACER opposed, and Mr. DUFFY and Mr. Mum, as connected with the press, supported the bill.

Mr. DEIHL/10ND made an assault upon the press; which, he said, in- stead of being one of the greatest glories, is one of the greatest curses of the age. It is a mercantile speculation in gossip : and the Messrs. Walter, no doubt, have as much right to set up a manufactory of gossip as the honourable gentleman near him had to set up a manufactory of cotton. He talked much about the Times, its licentiousness and un- fairness; mentioning several of its managers and supposed contributors by name. Sir GEORGE LEWIS restored the debate to the question before the House; showing that the bill had been introduced to give effect to a resolution passed last year, after the war taxes had been voted ; a proof that the House thought lightly of the financial difficulties then. If the House should recede from that decision, they must provide means for prosecuting the journals. The Govemmept is fully prepared to make up the loss to the revenue by a moderate book postage, which can be carried out by a Treasury warrant. In contravention of the main argument of Sir George Lewis, that the bill was introduced in obedience to the will of the House, Mr. DISRAELI cited precedents, to show that resolutions for the repeal of taxes, adopted by the House in spite of the Government, had not been carried out. Why then should this resolution ? Lord PALMERSTON argued that Mr. Disraeli's precedents did not apply. The rule is that the Government is not bound to carry out resolutions passed in spite of its exertions: but the resolution of last year passed without dissent; and it is therefore binding on the Government With respect to the insidious amendment, he pointed out that every Member should understand that in voting he would vote "ay" or " no " for or against the measure, not for or against delay.

On a division, the numbers were—For the second reading, 215; against it, 161; Ministerial majority, 54.


Sir WILLIAM Cray moved for leave to bring in a bill for the abolition of Church-rates. The bill provides for the total abolition of these rates, and in that it is similar to the bill brought in last year. It also provides for their continuance in all cases where charges have been contracted upon them as a security under acts of Parliament. But it contains some provisions not included in the previous measure. It provides that per- sons may voluntarily subscribe for the support of the fabric and the minis- trations of the church; gives control over the application of the fund to the contributors ; and places churchwardens in a proper position with regard to their new functions. Moreover, it enables parishes to set apart a fixed proportion of the area of the church for pews, to fix a rent on those pews, and apply the produce. The motion was opposed by Mr. WIGRAM, Mr. DAVIES, Mr. BENTINCIC, Mr. DRUMMOND, Mr. Ness, Mr. FLOYER, Mr. MOWBRAY and Colonel SIB PTHOR ; it was supported by Lord STANLEY, Mr. E. Vim, and Mr. MUNTZ.

Lord PALMERSTON said, it is difficult either to maintain or to alter the law. Recent decisions have taken away the power of enforcing the law. If it were compulsory on every parish to levy a rate, that would be the best mode of maintaining the fabric. But when the law says that the fabric of the church must be maintained by rates which are to be raised in pa- rishes by a vote of a majority of the parishioners, then it becomes no longer the law that the church must be maintained by rates, because it depends entirely upon the will of the parishioners whether church-rates be levied or not. Therefore, all must feel that some alteration is desirable ; but on the nature of that alteration he would not express a decided opin- ion. Sir William Clay's modified plan is very different from the simple proposition of last year; and, reserving to the Government full freedom of dealing with the measure, he said he should not oppose its introduc- tion.

On a division, the motion for leave was carried by 155 to 76. The an- nouncement was received with cheering.

THE Muxrie.

On the motion for the third reading of the Militia (Ireland) Bill, the Earl of ELLENBOROUGH revived two points which he has urged on pre- vious occasions. First, that as we must look to the recruitment of the Army mainly to the Militia, as we did in the last war, some means should be taken to bring the Militia up to the nominal force ; secondly, that the commander of the Land Transport Corps in the Crimea should have the power of providing for the feeding of his animals. Lord Peruvian and Earl GREY did not agree with Lord Ellenborough that the Militia should be the nursery of the Line. In the last war, the reason why so large a number of recruits for the Army passed through the Militia was, that the men got higher bounty by first entering the Militia than by directly en- tering the Army. As to the second point, if Lord Ellenborough's sug- gestion were adopted, there would be two Commissariats bidding in one market, and neither would properly perform its duties.


