6 OCTOBER 1860, Page 2


The surrender of Ancona, the journey of King Victor Emmanuel into the Papal States, the opening of the Parliament at Turin, and the im- proved relaticns between the King's Government and Garibaldi, charac- terize the week's news from Italy. Ancona capitulated on the 29th of September. The Sardinian fleet made a dashing attack upon the sea front defences on the 28th, and on the 29th General Lamm-icier° surrendered, one account says to Ad- miral Persano, another to General Fanti. The general and the garrison were made prisoners of war, and captured 140 guns and much treasure.

A telegram from Bologna, published by the Ineldpendance Beige states that "the porfolio of General Larnoriciere has fallen into the hands of General Fanti. It contains letters of the most compromising character and the most positive proofs of numerous intrigues entered into with the Legitimist and even the Red Republican party against the Government of the Emperor Napoleofi."

From Ancona, October 1, we have the report that "General Lamori- eiere, wishing to express his admiration of the bravery of the Sardinian fleet, offered to surrender to Admiral Persano. The Admiral sent him a small boat, and ordered the whole crew under arms, to pay the General military honours. The Admiral also offered his own cabin to the General, who was deeply touched by these courtesies. General Lamori- ciere will embark on board the steamer Count Cavour, which will convey him to Genoa, whence he will proceed to Turin." On the day that Ancona surrendered, King Victor Emmanuel left Turin for Ancona, via Forli and Ravenna, where he embarked ; and the Prince of Carignan arrived in Turin as the King's Lieutenant. It is assumed that, after visiting Ancona, the King will sail for Naples. King Victor Emmanuel has issued the following order of the day to his active army in the Roman States- " Soldiers !—I am satisfied with you, because you are worthy of Italy. By arms you have vanquished your enemies, and by conduct the calumniators of the Italian name.

" The mercenaries whom I set free will speak of Italy and of you in foreign countries, after having learned that God recompenses those who

serve hiin, and not those who oppress people and despise the right of na- tions. We must establish a strong Italian monarchy on the liberty of

peoples who will aid us with order and concord. The national army will increase more and more the glory which, since eight centuries, has shone on the cross of Savoy. " Soldiers, I take the command. It would cost me too much not to be foremost wherever there may be danger." It appears that three days before he quitted Turin, a deputation from Naples waited upon his Majesty, and presented an address implor- ing him to go at once to Naples. This is one of the addresses signed at Naples, but whether it is that presented is not stated- " Sire,—You are our King. We have all elected you in our secret meetings ; we have saluted you in our public places ; we have proclaimedyou by rising in arms ; and the Dictator Giuseppe Garibaldi, whose loyalty is equal to his courage, and his courage to his fortune, entered Naples with the words Victor Emmanuel and his descendants are your Kings, and the Kings of Italy,' Sire, why should we be the last of the Italians to receive and

welcome you m the bosom of our country ? Why should we be the last to enjoy the benefits of a Government in which all the principles of liberty, order, progress, and stability, which you represent, are the rule and gua- rantee of the political direction of the State ? Sire—Come ! We Nea- politans are anxious that you should come to Naples to consecrate Italian unity, and restore peace and tranquillity to the kingdom. We wish to see those veterans who defended you and Italy at Palestro and San Martino fraternizing with those brave youths who, landing at Marsala, few in number, but aided by the population, have delivered the most faithful and not the least fair of the provinces forming your kingdom, in order that we all, guided by your wisdom, may march hence, with the strength of your arm, the skill of your general; the boldness and genius of Garibaldi, to overthrow the remaining enemies of Italy, and complete the work of our redemption." We have not learned the answer of the King ; but at the opening of the Parliament at Turin on Tuesday, the following project of law was presented-

