6 OCTOBER 1860, Page 10


The following is the original text of Lord ,John Russell's despatch to Count Cavour, a French translation of which has appeared in the co- logne Gazette-

" Foreign Office, August 31, 1860.

" Sir—Although the note of Count Cavour, of the 30th of May, written in answer to one which you were instructed to present to him, did not give so definite and precise a declaration of intentions as her Majesty's Govern- ment hoped and expected, they have not thought it necessary to continue- the discussion ; for they conceived that in substance that note disavowed any intention of attacking the dominions of the Emperor of Austria or the King of Naples, and bound the King of Sardinia not to cede to France any Italian territory, including, of course, the Island of Sardinia itself, in that public engagement. I say public engagement, because Count Cavour re- ferred you in his note to the speech he made in the Chamber of Deputies on the 26th of May, in the name of the King's Government.

"But although Austria, France, and Great Britain have abstained from any interference in Sicily or Naples, there exists at Paris, as well as at Vienna, an apprehension that the union of the Neapolitan and Roman States under the King of Sardinia would be followed by an attack by Italian forces on the Venetian provinces of the Emperor of Austria. It is obvious that no such attack could be made by an army without the consent of the King of Sardinia. It is also clear that in point of right the King

of Sardinia has no excuse for violating the-Treaty of Zurich so recently- signed and ratified. The King of Sardinia was free to refuse the prelinn- mines of Villafraiaca and the peace of Zurich ; but having 'declined to con- tinue the war, and having given his royal word to maintain peace and


friendship with Austria, he is not at liberty to set his obligations at defiance, and to make a wanton aggression on a neighbouring sovereign. It is evi- dent also that motives of interest coincide in this case with dictates of duty ; an attack on the Austrian army posted in strong fortresses is not an enter- prise in which success could reasonablybe expected. But such an attack, if unsuccessful, would give Austria an opportunity, of which, perhaps, she would not be sorry to avail herself, of restoring Romagna to the Pope and Tuscany to the Grand Duke. It is believed, on good grounds, that Prance would not consider either of these acts inconsistent with the Treaty of Zu- rich. But they would obviously expose the independence of Italy and its future peace to the greatest hazards. Nor would the King of Sardinia, having acquired Lombardy, Parma, and Modena, but having lost Savoy,


Nice Tuscany, and Romagna, find himself in a situation to cope with Aus- tria, fighting in a just cause to maintain her violated territory' and restore her military honour. The only chance which Sardinia could have in such a contest would be the hope of bringing France into the field and kindling& general war in Europe. But let not Count Cavour indulge in so pernicious a delusion. The Great Powers of Europe are bent on maintaining peace, and Great Britain has interests in the Adriatic which her Majesty's Government must watch with careful attention.

From such dangers the Ministers of the King of Sardinia may preserve Europe by a strict adhereuce to the policy intimated in Count Cavour's note of the 30th of May. Her Majesty 8 Government desire no more than a faithful adherence to its promises. They are willing to make allowance for those feelings and demonstrations to which Count Cavour alludes as trans- gressing the law of nations and evading the restraining powers of mu- nicipal authorities. Indeed, this indulgence on the part of Great Britain has, in the opinion of many of the courts of Europe, been already carried too far. But, whatever may be the case as to expeditions by sea, setting out often at night, and supplied by boats from villages on the coast, it is abundantly clear that no army can violate the Austrian frontier without the express order of the King.

" These considerations appear to us to merit the serious attention of the Sardinian Cabinet. You are instructed to read and give a copy of this de- spatch to Count Cavour.

" I am, &c. (Signed) J. RUSSELL."

Some time since a Select Committee was appointed by the House of Lords to inquire how fair it may be practicable to afford better shelter to our shipping upon our coasts than is at present afforded, by the adoption of some plan for the construction of breakwaters and harbours less costly and better adapted for certain localities than the system of solid masonry hitherto in use ; and whether any such plan appears likely to be also serviceable for the improvement of our national defence. The following report has just been published- " The Committee feel the importance of seeking every means by which harboure and 'breakwaters of a less costly construction than those at present in course of formation could be placed on various parts of the coast. "They have taken much evidence on this subject, and have had their attention especially called to floating breakwaters, of which several plans have been submitted to them. Upon the advantages to be derived from these constructions the evidence is conflicting. "The Committee are not prepared to recommend that the Government should undertake the task of constructing breakwaters on these principles ; but looking to the vast cost of harbours constructed upon the systems hitherto in use, they are of opinion that a moderate sum may be advanta- geously expended by Government in testing any plans which may offer a pro- bability of important results in great future saving of money, and in giving protection to life and property in various localities. " To carry this object into effect, the committee recommend that a sum, not exceeding £10,000, be placed at the disposal of the Admiralty. " The committee have received evidence on the question of the deposit of silt in the large harbours now under construction. Some witnesses have stated that these harbours are gradually deteriorating from the accumula- tion of silt. The Hydrographer of the Admiralty has, however, informed the committee that at Dover, Portland, Plymouth, and Kingstown, recent soundings show that there is no deposit. The slight silting of a few inches at Holyhead Refuge Harbour may, it is stated, fairly be attributed to the millions of tons of stone, fresh from the quarry, that have been tipped into the sea in the construction of the breakwater, and that this cause of deposit will consequently cease when the works are brought to a close. " The committee further recommend that the attention of the Admiralty and Board of Trade should be invited to this important subject, to consider whether any facilities can be given to public bodies or to private companies who may desire, at their own risk, to improve our harbours, or to give increased protection to our coasting trade. " And the committee have directed the minutes of evidence taken before them, together with an appendix, to be ' laid before your lordships.- 2d August, 1860."