Major REED revived the discussion on promotion in the Army, by moving for a Select Committee to inquire into the present mode of con- ferring appointments, and to recommend a more efficient system. The debate arising on this motion was in the main a repetition of that on Lord Goderich's. Captain SCORELL, Mr. ALcoex, Mr. WILLIAMS, Mr. LAING, and Mr. Lows supported the motion; while Colonel Hancousr, Colonel LINDSAY Colonel Nonni, Colonel Dusss, Lord Lovents, Lord Sszmonn, and Lord PALMERSTON, defended the existing system. The only novelty in the discussion was contributed by Mr. LOWE ; who en- tered in detail into the merits of the three existing modes of promotion, by seniority, by purchase, and by favour. Seniority, though just between man and man, is fatal to the service. Purchase, while it enables inefficient -persons to quit the army, and corrects the evils of seniority promotion, teaches men to look upon the army not as a profession for life ; and thus we have officers with a good general education, but deficient in military knowledge. The system of promotion by favour everybody condemns. The remedy for this state of things would be, to abohsh the system of purchase . as officers desire to leave the army, let the country purchase their commissions. Let promotion henceforth go by seniority up to the rank of Captain; let all appointments beyond that be

staff appointments, the patronage vested in the Commander-in-chief; and let no appointment be made but for distinguished gallantry, or a successful examination.

Lord PALMERSTON did not meet the arguments of the mover and his supporters, but lauded the excellence of our regimental system, as evi- dence that promotion by purchase has not injured the efficiency of the army. He ridiculed as Utopian the idea of a perfect system of promo- tion by merit. Towards the close of his speech he took another ground : he questioned the propriety of making inquiries into the interior economy of the Army by Committees of the House of Commons; for the command of the Army is not vested in that House, but in the Crown, and any inquiry that may become necessary should be made by Commission.

On a division, the motion was negatived by 104 to 70.


The greater part of Thursday evening in the House of Commons was taken up by a debate on Lord Lucan's case. Taking an independent stand, Mr. HENRY Bzes.nr.zriaoved an address to the Queen, praying that she would order a court-martial upon Lord Lucan. Lord ELCHO entered into the merits of the case ; cited precedents, and made a thoroughgoing defence of his noble relative. Mr. CRAB-LES VILLIERS ex- pounded the military law which prevented the holding of a court-martial in this case. Mr. DISRAELI said that the motion called upon the House to interfere with the prerogative' which he could not sanction. Still, he felt a great sympathy with Lord Lucan, and regarded him as a "victim" offered up by the late Minister of War to "public indigna- tion." Lord PALMERSTON distinctly stated that Lord Lucan was not re- called for anything faulty in his conduct, but because differences had arisen between him and Lord Raglan which would have impaired the public service. The Duke of Newcastle was quite incapable of offering up Lord Lucan as a victim. The whole Cabinet was responsible for the recall.

The motion was withdrawn.


This bill, which had passed the House of Lords, stood for the second reading in the House of Commons on Wednesday. It provides that a Registration Court for dishonoured bills of exchange shall be established; and that, on notice of dishonour being served upon persons who were parties to them, immediate execution may, with leave of the judge, be issued against their effects. It also gave holders of dishonoured bills of exchange priority over other creditors. There is another bill before the House on the same subject, brought in by Mr. Keating, called the Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes Bill.

An opposition was raised to the former bill by Mr. Varies, because it would interfere with the jurisdiction of the Irish Courts; and he moved to postpone the second reading for six months. In this course he was supported by Mr. MUNTZ, Mr. GURNEY, and Mr. SPOONER ; who alleged that the bill would ruin multitudes, especially small traders, and that it is unjust to give the holders of bills of exchange priority. On the other hand, Sir Ensaren PERRY' Mr. NAPIER, Mr. Mrrortaix, Mr. BAINES,

• and Mr. GLYN, supported the principle of the bill. Sir FREDERICK THESIGER and the Arrow:Ey-GENERAL agreed in thinking that some measure is necessary for the purpose of preventing frauds, and clearing " the commercial atmosphere, and expressed their approval of a suggestion made in debate that both bills should be referred to a Select Committee. Ultimately the House divided on the second reading of the Bills of Exchange Bill, and it was carried by 114 to 58. Mr. Keating's Bill was then read a second time, and both bills were ordered to be referred to a Select Committee.