" Sole Article.—The Government of the fling is authorized to accept and establish by Royal decrees the annexation to Sardinia of those provinces of Central and Southern Italy in which the population, by direct and universal suffrage, freely manifests a wish to form au integral part of our constitutional monarchy." The project was received with loud cheers. The explanatory statement which Count Cavour read to the House as a sort of long preamble to his bill has been published at length, but it is not necessary to reprint it at length to give the reader a full idea of its purport and importance. The earlier paragraphs speak of the aid de- rived from the loan, and the declaration of non-intervention at Villa- franca, and then refer to the progress made during the last six months in liberating Italy, attributing that progress to the popular initiative, to the long sustained policy of Charles Albert, and to the daring of Gari- baldi. Parliament, it is stated, is summoned, not because Ministers have ceased to believe in their principles, but because the circumstances have materially changed since they last met. The members are there to pro- nounce a new judgment in the policy pursued-

" Italy is almost free. The only painful exception is Venetia. What our thoughts are with respect to this noblest of all the provinces of the Penin- sula is well known to the Chamber ; and that thought has been clearly de- veloped in a diplomatic document lately published. We think that war should not be waged against Austria against the almost unanimous will of the European Powers. Such an improvident enterprise would raise against us a formidable coalition, and endanger not only Italy, but the cause of free- dom throughout the European continent. Such a rash attempt would place us in hostility with those Powers which do not acknowledge the principles we uphold, and would deprive us of the sympathy of those States which ground their policy on Liberal principles. " We view daily, and certainly not with indifference, the sorrows of the Venetian people ; we de not forget their cause, but we think we can best serve it by constitutine° a strong Italy. For we hold firmly that no sooner shall we have attained this object, the general opinion of nations and Ca. billets, which is now opposed to a venturous enterprise, will show itself fa, vourable to that only solution of the Italian question which will for ever close the era of wars and revolutions in the South of Europe.

" We are equally convinced that supreme reasons lay upon us the obliga- tion of respecting the city where the Supreme Pontiff has his see. The question of Rome is none of those which can be solved with the sword alone, It meets on its way obstacles only to be overcome by moral forces; - and we are fully confident Chat, sooner or later, those forces will bring into the gates of that glorious metropolis a change consistent with the wishes of its people, with the aspirations of all good Italians, with the true principles and the lasting interests of Catholicism.

" It is a wise and patriotic counsel to await so salutary a change from the work of time, and from the great and incalculable influence which regene- rated Italy will exercise on the opinions and judgments of the Catholic world. But, even were our thought erroneous, the presence of the French troops in Rome ought alone to, make us desist from any design, however re- mote, to stand, sword in hand, before that city. " In our present circumstances, to confront these French troops would be not merely unheard-of folly ; it would be a grievoxis fault and guilt. There are generous follies which, although they entail enormous sacrifices and sufferings, do not bring with them the ruin of a nation ; but such a ruin would certainly befall Italy from any intention to combat the armies of France. So monstrous an ingratitude would inflict on the brow of our coun-

try a stain which long centuries of suffering would not efface But if we are not for the present in a condition to exert ourselves in behalf of Venice and Rome, we are not equally helpless with regard to the other parts of Italy, which, although risen to liberty, feel the want of im- mediate, efficient provisions.

" Gentlemen, if the Italian cause at last awakened the universal sym- pathy of Europe' if the minds of the most civilized and educated nations show themselves favourable to it, this must especially be attributed to the admirable moderation of ideas, to the calm behaviour of the various pro- vinces of the Peninsula on their first shaking off the yoke which the foreigner had laid upon them. Those provinces afforded the signal proof of the truth and depth of the civilization attained by the Italian people ; by instantly removing all germs of anarchy, byndopting without delay those principles of sound organization which obtain among the nations most ad- vanced in the exercise of liberty, and by evincing their firm will to issue out of a provisional state, and aspiring to the institution of a Government free and national, but at the same time strong and opposed to any excess.

" By this moderation and concord, by this unshaken firmness, the people of Tuscany and /Emilia ended by persuading diplomacy that the It lions arc capable of constructing a vast kingdom, based and organized upo broadly liberal principles and institutions.