Mr. Croskey has forwarded to the newspapers some information res- pecting the progress of the Fox now surveying the proposed Northern te- graphic line to America. All hands on board were well on the 31st of August at Reikavick, where they had taken in coals and water previous to leaving that day for Greenland. The land survey of Iceland from Portland to Reikavick had occupied fourteen days, and was considered satisfactory. Numerous photographs had been taken of the harbours and groups of natives of Iceland.

William Walker seems to have run out the term of his buncaneering career. Ordered out of the fort of Truxillo by the Captain of the British war steamer, Icarus, he retreated into the country, followed by the na- tives. He was finally captured by the boats of the Icarus up the river Negro. His men were to be sent home on condition of never engaging in such expeditions again, and Walker and one of his Colonels were shot by the order of the Government of Honduras.

The Washington papers report the discovery of a new planet, its right ascension being 23 hours and 4 minutes, and its declination 3 degrees and 23 minutes south.

Mr. J. Leigh, now stipendiary magistrate at Wolverhampton, will succeed to the vacancy on the metropolitan bench, caused by the death of Mr. Jardine. Mr. Leigh will sit at Worship Street Police Court, in the room of Mr. Barker, who will be transferred to Clerkenwell, in suc- cession to Mr. Corrie, who has already taken Mr. Jardine's place at Bow Street.

Mr. W. Partridge, of the Oxford circuit, has been appointed stipendiary magistrate at Wolverhampton, in the room of Mr. Leigh. The llecontlerahip of Bath, vacant by Mr. Jardine's death, will be filled by Mr. T. IV. Saunders, of the Western circuit, now Recorder of Dart- mouth.

Cardinal Sforza, coming from Rome, and the Bishop of Castellantare Ar- rived at Marseilles on Saturday lastby the steam-packet Carmel. These two prelates left the same day for Paris.

The Xonileur contains a decree raising M. Chasseloup-Leubat to the rank of Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour.

The Due de Cadore, First Secretary of Legation at Rome, has left Mar- seilles en route for Civita Vecchia with despatches in answer to those he re- cently brought from Rome.

Lord Clarendon has passed through Charleroi on his way from Frankfort to Paris.

Earl Granville, and his travelling companions, had quitted Madrid on the 27th of September.

Prince Jerome Napoleon, who has been very rapid in his movements, re- turned from his Northern trip to Southampton on Tuesday.

A letter from Athens announces the death of General Metaxa at the age of seventy-one. Coletti, Metaxa, and Slavrocordato, the three great leaders in the war of independence, afterwards took part iu most of the important political events of their country. Mavrocordato alone survives.

The first of a class of steel-plated iron steam vessels, of somewhat gigan- tic proportions, which the Government has decided on having construoted for the British navy, is to be laid down at Chatham Dockyard as soon as the necessary preparations have been made at that establishment, and com- pleted with all possible despatch. The vessel which it is intended to be constructed will be rendered as nearly as possible shot proof, and this will be accomplished by covering her above herwater line with massive steel ar- mour plates. She will be of a size never yet witnessed in the English Navy, the intention being to construct her 400 feet in length, or about double the length of many line-of-battle ships, and about two-thirds the length of the Great Eastern. She is to be furnished with engines of cor- responding power, which will drive her through the water at a high rate of speed, and her armament is to consist exclusively of Armstrong guns of the heaviest metal and longest range. She will be one of the most formidable vessels of war yet built for the Government. The Assistant-Surveyor of the Navy, Mr. Large, has paid a visit to Chatham Dockyard, in order to ascer- tain if either of the docks at that establishment are sufficiently large to ad- mit of the proposed vessel being built. The largest of the docks is that known as Pro. 2, which has been only recently finished, the Admiralty havina's had that dock built in order to receive the largest vessels belonging to the Navy. Its length is only a very little less than 400 feet, but an ad- dition of several feet will be made by the removal of the caisson at the en- trance and erecting in its place a dam, by which means the required length will be obtained for the construction of the vessel. The dock is at present occupied by the steam floating battery Trusty, 14, which is under repair, and as soon as she has been completed it is intended to commence building the new iron vessel.—Times.

A military commission, consisting of General the Marquis de la Place, General Frossard, and Rear-Admiral Choppart, sailed from Toulon on the 25th in the Requin, steam corvette, for Nice, to study a plan of fortification for that newly-acquired French maritime town.