Mr. FREWEN moved the second reading of the Union of Benefices Bill. This bill proposed that benefices three miles apart should not be united where the annual income of one is 2001. a year; that masters of colleges and endowed schools shall reside on their livings ; and that where churches have been allowed to go to ruin, the incumbent still receiving his stipend, the Bishop may sequester the revenue till a sum is raised sufficient to re- build the church. The measure met with opposition from all sides, and the second reading was negatived by 112 to 30.


Mr. Wararersore moved the second reading of the Vacating of Seats in Parliament Bill. Mr. Wmusars, Mr. BENTINCK, Mr. HADFIELD, Mr. HENLEY, and Sir FREDERICK THESIGER, opposed further progress of the measure ; alleging that it would interfere with the rights of the consti- tuencies. Sir GEORGE GREY, Mr. STUART WORTLEY, and Mr. BECKETT DENISON, denied that it would interfere with the rights of constituencies. If the Crown were not so embarrassed in the choice of its servants, the right man would be oftener found in the right place. On a diviiion, the bill was thrown out by 73 to 69.


Mr. Mitre= GIBSON has obtained leave to bring in a bill to establish free schools in England and Wales ; in order that it may be referred to the same Select Committee as the bills of Sir John Pakington and Lord John Russell.


The inquiry before Mr. Roebuck's Committee has this week still been confined mainly to the state of the hospitals at Scutari. On Monday, Dr. Andrew Smith continued his evidence, and the examination of Dr. Menzies commenced.

Dr. Smith said that no general hospitals were formed in the East until the time the army left Varna. When Mr. Ward the purveyor, proved in- efficient, he recommended Mr. Wreford, the youngest purveyor on theesta- blishment. [Mr. Wreford is upwards of sixty.] Lord Raglan, enclosing a letter from Lord de Ros in favour of Mr. Ward, said he thought it was hard that a man should be dismissed who knew his duty. He had accounts from the hospital authorities stating that ample supplies of medical stores had arrived in October, November, and December. About 5000 beds were sup- plied in the spring ; and altogether 14,000 beds had been sent out for hospi- ' tal purposes. Large quantities of lime-juice had been sent out to Balaklava in October; if there was delay in its arrival, that was not his fault. If the soldiers at Scutari had no sheets, that was the fault of the purveyor. That officer had authority for cleaning the hospitals, and for hiring people to do

the washing. In his reports it was stated that no application to the clean linen store had ever been refused. In November there were 4832, in De- cember 14,644, in January 23,402 pieces washed. With regard to the cook- ing, it was the purveyor's duty to see that the kitchens were clean, the food properly cooked, and the meals punctually served. It is unfortunate that persons so benevolent as Miss Nightingale should exercise a divided author- ity with medical men. Many of the imputations may have arisen from that; as non-medical persons may think a man wants brandy, for instance, in a case of exhaustion, when the professional man knows it would be fatal. Interrogated by Sir John Pakington as to the lack of quinine at Balaklava so late as the 8th March, Dr. Smith said he had sent out 900 pounds • such a supply as ought to have obviated all complaints of the kind. Ile could not account for the fact that there was no quinine ; there was an ample sup- ply of another medicine quite as useful for the purpose. Dr. Smith contradicted a statement that had been made, that the late Dr. Spence, one of the Commissioners, was his son-in-law, and desired that his contradiction should appear on the records of the Committee.

[The Reverend Mr. Osborne here explained, that he had firmly believed, as many others had, that Dr. Spence was the son-in-law of Dr. Smith ; and, believing that Dr. Spence was connected with the army, he had written to the Duke of Newcastle to say that no confidence would be felt in any inquiry conducted by any department connected with the army. Had he not be- lieved that Dr. Spence was connected with the army he should not have written that letter.] Dr. Menzies, Deputy-Inspector-General of Hospitals, was examined on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday ; and his evidence, as it brings us closer to the real causes of the defective management of the hospitals, is full of interest. The whole tenour of his evidence showed the utter want of a defined system of management, the absence of harmonious action be- tween the authorities, and a great want of foresight on all sides.