" Matters must proceed in the same manner in Southern Italy. us if those people were long to continue in the uncertainty of a p INv '1"soieonril

rule. Disturbance and anarchy, which would soon break up, would be the cause of immense evils and immense disgrace to the common country. The great national movement, breaking from the path which it has hitherto followed with marvellous regularity, would leap to extreme dangers, as well to the lately enfranchised provinces as to those which have been for more than one year free and independent. This must not be—this cannot be allowed by the King or the Parliament. "The and Sovereign who is hailed by the whole of Italy as the mover and leader of the national resurrection has special duties towards the south of Italy. The work of emancipation began in his name; round his glorious standard the freed people crowded and pressed. Before Europe, be- fore posterity, he is answerable for their fate." Count Cavour then explains that annexation will not be imposed in the Central and Southern provinces, but that their votes will be taken by universal suffrage, and that whatever determination is come to on the simple question of annexation or no annexation will be respected. Then he says- " Here we must observe that, although all those who have contributed to the triumph of the national cause accept in principle the idea of the annex- ation of Southern Italy, yet some, whose love for their country is no matter of doubt, and whose devotion to the sacred person of the King is equally known, deem it expedient to put off the act of annexation till the work is completed. that is, till the questions of Rome and Venice be finally solved. " We think if this design could be carried into practice, it would have the most fatal consequences. Why should we keep Naples and Sicily in an anomalous state ? There can only be one motive for it, and that is to avail one's-self of the work of revelation to accomplish the liberation of Italy.

Now, this would be a most deplorable error Revolution and consti- tutional Government cannot long coexist in Italy without producing by their dualism an opposition and a conflict which would only turn to the benefit of the common enemy.

" These contingencies escaped the attention of that generous patriot who hitherto opposed the annexation of Naples and Sicily. But if he had good reasons to follow that system so long as the Marches and Umbria parted the South from the Centre and North of the Peninsula, now to persevere in that system would have no other effect than to oppose useless delays and hinder- ances to the national cause. There is in the nature of events a logic which triumphs over the stoutest will, and against which the best intentions are powerless. Let revolution be made permanent in Naples and Palermo, and very shortly the authority and command will pass from the glorious hands of him who wrote on his standard, Italy and Victor Emmanuel,' into those of men who for this practical formula substitute the dark and mystic sym- bol of sectarianism, ' God and the people.' (Loud and long applause and cheering.) . , "It is your duty to consider whether the men who have in these days the honour to sit at the Council Board of the Crown are equal to the high task committed to them, and if they seem to deserve the confidence of the nation. All material means placed within reach of the Executive power, and all authority granted to it by the law, will always be scanty and weak, unless the King's Ministers can reckon on that moral efficacy, that irresistible au- thority, which, in free constitutional Governments, flows from the perfect agreement between the greatest powers of the State.

01 The vote of confidence you gave the Ministers a few months since en- abled them to overcome difficulties, both numerous and serious, which stood in their way. Now that they may hold with a steady hand the helm of the State, it is necessary that they should know, and that Italy should know, whether their deeds and behaviour, during this interval, were of a nature to diminish the confidence you put in them. This is all the more necessary, as a voice justly dear to the multitude expressed to the Crown and the country its distrust of us. Such a declaration, indeed, painfully affected us, but it could not turn us by a tittle from our purposes.

"Faithful guardians of the Constitution. of which we must be the most scrupulous executors, we think that the voice of one citizen, whatever sig- nal services he may have rendered to the eountry, should not prevail against the authority of the great powers of the State. It therefore is the duty of the Ministers of a constitutional King not to give way before pretensions not very legal, even if they be backed by a splendid halo of popularity and by a victorious sword. But as we should fail in our duty by giving way to those pretensions, so we should have failed in our obligations towards Par- liament if we had not put the question to it whether it be ready to sanction the sentence pronounced against us. "The decision must result from the discussion which may arise on the bill now laid before you."

At the Wednesday's sitting, a committee was appointed to examine the project of law presented by the Government. The members of this committee expressed full confidence in the policy of Count Cavour, but desired that all dualism with Garibaldi should cease.

