6 JULY 1867, Page 2

Mr. A. S. Hewitt, a Pennsylvanian ironmaster, has been ex-

amined before the Commission on Trades' Unions. He says that unions exist all over America, and described a case at Pittsburg in which three or four murders had been committed to keep off outsiders. In another instance the miners in New Jersey stopped without notice, and compelled all miners they could reach to leave work also. The labourers, however, are usually Irish, the English, like the Americans, doing the work of supervision, and the Scotch rising so fast in life that they were positively dreaded in the shops. In his own works the owners would not receive Scotch workmen, lest "they should become proprietors," a striking testimony to the Scotch power of getting on.