5 AUGUST 1848, Page 9


nature well, when he described his Ser. geant-at-law—" No whey so besy a man as he there n'as." The number of interests that come under a lawyer's notice, with the indispensableness of precision in their comprehension and statement, gives variety of know- ledge and exactness to his mind. Habit and necessity make the really busy alive to all that is going on, while those who are yet unemployed put on the appearance of employment ; an affectation which has not escaped the old poet—" And yet he seemed besier than he was." The generality of men interdicted from active exertion, and sent to Italy as invalids for quiet and repose, would have lounged about gossiping, sight-seeing, and excursionizing, but doing little more than write down their impressions in a journal or correspondence, even if they did that, and possessed the needful taste and capacity. Banished for two years from his practice as Queen's counsel, Mr. Whiteside has gone into the case of Italy. Travelling from town to town, apparently with the sea- sons, he looks thoroughly into a city and the different modes of reaching it ; pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each route. Sights of course occupy him, but not in the usual guide-book fashion ; Mr. Whiteside having recourse to the learned antiquarians of Italy and to the most original critics of this country for his facts or opinions. Acquainted with the history of Italy, he takes a different view of the Medici family from that of Mr. Roscoe and other admirers of arts and patronage ; and gives a rapid sketch of Florentine history under the Medic= rule, with a sketch of the life of Leopold the Reformer (1766-1790) whose govern- ment laid the foundation of the material prosperity which the Tuscans enjoy. The great objects of Mr. Whiteside, however, were the laws and their administration, with the state of public institutions and political opinion. At Rome and Naples, in Tuscany and Sardinia, be sought out the most learned and liberal lawyers ; he procured from them the written text Of their laws, compared the theory with the practice in the courts, and in case of any doubts or conflict resorted to written questions. He mixed with the society of literary and liberal men of all kinds, whether lay or clerical; drawing out their opinions, and perhaps examining them upon pub- lic topics. Hence, notwithstanding the number of works on the subject, Mr. Whiteside has been able to produce a book of solid information about Italy ; instructive to the home inquirer, and useful to the tourist for the practical and specific advice it gives. At the same time, the volumes are swelled by historical sketches, which many readers may not require or care for ; and by extracts from Italian authors, which, though well selected and apt for the writer's purpose, may seem somewhat out of place. The work, in fact, has two characters. It is a book of travels, with its narra- tive of movements, descriptions of town and country, incidents of the way, reports of pithy conversations, and sketches of society. Mingled with all this are graver matters,—history, laws and their administration, an account of the various charitable institutions with their probable in- fluence upon morals ; and these are not introduced as arising out of cir- cumstances, but form distinct and independent sections of the work. Mr. Whiteside was in Italy during the latter part of the rule of Gregory and on the accession of Pins ; so that he saw Rome under both aspects. To the new Pope he is not so favourably disposed as many; but he gives chapter and verse for all that he advances. In matters of religion Mr. Whiteside considers that Pius is "every inch a Pope," and that any real reduction of the power and privileges of the clergy will have to be wrenched from him,—as, indeed, is the case with what has been obtained in this direction. Personally, our traveller .thinks him an amiable, htttest, and well-meaning man, who would wish to have "good govern- ment for the people" as a matter of newel feeling and conscience. His political liberality was forced upon him. The tyranny of Gregory, or rather of his Minister and the Papal system, bad sunk so deeply into men's minds, that an insurrection of the exasperated people was expected; and perhaps only the publication of the amnesty on the accession of Pius prevented a revolt, in despite of Austria. This amnesty, however, com- mitted the Pope to the popular cause in secular matters ; and the oppo- sition of the obstructives, amounting at last to an organized conspiracy, clearly proved that his reliance must be on the people. Yet any real concession, such as the freedom of the press, or anything like an institu- tion existing independent of the Pope's will, was only obtained by pres- sure or something more. In religious matters the Church is as intolerant as ever. No Scriptural quotations expressive of hope or trust were per- mitted to appear on the tombs in the English burial-ground, on the plea that a heretic dying without the pale of the Church could not be saved ; and this point is still upheld by the liberal Pope.