On Tuesday morning, a farewell service to Archdeacon Mackenzie previous to his leaving for the field of his missionary labours in Central Africa, was celebrated in the cathedral at Canterbury. There was a very large congre- gation, comprising, principally, the members and friends of the Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin, and Durham societies for sending missionaries to Cen- tral Africa, the scene of Dr. Livingstone's explorations. The sermon was preached by the Bishop of Oxford.

The Reverend G. Williams, B.D., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, has proceeded on an extraordinary mission to the East for the purpose of ob- taining Armenian and other Eastern Christians as students for Eastern hos- tels, which it is proposed to establish in connexion with the University of Cambridge. The Reverend Dr. Wolff, vicar of Isle Brewers, Somerset, has also announced his intention to proceed to the East forthwith in order to urge the Armenian, Greek, Russian and Jacobite bishops to send young men to the hostels. He intends to assume the garment of a monk of the Eastern church, with a bible in his hand and the cross figured on his gown, which is to be of black cloth. Wherever he finds a bishop of the Christian church, whether of the Russian, Greek, or Syrian church, ho will act under his direction and advice in the preaching of the gospel.

The President of the United States has sent out to the American consul at Beyrout a magnificent pair of revolvers, handsomely embossed with sil- ver, in a silver-mounted velvet-lined box of American oak, and intended as a present to Abd-el-Kader, together with a very handsome letter in English and Arabic, acknowledging the services of the Emir in the saving, , as by his courage and energy he did, the lives of so- many thousand Chris- tians. The gift is elegant and exceedingly appropriate ; those who knew Abd-el-Kader best may trust he will value anything in the shape of arms very highly indeed.

Madame Mario visited the hospitals in :Cirpurs some days ago, and found more than one hundred prisoners sick and wounded, of whom fifteen were officers. A marshal took her blindfolded in his carriage.

The calumniated hero of Perugia, General Schmidt, late of the Papal army, has addressed the following letter, dated Altdorf, the 26th ult., to the Shioytz Gazette—" I read in an article in your journal, in which there is a question of my stay at Turin, the following phrase : A passport for Switzerland was accorded to the prisoner on condition that he would not again take up arms against Italy.' I beg to observe, in correction of this statement, that I did not go as a prisoner to Turin, for, according to the terms of the capitulation at Perugia, no one of any corps, whether officer or soldier, was made a prisoner of war ; and at Turin a passport of an ordinary traveller was given me, and no promise like that of which you speak was exacted."

At a special meeting of the council of the Horticultural Society, held on Friday, it was resolved that the new garden at Keosjngton shall be formally opened in May next. The day selected is the Wednesday that shall inter- vene between the great meetings at Epsom and Ascot. A schedule of prizes offered for fruit and flowers on this grand occasion will appear in the course of October.—Gardener's Chronicle.

The ordinary price of water, it is recorded, had been tripled at Malaga in the middle of September, while snow had fallen at Segovia.

In a letter from Beyrout, dated September 12, it is stated that the number of persons then receiving aid out of the British Syrian Relief Fund was upwards of 12,000. At Sidon, 3000 were daily relieved from that source. The students of Kingsbridge Grammar School, South Devon, have pre- sented an opera-glass to their head master, the Reverend James Whiteside, who has accepted an appointment in the navy.

A grocer's apprentice, a fine young man, of twenty-five, named Arsene, who loved literature neither wisely nor well, lately hung himself in his master's house, in Paris. Upon his table, amidst a heap of books, was found the following letter, the orthography of which was not on a par with the style—" I am but a grocer, and shall never be anything else. I always think of that caricature representing a grocer standing on the threshold of his door, and making this reflection—' Born to be a man, and condemned to become a grocer.' He who thus judged our calling was in the right. For many years I have tried to improve my mind ; I have read, and even copied out, books which I don't understand. All this muddles my head, and I find that I become more and more stupid every day. The longer I live the worse'I shall be. Now, I remember to have read somewhere that a man .should apply his intelligence to be useful to humanity, and as I see I shall never be fit for any thing but to weigh cheese and dried plums, I have made up my mind to go to another world which I have heard of, and see whether there may not be a place for me there. I ask pardon of my brethren for speaking in this disparaging way of our common profession ; but I defy them to point out a single instance of a grocer having ever made his way to a higher position. There are plenty of manufacturers who have become de- puties, and are decorated and loaded with all sorts of honours, but the like has never happened to a grocer. For these reasons, I have determined to hang myself. I beg my parents to erect a simple tombstone to my memory, and to inscribe upon it these words, 'Born to be a man ; died a grocer." —French Journal.

Adeertisement.—In consequence of the death of the late Sir Jamsetjee -Jejeebhoy, Baronet, of Bombay, his eldest sons the present Baronet, has, by virtue of Act No. 20, of 1860, of the Legislative Council of India, assumed the names of Jamsetjee Jejeebboy, in lieu of his former names of Cursetjee Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, and will henceforth be known by the name of Sir Jamsetjee ,Temebhoy, Baronet.

London, 25th August 1860.