It was made out that the General Hospital was unhealthy ; that the Bar- rack Hospital was a makeshift ; that there was a great want of bedding ; a great want of method; a great want of cleanliness in the hospitals - a great want of proper inspection on the part of Dr. Menzies ; a great we'll of effi- cient orderlies ; a great want of shirts and proper hospital clothing ; extremely inadequate arrangements for cooking ; and very bad arrangements for land- ing the sick who arrived from Balaklave. Dr. Menzies had direct charge of the General Hospital and indirect charge of the Barrack Hospital. He was responsible for the inspection of both ; but it appeared from his evidence that he contented himself with giving orders, and relying almost entirely upon others for their execution. His excuse for deficient inspection was that be was always engaged in writing. Asked what writing, he said—" I had all the monthly and quarterly returns to make out, to carry on all the routine work of the station, and to conduct the correspondence with Dr. Smith and Dr. Hall. It was very heavy work, and latterly affected my health. When I was obliged to give up, I had the work of three deputy- inspectors on my hands. The two hospitals at Scutari ought to have had two inspectors besides myself. I never made any reporter complaint on the sub- ject."

[Some extracts from the report of the Times will show the kind of evidence tendered by Dr. Menzies, and the extreme disaceord of the officers.]

On the 24th October, Lord Stratford told Dr. Menzies that he had the power of purchasing any supplies for the hospitals ; Dr. Menzies answered on the 26th, that the hospitals were satisfactorily supplied. Lord Seymour asked—" You say you had so much to do you could not constantly inspect the hospitals, and that you were obliged to trust to your medical subordi- nates: did they not report the want of things ?"—"No." "Not that there was a want of linen and shirts ? "—" No : I knew there was a want of shirts, and on various occasions I ordered the purveyor to provide them."

The Chairman—" When you went through the wards, were not your eyes and nose offended by the filthy state of the men ? "—" They were in a filthy state ; and I did tell the purveyor to get shirts ; but I believe he found diffi- culties in purchasing them and other articles." "Do you mean that with money in his hand he found a difficulty in buying shirts in Constantinople ?" —"He told me as much." "It appears that the hospitals were always in want of many essential things ; yet, on the 26th of October, you wrote to Lord Stratford stating you did not want anything ?"—" Because the pur- veyor told me so." "Was it your duty, or that of the purveyor, to see that the men had whatever they wanted ?' —" It was my duty." "The pur- veyor had no right to form any opinion as to what was wanted ? "—"No." "What, as a medical man, do you consider wants ? "—" All things that are necessary to comfort." "Had the sick all those things ?"— ' No." "Then, why did you write to Lord Stratford that, generally, they were ea- supplied ? "—" I believed we had those articles in store at that time. I was g.iven to understand so." "Some of them you expected from Varna and England ? "—"Yes." "Was it at all conducive to the comfort of the men to know that their supplies were floating on the sea somewhere between Varna, Scutari, and England ? "—" Certainly hot." "Then, not actually having them, Rhy did you tell Lord Stratford you did not want them ?"— " I was not aware that essential articles of medical comfort were deficient : there might be a deficiency of shirts ; but I did not know there was a want of medical stores immediately required. That was the reason I wrote the letter of the 26th of October."

"Did any patient ever die for want of sustenance ? "—"I am not aware of it." The Chairman—" Might any patient have died without your being aware of it ? "—"All lean say is, every precaution was taken." "That is not an answer to the question."—" I cannot think any patient died trout neglect of the medical men." "Could any man have died from the waut of common necessaries without your knowing it ? "—" It is possible, unless I was on the spot." "Is not every man's death, and the cause of death, reported to you ? "—" Yes ; in hospital." "Then how can you say a man might die from want of the common necessaries of life without your knee- ing it? "—" A man might be brought from on board ship and arrive in a dying state."