" I had an opportunity," says Mr. Whiteside, " of discovering why it was the epitaphs in the Protestant burying-ground were drawn up in this unusual fashion. " The lady of a dignitary of the Church of England died during my residence in Rome: her husband wrote an inscription intended for her tomb, in which he naturally introduced words referring to the hope of the deceased in the resurrec-

tion through Christ. The pro epitaph, as drawn up, was of course submit- ted to the ecclesiastical censoiTor kis 'atiproval: that official struck out the words alluded to, and returned the inscription so erased and altered. There was a dis- cussion subsequently on an appeal before the censor in person; and he decided, with many courteous observations, that the objectionable matter must be omitted, on the ground that it contradicted the fundamental doctrine of the Church, in asserting that an adult out of the pale of that Church could be saved; and more- over, that it violated another rule of the same infallible tribunal by quoting Scrip- ture. But,' said the charitable censor, ' yon may ascribe to this lady the possession of all the virtues in the calendar provided you do not invade the doc- trine of the Church.' I saw myself, in Rome, the original inscription, with the lines struck out by the hand of this pious censor of Pope Gregory; and I am now enabled, by the kind permission of Archdeacon Beresford, (husband of the de- ceased lady,) to print a copy of the intended epitaph, inserting within brackets the parts so erased by the censor.

Here lyeth

[Until this corruptible shall have put on ineorruption, and this mortal immortality,) The body of Mary, Daughter of/Colonel H. P. L'Estrange, Of Moystown, King's County, Ireland, And Wife of the [ Venerable] Marcus G. Beresford, D.D., Archdeacon of Ardagh, who died at Rome, Dec. 31, 1845.

[To her to live was Christ, and to die was gain. She is gone to the mountain of myrrh and the hiU of frankincense, till the day break and the shadows flee away.]'

"The reader perceives from the date, this intended epitaph was originally for• bidden in the reign of Pope Gregory. Some months after the accession of Pius IX., a memorial, couched in most respectful language, was presented to his Ho- liness, craving leave to inscribe the lines already given on the tombstone of the deceased lady. The memorial was, I presume, referred to the proper authorities; and a negotiation ensued, conducted on the part of Archdeacon Beresford by the resident chaplain, a discreet, judicious gentleman, thoroughly acquainted with Rome. He failed, however, in his kind mission. It was declared to be impossible to comply with so unreasonable an application; and the obnoxious epitaph was as rigidly condemned by or under the authority of Pope Pins, as under the rale of Pope Gregory. Politics may vary—the law of the Church is unchangeable."

It is this absolute predominance of priestly rule in the Roman States, and the extensive influence of the Church throughout Italy, (save Loin. hardy under the Austrian Government,) which, in Mr. Whiteside's opi, nion, was a great obstacle to Italian advancement ; and this will only be removed by revolutionary violence or influence. Till the ambitions hopes and schemes of the King of Sardinia induced him to grant the late war stitation, toleration was utterly unknown in his dominions, despite his pretended liberality. Of the state of religion in Sardinia before the new constitution, (which, however, merely recognizes the political equality of the descendants of the Waldenses ) Mr. Whiteside writes thus. "The Italian dominions of the King of Sardinia are thoroughly priest-ridden: the priests, the monks, and their processions, convents, and monasteries, cover the whole kingdom. And the government, however it may latterly affect liberality in trade, and even in politics, is thoroughly bigoted, and its practice most intoler- ant. I recollect meeting an English family in Geneva, who mentioned that they had spent a Sunday with several other English people in a village in Savoy (which. belongs to Sardinia). Wishing to read the church service together on the Sabbath day, they assembled in the saloon of the hotel for that purpose; the landlord quickly appeared,. and inquired what they had collected to do: hearing it was to worship, he inquired—was it according to the Protestant religion? and being answered in the affirmative, he, with many apologies,. required of the company to desist; declaring he should be heavily fined, nay, punished, should he permit, such an impropriety in his house. No native, I apprehend, dares to change his reli- gion. It is one of the curious facts to be remembered respecting Italy, that the sovereign who now professes the utmost liberality of feeling, the desire to encour- age learning and learned men, and even to enlarge the municipal privileges and political freedom of his people, is outwardly a bigot, and his government and dominions as much apparently, and I believe in reality, under the control of priestly influences as those of Rome itself." Something similar prevails throughout Italy, in Naples especially : Protestant worship is not recognized, or, except specially, even permitted ; though Rome on this point appears to be more liberal than Naples. It may however, be doubted, whether a tree idea of toleration exists in the Italian mind. Many Liberals, who wish to see the Papacy abolished as a secular power, and churchmen confined to spiritual matters, would yet uphold the religious supremacy of the Pope. Italian sceptics may per- haps be tolerant, but that feeling is rather indifference than toleration ; and we say perhaps, for .the Spaniards, who expelled and sometimes massacred the priests and confiscated all their property, are yet, accord- ing to Mr. Ford, prejudiced against "heretics." Nations must be trained to toleration as to other things. We have not long been fully tolerant—

perhaps are not now.