During the same period, a marked change came over the political con- dition of Naples. Bertani, the Republican, who has occupied a semi- despotic position as Secretary-General, which Ministry after Ministry resign, took himself off to Genoa, and a new Ministry was appointed. Saffi declined the pro-dictatorship of Sicily. Mazzini, foiled in his effort to take the initiative, set forth his views in the Iride, and Garibaldi himself, having received replies from the King, put forth this decree- " Head-quarters at Caserta. "Our brothers of the Italian army, commanded by the brave General Cialdini, combat the enemies of Italy, and conquer. "The army of Lamoriciere has been defeated by those valiant men. All the provinces, slaves of the Pope, are free. Ancona is ours. The valiant soldiers of the Army of the North have passed the frontier, and are on Nea- politan soil. Shortly we shall have the fortune to grasp the right hands of

the brave, &c. G. GAIMALDI."

The Dictator has issued decrees granting national rewards to the mother and sisters of the late Agesilao Milano, who attempted to assassi- nate the King of Naples, to several patriots, and to the family of Pisa- carne. The following decree is also characteristic- " Art. 1. All the archiepiscopal and episcopal funds are declared national property. "Art. 2. Every bishop and archbishop shall be paid by the State a suit- able emolument, which shall not exceed the sum of 2000 ducats. The balance of the ecclesiastical funds shall be spent in providing for the decorous pro- vision of the lower clergy," &c. This was countersigned, not by the Ministry, but by Bertani. .1nother touches on a very ticklish question-

" The ministers of the religion of the State, or those of the tolerated forms, who, in the exercise of their ministry, pronounce in public a discourse censuring the institutions or the laws of the State, or who commit any acts calculated to awaken the contempt or the dissatisfaction of the people against the same, or who, by the refusal of their offices, disturb the public con- science or the nonce of families, are to be punished with imprisonment from three months to two years.

" If the crime be committed in writing, instruction, or by any document whatever read in public, the punishment shall be imprisonment from three months to three years, and in all eases, a fine shall be imposed up to 500 ducats.

" If, in the oases described above, there be provocation to disobedience • the State, the punishment shall be three years' imprisonment, and a fine of not less than 000 ducats. Any obstacles cast in the way of the publica- tion or execution of provisions relative to the religion of the State or of the tolerated forms shall be punished, according to the circumstances, with im- prisonment, which may be extended to six months, or with a fine not ex- ceeding 500 ducats." The military position has somewhat altered. The detached corps sent by Garibaldi to occupypiedimonte and Caprizzo have been driven out by overwhelming forces. The garrisons are said to have shown great courage in defending these places, and to have lost many men, the Neapolitans and peasants slayirc the wounded. Hence the King's troops were masters of the whole ins of the Volturno. Garibaldi had strenghtened his position by constructing and arming batteries com- manding at easy range an important ford over the Volturno above Capua, and by intrenehing himself strongly in Santa Maria. He was rapidly getting up artillery, of which he stood in great need. The Neapolitan troops have fought well in all their recent encounters. The Pope has not left Rome, and does not seem inclined to go. He has addressed an allocution to the Secret Consistory of Cardinals, and Cardi- nal Antonelli has conferred with the French Ambassador.

A telegram from Marseilles gives what purports to be a summary of the allocution delivered by the Pope in the Consistory of Cardinals, held on the 28th of September- " His Holiness said he detested and deplored the conduct of Piedmont, and her guilty invasion of the Papal States. He spoke with emotion of the brave soldiers who died in his defence, and had the firm hope that they had obtained eternal peace and blessedness. He reproved and condemned is every way the detestable and sacrilegious attacks of the Bing and the Go- vernment of Piedmont. He declared their acts to be null and of no effect. He protested, and would not cease to protest, in order to maintain entire the civil power enjoyed by the Roman Church. The Pope further said that the support of foreign assistance against criminal invasion was still to be de- sired, and recalled the reiterated declarations made by one of the most powerful princes of Europe. His Holiness thus continued—' Whilst, how- ever, we have for a long time been expecting such a result, we are most painfully affected in seeing the authors and abettors of this invasion advance as far as the walls of our capital, as though they had the assurance that no one would oppose them. In presence of such a perilous position we see ourselves forced, even against our will, to the sad necessity of occupying our- selves with the measures to be taken for the protection of our dignity.' The Pope then deplored the disastrous and pernicious policy of non-intervention, and above all its detestable application to the Roman question. He called upon all the princes of Europe to examine seriously what great and iunu- merable evils are comprised in the detestable event which he deplored, and said that if such an odious violation of international law were not entirely nullified, there would no longer be left any force and security to any legiti- mate right. All Sovereigns,' his Holiness said, should be convinced that their cause is intimately bound up with ours. In coming to our aid they will provide equally for the preservation of their rights.' His Holiness concluded by saying that ho had no doubt that the Catholic princes and peoples would come to the assistance of the Father of the Faithful, who is attacked by the parracidal arms of a degenerate son." The only provinces still under the Papal Government arc Civita Vecchia, Frosinone, and Velletri. It is said that the Papal Government has given up the idea of defending the two latter against the Sardinians, should they pass through them to proceed to Naples. The Piedmonteso are gradually occupying the whole country. There has been some fighting at Messina. The citadel bombarded the town and the troops exchanged shots. The consuls and the captains of an English and French man-of-war stopped the bombardment. The cause of this outbreak is supposed to be some misconception respecting the value of the King's successes on the Volturno.

