6 AUGUST 1921, Page 25


[Nolise Ng this column doss sot nocessorily pmcluds submgse 1 resins.) THE Avousu MAesznres.—The Nineteenth Century opens with a lively article by Captain Walter Elliot on " The Return to Party Politics " which he foresees and desires. " Only two things would bring about an immediate break-up ; a failure over Ireland or an attempt to enforce Tariff Reform. Otherwise the real party business will not begin again till 1923. The reason is that the Socialists are not ready and the Reformers have no cause." Captain Elliot looks for a reorganized Conservative Party—" a noble party, worthy of the millions of our great people who worked to put it [the Coalition] there." Mr. J. St. Los Strachey writes on " Tho Golden Opportunity "—of showing our friendship for America by renouncing the Japanese Alliance. " Why ran the risk of the remanets of the ill-fated Alliance continuing to create ill-feeling and misunderstanding between the two halves of the English-speaking race ? " It is significant that in tho next article, " As It Strikes an American," Mr. Hoffman Nickerson places the Japanese Alliance first among "the difficult questions " of the time, followed by " England's debt to America, the alleged British discriminations against American business, and the Irish question." Mr. Nickerson declaim that British propaganda in America is not needed, yet it is evident from his article that Great Britain is strangely misunderstood by many Americana, including himself. Mr. J. R. Clynes writes soberly and with some courage " Industrial Disputes and their Lessons." He does not, it is true, give a fair account of the miners' strike ; he ignores the fact that miners' leaders were determined to strike -whenever State control came to an end, whether in March or in August, and he underrates the gravity of the Syndicalist or Communist plot which was thwarted by the calling out of the Reserves. But Mr. Clynes makes some useful criticism of trade union methods, and ho denounces the violent men who are always attacking the sane and moderate leaders. He admits that the Labour Party has suffered greatly from the strikes and from the Bolshevik organ- izations " at its fringe." Sir George Barnes gives a most favourable account of "The New Indian Legislatures at Delhi." Mrs. Watta-Dunton has some amusing recollections of Swinburne. Lady Chance writes earnestly and hopefully on " Democracy and Art," with special reference to the Design and Industries Association and other promising new move- ments. Captain Colin Coote's optimistic article on " The Resurrection of Spain," and especially on her work in Northern Morocco, is unfortunately spoiled by the news of the serious native rebellion in the Rif, and of the mutiny among the native troops—two events which the anther had regarded as improbable. Mr. Poliakoff's " Letters from Russia," written by dejected patriots who are serving the Bolsheviks rather than starve or rot in gaol, are pitiful reading. Lord Ernie, who edited Byron's letters and journals and at first received much help from tho late Lord Lovelaoe, has a noteworthy paper on " The Rid of the Byron Mystery." As late as 1900 Lord Lovelace told Mr. John Murray and Lord Ernie that there was no permanent reason why Byron and his wife should not have lived together ; Lord Lovelace afterwards decided to reveal his family secret—or family suspicion—as to Byron's relations with his half-sister, Augusta Leigh. " Definite proof is still wanting," says Lord Ernie, but he himself is by no means convinced of Byron's innocence.—In the Fortnightly, Sir Michael O'Dwyer, the late Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, speaks plainly about " Present Conditions in India," where Mr. Montagu's policy of encouraging unrest has proved only too successful. The new legislative bodies are democratic only in name, for few of the electors troubled to vote ; the elected members have shown themselves irresponsible, and the new native Ministers are mostly professional politicians whose _opposition was feared.