Of the laws of Italy, save where religion or politics are in question, Mr. Whiteside's opinion is favourable, except in the Roman States. It is the administration which renders them bad ; partly, as it seems, from a pedantic habit of mind, partly from the actual or suspected corruption of the judge ; and as a matter of course, till lately, the utter impossibility

Of getting redress from power; although appeals, especially in Rome, may be multiplied ad infinitum. The pedantic habit we speak of is shown in the interpretation of agreements; for, notwithstanding the assertions in guide-books to the contrary, there is no legal necessity for an agreement to be in writing, except from a sort of judge-made rale of evidence. In despite of all he read or heard, Mr. Whiteside doubted whether the Tus- can law could be as laid down in Murray's Handbook, although he found it so believed and acted upon even in Florence. He therefore Went to "counsel learned in the law "; who answered in two separate cases, that, except in a few instances—as in partnerships—no written instrument is necessary to establish the proof of an agreement : all that the law requires is evidence of the consent of the parties; but the judges mostly require writing as proof of consent.

After printing the answers, Mr. Whiteside says—

"This opinion is, what I expected it to be, distinct and satisfactory. How happens it, then, that a writing is so generally resorted to and that witnesses, admissible, do not obtain the belief of the judge. "The answer seems to be, that as the judge acts also as a jury; although he is bound to receive the evidence of the parent, child, or relative, or servant, he does not choose to believe it, unless confirmed by other proofs or circumstances: conse- quently, to escape this difficult createdby tbe judge, the writing preferred by the court is in almost all the ars of life resorted to by the community, and the want of it is generally fatal to the party who ought to have secured it. "Naturally, the opinion veils in Florence amongst the unlearned, that it is impossible, or at least very cult,. to establish a contract in a payment in the

tribunals without a writing. The judges are to blame for this pernicious result. I knew an instance in which an English gentleman, having paid his Italian domestic fully in presence of his fellow-servants, dismissed him, making an entry of" the fact of the payment in his memorandum-book, but omitting to secure a written receipt. The knave summoned his master before the tribunals for the recovery of the wages already paid: the judge received the evidence of the other servants, and decided the matter in favour of the master, chiefly on the ground of the entry in the memorandum-book made by the master at the time, which the judge said showed accuracy in the keeping of his accounts. This writing, which in our law would have been rejected, as being_ no evidence for the man who made it, corroborated sufficiently, according to the Tuscan practice, the evidence of the other servant, and explains the mode in which the law is administered. The rascal, however, appealed, and the traveller was forced to compromise the case, in order to get away from Florence."

The Roman courts of law are described as follows.

" The courts of justice are on Monte Citorio, near the post-office, in a spacious palace. Ascending by a flight of steps, we reached a lofty ball, where shabby people walked to and fro. The judges had not yet sat. I saw some men in coarse gowns, who I supposed to have been beadles. About eleven o'clock there was a rush towards the door; our guide hastened forward, and we were soon in an ob- long room; opposite the entrance sat five judges in arm-chairs elevated on a raised floor-' the man in the centre I concluded was a priest, all resembled ecclesiastics in their dress: a large crucifix stood on a table covered with green cloth. About a foot from the table was a ledge of wood running along the entire room; behind this sat the advocates, whom I now saw were the men I had before mistaken for beadles. Their gowns were similar to those worn by our tipstaffs, the dress and appearance of the owners were unprepossessing in the extreme: at the upper end of the room lounged a crier, who called on each case. The pleadings were made up in little bundles of paper, which the advocates held; and as his case was called each counsel rose and spoke, and the cross chief justice pronounced the rule, sel- dom consulting his learned brethren. These causes were disposed of quickly enough, but the parties had their appeal. There was a total absence of dignity in the aspect of the court, judges, and practitioners: the room and its arrange, ments were immeasurably inferior to aLondon police-office; yet this was a court of superior jurisdiction. Qeitting the supreme court, we were conducted to the other civil tribunals. One of these resembled a noisy court of conscience; a single judge sat here without dignity, and his judgments were received by a crowd of vulgar people, who pressed round him without respect. The jurisdiction of this inferior court reached the amount of 200 scudi, each south 43. 6d.,) a con. siderable sum in Rome. We then returned to the hall, the advocate explaining how his brethren generally were paid, by the job, when the cause was over, ac- cording to the sum involved in the issue. We were conducted next to the offices, where the pleadings and depositions (for suits are decided on written depositions, not oral examinations,) were filed; these were clean and spacious. The advocate in Rome discharges many of the duties of attorney with us. " We next requested our courteous guide to introduce us to the criminal court. He showed us a closed door leading to a chamber wherein a criminal cause was proceeding, but regretted he could not gratify our curiosity, inasmuch as he him- self had no right of entrance. The judges, the prisoner, his advocate, the pro- curatore fiscale prosecuting, and the guard, were the only persons permitted to be present at the trial. No relative or friend of the accused dares to cross the threshold of the court; no part of the evidence, trial, or sentence, can be pub- lished; the proceedings of the criminal tribunals are wrapped in impenetrable mystery ."