The following termination of an article, by M. Mazzini, entitled "Neither Apostates nor Rebels," and published in the Icide at Naples, expounds his views- " We claim the liberty of saying, not that 'a Republic is the best form of government, but that we, 25,000,000 of Italians, ought to be masters in our own country ; that we can be so if we all wish it ; that our liberty is there on the point of our bayonets and in the firm resolution of our souls that it i

is not in the counsels and acts of France and Chanceries. To make it de- pendant upon a whim of Louis Napoleon or any other man is to prostitute it, to risk losing it again, and to declare ourselves unworthy of it. " We claim the liberty of saying that between the programme of Cavour

that of Garibaldi we prefer the latter ; that without Rome and Venice, there is no Italy ; that, excepting the war of 1859, provoked by Austria, and maintained, at the price of Nice and Savoy, by the arms of the Emperor of the French, excepting the invasion of the Roman provinces, provoked by us, by a necessity which we created, no initiative of Italian emancipation belongs to the programme of Cavour ; that Rome and Venice will remain slaves of the stranger if the insurrection and war of the Volunteers does not restore them to freedom.

" We claim the liberty of saying that, a free and united country will not be formed by annexing this or that province to Piedmont, but by amalga- mating Piedmont and all the provinces of Italy, and Italy with Rome, i which is its centre and heart ; that the immediate annexation of the con- quered provinces that have acquired liberty, by placing them under the programme of Cavour, and taking them away from Garibaldi, stops the movement, takes away the strength of the country from the hands of him who wishes to employ them well, to place them in the hands of a man who wishes to condemn them to inaction, and for a time to suppress the domi- nating patriotic idea. " We claim this, and nothing else. Refute, but do not calumniate. Do not always sillily or wickedly repeat that we work for a Republic, when, for two years, we have never spoken of a Republic. Do not obstinately judge us without reading us. Do not repeat, blind servants of any Minis- terial Gazette, affirmations a hundred times denied by facts. Do not excite against us, by perfidious falsehoods, the passions of a people who owe to us, in a great measure, what they feel and what they have achieved by unity. Falsehood is the base weapon of vile cowardice. Belief without investiga- tion is the wont of idiots."

It is stated that "the political excitement in Venice is very great, and the inhabitants of the city appear to be ripe for mischief. They scoff at the troops and the German residents, and insult the Government when- ever they think they can do so with impunity. During the night of the 21st, the Imperial arms were pulled down from a public office, and so abominably bedaubed that they were untouchable. Many Frenchmen have recently arrived at Venice, and on the 21st one of them, an engineer, was arrested while making a sketch of a fort. It is whispered that very

important discovbries have recently been made by the Imperial authori- ties in Venetia. The whole affair is kept very secret, but it is believed that the Government has in its hands proofs that there has long been a direct and constant correspondence between the Garibaldians, Venetians, and Hungarians. Several persons have recently been arrested at Gorice and Udine, and sent to fortresses in the interior of the empire."