The purveyor was responsible for the irregular supplies of food. "Hod you not a power over the purveyor ? "—" I had ; but I am sorry to say he did not submit to it." ".Had you not the power of forcing him to obey your orders ? "—" That was the point he disputed with me : the purveyor seemed to have an idea he was only answerable to the Secretary-at-War. When I complained of anything he generally alleged that as his excuse. I once wrote to him, calling his attention to the inconvenience arming from there not being a purveyor's assistant quartered in the General Hospital, to attend to my orders regularly on the spot : I requested him to appoint a purveyor to reside at the hospital : he received my order, lint be did not set on it." "But were you not yourself responsible to Dr. Hall?"—" I really did not know what my duties were." The Chairman—" So it seems.' —" There were many ethers who did not know what their duties were, either."

[On a subsequent examination, Dr. Menzies explained that by the phrase "I did not know what my duties were," he meant his " anomalous position." When Dr. Cumming arrived, although he showed no order' Dr. Men- zies considered that Dr. Cumming, his superior officer, was ipso facto in charim of the hospitals. Dr. Menzies held that Dr. Cumming was responsible, that he was acting under his orders ; but be admitted that strictly speaking he ought not to have obeyed Dr. Cumming. The consequence was, that one day Dr. Cumming gave orders without consulting Dr. Menzies, and the next day Dr. Menzies gave orders ; "so that at last the medical officers came to ask who was the principal medical officer.") Dr. Menzies said it was the duty of the purveyor to see that washing was supplied ; and that there was a supply of bed-pans ; but he admitted that he

saw the want of both, but did not aseertrin whether they were supplied. 'First he said he had made a requisition for bed-pans to Lord Stratford ; but when pressed it turned out that he had not himself made out any requisition of the kind, but had told the purveyor to do so. .The purveyor is responsible for the supply of stores, the medical officer for medical comforts. New in- structions to the purveyor arrived at. Scutari, ordering the purveyor to obey such orders as the Inspector of Hospitals or the principal medical officer might give. They were entitled, "Rules for the East "; but Mr. Wreford did not consider them applicable to him, and refused to obey the orders. Dr. Cumming did not report that Mr. Wreford continued to act as before. No operating theatre was provided, and the operations were performed Within view of some of the wounded. Certainly in a military hospital there should be operating tables soda theatre ; but some allowance in this case should be made for the confusion that existed and the impossibility of at- tending to everything. He was closely examined as to the accuracy of the returns of deaths on board the sick transports. It appeared that it was the custom to report only the deaths that occurred between the time of departure from Balsklava to the date of the arrival of the ship at Scutari. The medical officer made his report as soon as he arrived ; and thus the deaths that took place after.the arrival of the ship but before the debarkation of the sick are not included in the return of deaths during the passage. They are reported in some other return.

Dr. Dumbreek, Deputy-Inspector-General of Hospitals, was examined on Wednesday.