The appearance of the advocates is in part explained by their estimate in. society.

" I had an opportunity, on the evening of the day of this visit to the civil tri- banals, of learning the exact position in society of the Roman advocate. The pro- fession of the law is considered by the higher classes to be a base pursuit: no man of family would degrade himself by engaging in it. A younger son of the poorest noble would famish rather than earn his livelihood in an employment considered vile. The advocate is seldom, if ever, admitted into high society in Rome; nor Can the princes (so called) or nobles comprehend the position of a barrister in England. They would as soon permit a faceltitto as an advocate to enter their palaces, and they have been known to ask with disdain (when accidentally ap- prised that a younger son of an English nobleman had embraced the profession of the law) what could induce his family be suffer the degradation? Priests, bishops, and cardinals, the poor nobles or their impoverished descendants will become—advocates or judges, never. The solution of this apparent inconsistency into be found in the fact that in most despotic countries the profession of the law is contemptible. In Rome it is particularly so, because no person places confidence in the administration of the law; the salaries of the judges are small, the remu- neration of the advocate miserable; and all the great ofhees grasped by the eccle- siastics, pure justice not existing, everybody concerned in the administration of what is substituted for it, is despised, often most unjustly, as being a participator is the imposture."

We could pursue these graver subjects ; but will leave them for some miscellaneous extracts, which will convey an idea of the travelling part of the. book.


Perugia, celebrated alike in ancient history and in the annals of modern art, is now the capital of a province in the Papal States, and forms part of the ancient Umbria. It is surrounded by old walls, boasts of its cathedral, adorned with the pencil of Pertigino and of Raffaelle, contains twenty-four monasteries, twenty-five nunneries, a university, several learned societies, a line theatre, and some pleasing promenades. The population is said by some to be 60,000, while others calculate it at 30,000, and some as low as 15,000. Amongst the second-rate or provincial cities of Italy Perugia holds a prominent rank. I sauntered up and down the steep streets of this singularly-built city, visiting churches, palaces, and museums, till wearied with sight-seeing. The number of churches at Perugia, nearly a hundred, is out of all proportion to the size orpopu- lation of the place; a decisive proof of the genius of a priestly government. They are adorned with pictures by masters of a peculiar school, called the Umbrian, and characterized by a profound religious feeling. The name identified with Perugia is that of the artist Pietro Vanucci, called Peragino, from the place where he es- tablished himself, whose pupil was the divine Raffaelle. Pietro flourished from 1446 to 1524, and Perugia is full of his works; pleasing, no doubt, and soft, but uniform in design, and often unequal in execution. It is an amusing and interest- ing occupation to compare their style and trace their effects in the earlier produc- tions of his illustrious scholar. Exactly opposite the hotel, on the walls of the Old Exchange, may be seen a series of frescoes by Pietro, wherein he represents eft& and saints, prophets, philosophers, and soldiers, and famous men of ancient Rome. It is asserted Raffaelle exercised his youthful genius on these frescoes, and especially in drawing the head of our Samar in the Transfiguration—the mighty subject in the delineation of which he subsequently established an eternal fame.