The principle of " dyarchy " has proved unworkable in practice, as most people expected. The Indian Govern- ment have deliberately refrained from interfering with Mr. Gandhi's seditious agitation. The Indian Civil Service is profoundly dissatisfied ; officers who dislike the " reforms " are not allowed to retire, and those who would work the " reforms " are being boycotted by Mr. Gandhi's followers. Yet, as Sir Michael O'Dwyer says, Great Britain is still morally responsible for. the welfare of the peoples of India, who are bound to suffer most by the Government's abnegation of authority and by the consequent decline in the efficiency of the administration. Mr. Horace B. Samuel, writing in the Zionist interest, attacks the Palestine Government for being unduly partial to the Arabs ! Mr. H. Charles Woods writes interestingly on " The Danube as an International Highway " ; a British firm of shipowners, Furness, Withy, and Co., has obtained control of the steamer traffic and arranged for regular services along the whole navigable length of the river from Passau to Galatz and Sulina. Mr. Maxwell M. H. Macartney in a note on " Leagues within the League " explains the significance of the " Little Entente " projected by Ceecho-Slovakia and calcu- lated to promote neighbourly feeling among the States that once formed part of the Hapsburg dominions. The late R. A. Usaher's article on " The New Italian Frontiers " is well written, instructive, and convincing : he points out that in securing a good frontier in the west Italy gave up Savoy and Nice with their large Italian population, and that she may fairly claim in return to absorb a few Germans and Slays within her new Alpine frontiers to the north and north-east. Mr. H. W. Horwill has an entertaining article on " The American Diplo- matic Service " ; he exaggerates the difficulty of finding suitable men with large private means to supplement the meagre official salaries. Mr. Archibald Hurd, discussing " The Navy League's Renunciation," takes the League to task for proposing to " throw away our naval defence " before " we are convinced that other nations' military forces available for offence against us no longer threaten our lives and our liberties." He ridicules the suggestion that ." lightly armed cruisers " might suffice for future navies, and lays great stress on the fact that America is building a vast fleet. Mr. Hurd admits that armaments must be restricted by international agreement, but he thinks that we have done enough already to show our goodwill.— In the Contemporary,. Sir Godfrey Collins discusses " The Present State of Free Trade." " We won the war under a Free Trade policy. Unless we walk warily, we shall lose the peace on Protection." He denounces the Safeguarding of Industries Bill, declining to believe that British traders cannot face foreign competition, Just as America is free from internal customs barriers, so Europe, he thinks, ought to be free if it is speedily to recover its former prosperity. Mr. Marriott states some plain truths about " The Industrial Outlook" Mr. G. P. Gooch writes well on " The Study of Foreign Affairs," as " a definite part of our obligations as citizens of the world." Lieutenant-Commander Konworthy, discussing " Parties of To-morrow," advocates a Liberal-Labour Coalition as " natural," though the Labour Party does not think so. He would " nationalize " railways, mines, canals, and electric supply with " democratic control," avoiding bureaucracy. In foreign policy he would favour the Turks and Bolsheviks for the sake of trade—as if Turkish or Bolshevik rule offered any serious encouragement to genuine commerce. He argues that the Greeks at Smyrna " will surely undercut British merchants in the markets of the Near East " ; the fact that the Smyrna district is and always has been a Greek land is apparently to be ignored, lest we should be exposed to fresh trade com- petition. His proposed Coalition offers little prospect of setting the world to rights. Mr. John H. Harris, under the title of " Back to Slavery f " denounces in forcible terms what he describes as " the new system of forced labour in Kenya Colony," otherwise British East Africa. He cites the economic prosperity of the British West African colonies to show that the African native is by no means indolent when he is working for himself. He condemns the attempt to make the East African work for settlers, or for the Government, though it is by no means clear that any such attempt has been or will be made, whatever the settlers may desire. Mr. C. E. A. Bedwell discusses " The Plight of the London Hospitals," with special reference to the report of Lord Cave's Committee. He suggests that the hospital expenditure might be reduced, but he believes firmly in the voluntary hospital as contrasted with a State institution

and its paid officials. Sir T. W. Arnold has a learned and interesting paper on " Dante and Islam," pointing to the early Oriental scholars whom Dante might have consulted for informa. tion about Moslem history and beliefs, with which he shows a considerable acquaintance. Mr. 3. W. Scott examines " The Philosophical Incidence of Mr. Balfour's Early Writings " in a thoughtful article.—Blackwood'a has a most amusing account by Mr. Desmond Young of the Dempsey-Carpentier prize-fight under the title of " Fight Fans and the Fourth." The " Tales of the R.I.C. " in their conflict with the Sinn Fein bandits are continued, and deserve attention. Mr. H. Warington Smyth, contributes an admirable paper, " On the March with Elephants," illustrating their intelligence and maternal affection for their young.—The London Mercury has a capital article on " Boxing in Literature " by Mr. Bohun Lynch, who begins with tho fights described by Homer and Theocritus and passes on to modern English accounts. Ho reprints Thackeray's little-known verses on the fight between Sayers and Heenan, published anonymously in Punch; he quotes, too, the late Julian Grenfell's vivid description of a boxing match at Johannesburg, in which he fought and beat a fireman who " looked as hard as a hammer." Mr. John Freeman writes lovingly and yet critically about Mr. G. K. Chesterton as " a Canterbury pilgrim." Mr. Max Beerbohm contributes an imaginary biography of " T. Penning Dod. worth," in his ironical manner—" Dodworth " being one of those men who achieve a kind of world!), success without ever doing anything to warrant it. The poetry section includes five pieces by Mr. Walter de la Mare, notably " The Son of Melancholy," and an interesting poem on " Battersea Bridge " by Mr., Conrad Aiken. Mr. Hector Dinning's letter from Australia is well worth reading, and there is a graceful tribute under the head of Book-production to the late Mr. Lovat Fraser.