He had served at Scutari a short time ; subsequently at Varna, and after- wards in the Crimea. When be arrived at Seutrutin April, there was a sup- ply of medicine for six months, but no purveyor's stores. That did not occasion much inconvenience, because the Turkish hospital was well fur- nished. At Varna he established a general hospital : its site was not un- healthy; but many things about were objectionable—small windows, rotten floors, and the whole inconceivably filthy. Means were taken to remedy these evils ; but labour was scarce, and the requisitions he made were not always attended to. Before the war broke out, acting on instructions, he made a report on the assumption that th,re would be a campaign in Bul- garia. He suggested, that from October to May the troops should be clothed in woollens; that they should wear horde as a protection against the night sir, dreaded by all the natives; that a corps of water-carriers should be or- ganized ; that great attention should be given to cleanliness in Turkish towns ; and that sentries at night should be placed for one hour instead of two. These suggestions were not acted on. When he left the Crimea on the 13th November, all the wanes of the troops had been supplied ; but at that date there were fears for the future. Fuel was becoming scarce. The green coffee issued to the troeps was decidedly objectionable and unhealthy. When it was reported to him in October that scurvy had broken out, he recommended General Estcourt to get vegetables from the Bosphorus. Before he left, vegetables had arrived ; but he did Dot know whether they were distributed. He went twice on board the Harbinger to see Captain Christie, and found the vessel full of vegetables; they were 13 ing about in all directions, and were not rotten then : he saw no attempt to distribute them. With respect to medicines, a deficiency began to be feared 'before he left, in opium especially. He wrote to Scutari for 50 pounds, und got 30 pounds instead. There was a superabundance of lint and bandages ; it fit a calumny on the medical department to say that splints, lint, or surgical ap- pliances, were wanting after the battles of Alma and Inkerman. Hp to the 25th October, the-hospitals at Balaklava were in a very creditable condition. When the ofdcers.received notice there was a probability the town wonld be abandoned, and the purveyor was told by the Quartermaster-General to get everything placed on board ship. Everything.in the hospitals was sent off, and those establishments were never afterwards properly organized. With respect to Dr. Menzies Dr. Dumbreck said, that about the middle of June he wrote to General E:itcourt, recommending. Dr-Menzies to be con- tinued in charge of the hospitals. About the same ume,, Dr. Hall arrived ; and, being the superior officer, the whole matter fell of course into his hands. His reasons for reoommending Dr. Menzies were, that he was the senior offi- cer at Scutari • and that he had been sonic years at Chatham, and had charge of an hospital there. "I thought him the beat qualified officer to conduct a similar establishment." Asked whether he thought the clashing of respon- sibilities, the conflict of authorities, the inability to Sod anybody at the head of anything, is a state of things creditable to us ? he replied, "I scarcely know how I ought to answer that question. Certainly, it was not creditable to our system. We had great difficulties to meet. We had no purveyor's department, no hospital corps, no nurses, no trained orderlies. Dr. Menzies was completely overworked. Ile was put in a position that no one man could ever have coped with." "Do you think there is a fear of incurring responsibility on the part of the medical men in our general hospitals ?"— " Ncidedly : they are liable to be referred to and questioned if they have ordered anything for a patient that appears extravagant." "Do you thick having to keep so many accounts, and fill up so many forms, interferes with the medical duties of the surgeons ? "—" Most distinctly ; that is decidedly the evil of our whole medical system; we have far too much writing to do."

Mr. W. H. Flower, Assistant-Surgeon of the Sixty-third Regiment, was examined on Tuesday. The regiment, he said, left Ireland 1020 strong ; and landed in the Cri- mea about 980 strong, with a medical staff of one surgeon and three assist- ant-surgeons, an hospital sergeant, and three or four hospital orderlies ; which ho considered was a sufficient medical force. In the march from Old Fort they had a great many sick ; and having no means of transport, they left many on the road. The medicines were exhausted, opium especially, in three or four days. They were not engaged in the Alma. They generally sent off from 20 to 60 siok per day. After arriving on the South side of Sebastopol the sickness continued ; and he attributed it to the badness of the tents, the want of proper medicines, the wet weather, the overwork of the men, and their diet. For a long time the men were without their knap- sacks. "At last the knapsacks were brought up to the camp and piled in a heap in the centre of the camp ; where they remained for a fortnight or three weeks before witness left. This was done by order of the Colonel of the regi- ment, I believe. Remonstrances were made by many officers ; and I-heard that the answer was, that until the men had finished digging some large holes, in which to-place the tents, to prevent their being blown down, they were not to have their knapsacks. 'the tents, I believe, were never placed in those holes, because they were soon filled- up with water." He was -told that it was thought the withholding of the knapsacks would be an induce- ment to the men to .finish the holes sooner. • When he left, in December, he believed the strength of the regiment consisted of about 300-men fit for duty, and there were perhaps 200 or 300 sick in camp. lie bad since seen statements in the papers that when the regiment left the camp it consisted of only 30 men and officers. The regiment was composed mainly of recruits; they were new to foreign service, having been at home since 1846. On Thursday, Captain Bamford, of the Sixty-third, contradicted in some degree the statement of Mr. Flower.

Colonel Dalzell, he said, was very anxious about the knapsacks : he had sent twice to Balaklava to get them up ; had subsequently written to Captain Bamford respectieg the purchase of transport for the regiment, and expressed his willingness to spend 604. for wit purpose. The "boles" referred to could scarcely be called holes. He had never heard of the order that the knapsacks should not be delivered until the holes were dug ; but it might have happened without his knowledge. He left the Crimea three weeks be- fore Mr. Flower. -The knapsacks had then" begun to be piled up."