There is likewise in this interesting city, in the palace of Count Staffs, what is said to be the earliest of Raffaelle' a works, namely, a picture of the Madonna. and Child, which must be examined with a curious interest. It is small and round, and very beautiful. The Virgin is represented reading, and the Child is peeping into the book. "It is a miniature painting, of inexpressibly delicate, and' beautiful execution." There is no doubt of its authenticity. The family to •whoa. this valuable picture belongs had formerly in their possession a written contract for the painting, marls with Raffaelle; which, however, we are told, is now lost.


A Roman torrent is a very different thing from an English shower. You pat up year umbrella; it is laid flat upon your head in an instant. The flimsy Parisian article is viewed with contempt by the Italian people. The native carries (when apprehensive of rain, which may continue three days without cessation) a ponderous machine, which, when opened out, resembles a little tent suspended in the air, under which he walks- securely. The construction of the Italian umbrella is simple enough,—a mass of oiled calico is attached to a stout pole; and this, when spread, resists the torrent wonderfully. In a short time the spouts begin to play, the jets d'eau of modern Rome. I think these spouts have been dexterously contrived to aid in washing the streets, a process the natives would perish rather than undertake. These ducts are about two feet long, and project from the roofs of the houses; through such spouts the water is made to spin into the middle of the street with admirable effect, for no deposit can with- stand its power. But while the twofold deluge from the houses and the heavens. may be so usefal in dispensing with the labour of scavengers, it increases the dis- comfort of the passenger: he must keep close to the eaves of the houses, and get under cover speedily as he can—then he listens to the play of the waters with an almost inconceivable degree of pleasure.


Issuing from the Pantheon, I find myself in an Italian market, lying amidst habitations which block up the Rotundo on every aide but the front. It has been wisely said, if in any country the ground be well cultivated and the markets well supplied, we may conclude the people to be happy and well governed.

Let us pause, therefore, and examine the bill of fare as Italian market. And behold! a native has stopped beside me to purchase. The butcher cats a slice of coarse meat, which he says is beef; the purchaser pays two peals, pulls out his pocket handkerchief, wraps up and pockets the cut of buffalo, and walks away. This flesh is hard and coarse. What have I next? As I live, ,a carrion crow, laid out for sale, feathers and all ! a savoury morsel when eta. bellished with macaroni. Wbat next? Wild fowl, I suppose. No,—strings.er small birds, bought up greedily. What may they-he? Thrushes. Oar friend Horace of old supped on a lean thrush,—shame upon his humanity ! And, carious enough, in this respect there is no difference between the food of Horace, and of his witless successors. But what more? Sparrows, larks, and—ohl sacrilege I—robin redbreasts! When they eat a crow, what can escape? A,. bird I never heard sing in the Campagna, and seldom in Italy. There are AO, game-laws in the Papal States; so every man who pleases is a sportsman; and there are miscreants who call themselves hunters, who wear thick shoes and leather gaiters, and hunt small birds and sparrows all over the Campagna- Te string this game, and sell it by the string; which the epicurean Italians exceedingly. Latterly I never asked what bird was on the table. Better natty, inquire, but eat and be thankfuL


I became acquainted with a young, handsome, fashionable Count, who raked_ largely in English society in Rome. Daring an evening's conversation, he re-, marked, he had never beheld the sea, and had a great desire to do so. I observed; that was very easy—the sea was but a few miles distant; and if he pre,ferreffsi. sea-port, Civita Vecchia was not very far off. The Count laughed. "I madsatl effort to accomplish it, bat failed," he then said. " You English who travel over• the world do not know our system. I applied lately for a passport to visit the coast; the officials inquired my age, and with whom I lived; I said with my mother. A certificate from my mother was demanded, verifying the truth of my statement. I brought it; the passport was still refused. I was asked who was my parish priest: having answered, a certificate from him was required, as to the propriety of my being allowed to leave Rome. I got the priest's certificate; they then told me in the office I was very persevering, that really they saw no necessity nor reason for my roaming shoat the country just then, and that it was better for me to remain at home with my mother." He then muttered, "The priests, the priests, what a government is theirs!"


In the last week of October I reentered the Eternal City: but it was not the city I had left—joy beamed on every countenance; there was an unusual hilarity evinced by the people—the light of freedom had dawned amongst them. I met a priest of my acquaintance; he grasped my hand, exclaiming, " We can speak now." It was significant of the mighty change which had sprang up. I was in- vited at once to subscribe to an English journal, an Italian newspaper, a legal periodical. I asked myself, " Can all this be tree? is this the Rome of Gre- gory? " There was an extravagance in the conversation of grave men; marvels were to be effected in a moment, railroads were to be made, academies of science restored, agriculture improved, commerce revived, the rest of the world outdone. Before, the Romans appeared the automatons of a priest; quickened, inspired by a divine hope, they now sprung forward as men girt to ran a race. Their action, language, nay extravagance, showed their consciousness of past degradation and' present emancipation, and betokened a resolution not to miss their glorious oppor- tunity of becoming free. Their adulation of the Pope seems absurd, but it in- volves a profound principle altogether independent of the man. Walking up the Via Felice with a friend, we met an Italian sculptor of eminence: my friend men- tioned that " Signor — is now going according to his daily custom to the Qui- rinal, to see Pio Nona, who returns at this hoar from his exercise." The fact at- tracted my attention; I was introdaced to this gentleman, and called on him, when we conversed freely about the Pope. I was affected by his observation, " Signor, you must excuse our behaviour towards the Pope; to you it mast ap- pear extravagant: but the English have long been used to freedom; we have been so wholly unaccustomed to liberty, that the unusual blessing excites our feelings °gratitude to a high pitch. I go every day to look at this Pope with astonish- ment, never having expected to see one who would profess to govern withjustice." Looking round the studio, I perceived the proclamation of the amnesty fastened on the wall, and an unfinished bust of Pius the Ninth under the artist's chisel. " The Pope sat for your bust? " " Yes, and conversed with me as a friend, knew my family, inquired about them; he has a heart in his bosom." " But," asked I, " was there really affecting yourself any practical oppression under old Gregory ? " He started: " No man could count on one hour's security or happi- ness: I knew not but there might be a spy behind that block of marble; the plea- sure of life was spoiled. I had three friends who, supping in a garden near this spot, were suddenly arrested, flung into prison, and lay there, though innocent, till released by Pio Nono. Believe me, Signor, no people ever suffered what we for sixteen years have endured."


I had the honour of two interviews with Pius IX.: the first as a member of the committee appointed for the humane purpose already mentioned; the second with a private party. I believe the committee was the first body of Englishmen who waited on the Pope; and certainly, as Mr. Harford spoke his sensible address, his Holiness seemed highly pleased and affected. His manner is frank and even simple. There is not the slightest tincture of pride or stateliness in his deport- ment. Pius IX., addressing his fellow men, utters like a man of sense what he really at the moment thinks and feels. There was no written reply, couched in terms of cold formality to what was kindly said, but a cordial, spontaneous ex- pression of feeling, outspoken at the moment. The Pope said something cour- teous to several individual members presented to him: hearing I was a lawyer, he remarked that an English advocate had lately sent him a book on legislation, which he was sure contained much which would be desirable for him to know, but, unfortunately, being unacquainted with the language, he could not read it,— a very sensible but unkingly observation. Common kings never admit their igno- rance of anything. Dull pomposity is not congenial to the disposition of Pius IX. His manner was, however, a little unsteady. He is not what some would call dignified; he appeared' as if his royalty sat awkwardly upon him; in appear- ance very unlike the portraits of Pius VI. The countenance, stout figure, and whole bearing of Pius IX., denote plain, vigorous sense, resolution and manliness of character, and true benevolence, more than refined or polished taste, lofty dig- nity, royal pride, or grandeur of thought. Strip him of his robes of state, he never would be mistaken for a subtle Jesuit or crafty priest, but would pass all the world over for a sagacious, clear-headed, English country gentleman. Such was the opinion I formed on my first interview with Pius IX. The second time I had the honour of being received, the Pope was quite at his ease; and when the party of English ladies and gentlemen were grouped around him, spoke with un- affected kindness what he deemed most suitable. He inquired anxiously about Ireland, and spoke in terms of hearty admiration of the exertions made by the Parliament in England in relief of the Irish famine. The vote of ten millions seemed to astonish his Holiness. On this occasion the manner of the Pope was fatherly; and undoubtedly; I mast say, rooted as I am in the Protestant faith, the unaffected behaviour of Pius IX. towards people of all nations is that becoming an ecclesiastic aspiring to be considered the head of the Christian Church.