The other witnesses on Thursday were Dr. Forest, examined with re- spect to the hospitals ; and four captains of transports—Captain. Muir of the Andes, Captain Stewart of the Golden Fleece, Captain Freeman of the Pyrenees, and Captatin Dark of the supply-ship Courier.


"1. That it is the duty of the Government to provide effectually for the execu- tion of the criminal law, by the discovery, the securing, and the prosecution of offenders.

" 2. That the local police establishments ought to be under the direct superin- tendence and control of the Government ; and that the same rules should, as nearly as local circumstance's will permit, be everywhere applied.

"3. That 'the. appointment of a regular constabulary force thould be obligatory upon the local authorities.

"4. That in addition to such regular force a geserve force ought to be maintained of persons with moderate pay, to be called out for a short time yearly in order to be :inspected and trained, ond to be bound to serve when required by the MMagistrate. That a suffie,iant number of Stipendiary Magistrates should be appointed in the .other towns of considerable size, with the powe-r and duties of those appointed for London and Middlesex, so far as those powers and duties relate to the examination and .conunitment of persons charged with offe.nces, and to the criminal jurisdiction vested in them.

"6. That the prosecution of offenders should be intrusted to an officer appointed by the Government, with such number of subordinate officers as may be required for conducting prosecutions in the counties and larger, towns ; but that until such a nteasure can be adopted, it is expedient to appoint-barristers, who shall,advise upon and conduct- the prosecutbanii in the Central Criminal Court. and the Courts of Quar- ter-Session of Middlesex and Surrey. "7. That the public prosecutorshould in all the graver cases, as the pleas of the Crown and forgery, proceed by bill before the Grand Jury; but in other esees.should, at his discretion. be allowed to proceed upon commitment by a Stipeudiary Magis- trate, without any bill found.

" 8. That Assizes should be holden four times a year in each county, and Quarter- Sessions so frequently, and at such times relating to the Aasizes, as that It COWL of criminal jurisdiction shall sit once a fortnight in each county. "9. That to equalize the bpsiness, enmities may be divided, and parts of different counties united, for-the purposes of trial,-and that personitmay be tried, at the op- tion of the public proseeutor, either in the -district where the offence is alleged -to have been committed or Ulan adjoining district. "10. That the same criminal jurisdiction should be given to Judges of the County Courts as is at present possessed by the Quarter-Sessions of the -Peace; that this jurisdiction should extend over the district subject to their civil jurisdiction • and that the Justices of every county may be relieved from the obligation to beta Sea- :Shine oftener then four times a year, whensoever it shall appear that beside those four Sessions and the Assizes there is sufficient number of County Court criminal sittings-to give two Criminal Courts monthly in the district. "ii. That a reasonable sum for trouble and expenses should be allowed to all persons aummoned to attend as petty jurors .on any eriminal

" 12. That the costs of every person tried and acquitted, or discharged for want of prosecution, should be paid out of the county-rates, on certificate of the Court before whom he was tried or brought for trial, or of the Magistrate by whom he was discharged. " 13. That in all prisons arrangements should.-as Jar as possible, be made not ouly for separating the, untried from the convicted, but for separating different pri- soners of both classes.

" 14. That imprieonment.should, as jar as pessible, be accompanied with the ;rooftnp. of giving. work to those who,are willingte work, and whether untried or sen- tenced to imprisonment without hard labour ; that all the earnings of the untried should belong to them, and to- the convicts a portion upon their discharge. " 15. That a,discretion.abould be vested in the Governors, Chaplains, and other Superintepdents of gaols, of improving the diet of convicts , according to their de- reeattour and tedustry. " 16. That, subject to the control of the Superintendents, with the advice and consent of-the-Chaplain, prisoners may be employed as assistant teachers in the ' 17. Thatthe dietarf :of prisons ought never to allow more to convicts in propor- tion to the term of their imprisonment ; and that in respect of diet regard should be had, as far as possible, to the industry and other demeanour of the convicts under their sentences.

"18. :That Justices of-the Peace, in all cases in which they now have power to take bail, and Coroners in cases of manslaughter,. should have the power of allow- ing any person-accused to go at large upon entering into his .own recognizance to appear and take his trial; and that in easee of roamdauginer Coroners should also hove the power to liberate upon bail."