6 OCTOBER 1860, Page 8

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f rash!.—The return of the Emperor as been followed by a pretty decisive mark of his interest in Italian affairs. The Moniteur of Monday contained the following announcement- " The Emperor has decided that a division of infantry, two squadrons of cavalry, and a battery of artillery shall immediately embark at Marseilles and proceed to reinforce the corps of occupation at Rome. The Sardinian Government is informed that the instructions of General Goyon authorize him to extend his action as far as the military conditions to which it is naturally subordinate may permit him. It can only belong to the Great Powers met in Congress to pronounce some day on the questions that are raised in Italy by events ; but till then the Government of the Emperor will continue to fulfil, conformably to the mission which he has imposed on him- self, the duties which his sympathies for the Holy Father and the presence of our flag in the capital of Catholicity impose upon him."

A telegram from Paris states that the reply of the French Government to the Duke do Cadore, who was deputed to ascertain the real intentions of France in reference to the protection of the Holy See, contained the assurance that nobody deplored more than the Emperor the course taken by Sardinia. Under actual circumstances, however, the employment of force instead of diminishing would but aggravate the evil, by plunging Italy into a struggle from which a general war might arise. The reply also stated that, in order to afford an efficacious protection to the Holy See, the French army in the Papal States would be increased to 24,000 men, whose mission would be to make the patrimony of St. Peter respected; this patrimony, properly so called, comprising a population of 420,000 souls, and including Rome, Civita Vecchia, and Viterbo. Marshal Vaillant, the defender of Rome in 1849, will, in case of need, assume the command-in-chief of the army of occupation should the patrimony of St. Peter be threatened either by Garibaldi or Piedmont. It is stated that M. Thouvenel tendered his resignation to the Em- peror while at Ajaccio, insisting that a more efficacious protection should be granted to the Pope. Since the return of the Emperor and the reply given to the Duke de Cadore, M. Thouvenel has withdrawn his resigna- tion.

That the spirit of the French 13Itmmontanes is as vehement as ever appears from the following circular which the Bishop of Poictiers has addressed to the parish priests of his diocese- " Monsieur le Cure—The present is a solemn moment ; it will occupy an important place in the annals of the Church, and in the records of the world. It is consequently the hour for prayer—for much prayer—for inces- sant prayer—for prayer with more fervour and piety than ever. The page of the sacred writings which the festival of this day caused us to read this morning—the battle of Michael and his hosts against Lucifer and his re- bellious legions—is the history of the struggle which is now taking place. The final solution is not doubtful. The victory will remain with God and the Church. The triumph of sacrilegious men will be momentary. Bravo

men have fallen. Let us not grieve for them. They fought for truth, for justice, for the Church, for Jesus Christ—they are in Heaven. Well, if their own blood had not entirely, washed out all their imperfections, the blood of Jesus Christ, which is about to flow for them in the hands of the priests, will quickly complete the purification of their souls, and open for them the gates of eternal glory. As for human glory, they have heaped it round their names as others heap round theirs the scorn and execration of all ages. Honour to these immortal victims of a cause which will perish only with the world ! Others are wounded, are captives. Let us congratulate and proclaim happy the mothers who gave birth to these young heroes. The first accounts announce, in particular, that the intrepid volunteers who quitted this country have covered them- selves with honour as they fell pierced all over with wounds. Through the protection of the Virgin Mary, whom the entire city invoked for them during the memorable triduum which preceded the Nativity, and thanks, likewise, to the intercession of our powerful patroness, St. Badegonde, whose tomb is daily crowded by so many prayers, we feel this consolation—that none of the numerous soldiers whom we have blessed, and who permit us to call them our children, appear to me to have fallen in this first deed of arms. In fine, others are still fighting. They defend against the cohorts of the revolution and of hell the last rampart of the Pontifical Royalty—the last human guarantee of the dignity and of the independence of all Christian consciences—the last honour of European monarchies. Let our prayers, our wishes, our sighs, at every hour of the day, and night, ascend towards the throne of God in heaven, and towards the tabernacles of Jesus Christ on earth ! Let us hope, then—let us hope against all hope. That which is impossible to men is possible to God."

The Minister of Finance has, at the suggestion of the Minister of War, decided that foreigners who wish to compete at the national rifle shoot- ing at Vincennes may import into France each his own rifle and two pounds weight of gunpowder on the following conditions :—The arms and gunpowder are to be declared at their arrival in France, and will be ad- mitted free of duty, the rifle with an obligation to reexport it within two months, and the gunpowder on the condition of justifying its legitimate use to be made by a certificate, delivered by the directing committee of the rifle practice, stating that the importer assisted at the rifle match. No interest seems to be produced among the people by these shooting matches. Not only British riflemen are invited to compete but toxopho- lites and pigeon shooters! The ilfoniteur reports the presentation of four horses, sent as a present to the Emperor Napoleon by his Imperial brother the Emperor of Russia. The animals were attended during their journey from Russia by General Count Schouvaloff, who, it appear, is " Grand Master of Police at St. Petersburg," and his brother Count Paul, "both of them Aides-de-Camp of the Czar."

i T I 1.—On Saturday the members of the Reichsrath were dis- missed for the present. The Emperor did not go to them, but sum- moned them to his palace, and there said- " I have heard with satisfaction the repeated expressions of your love for the Fatherland, and of your loyalty as subjects. I confidently expect that lay resolutions respecting your views will, when promulgated, meet with ready concurrence, and that my good intentions will be gratefully acknow- ledged. I also expect that the inauguration of popular institutions will ob- tain your energetic support." The last sitting had taken place on the 27th, and the report of pro- ceedings is full of interest. The subject under discussion was the con- stitution of the empire—should there be a representation of the interests of the whole monarchy, the demand of the minority, or should each pro- vince get back its local institutions. The debate is thus described. M. Meager (Transylvania) remarked that he had spoken much and freely, because he was a burgher, and " one of the few representatives in the Reichsrath of the third estate."

Hardly had the words quoted been spoken when Count Szechen interrupted M. Meager, and violently protested against the use of the expression "representative of an estate." The Hungarian noble was so warmly seconded by his fellows in the Reichsrath that M. Meager, deeming it useless to continue his speech, resumed his seat without giving any reply to his talented but over-loud assailant.

33aron Von Gehringer (Reichsrath for life), who was long at the head of the civil administration in Hungary, spoke at some length in defence of the programme of the minority, but what he said appeared to please neither party.

Count Andrassy first spoke in the very highest terms of the institu- tions of Hungary, his native country, and then, flying off at a tangent, referred to a speech made by the Cardinal Archbishop of Vienna, in which his Eminence said that the Government would require "much money and many troops." The Hungarian noble observed, that if Go- vernment could manage to acquire the confidence of its subjects much money and many men might be spared, and in confirmation of what he said he reminded the Assembly that the late Emperor Francis I. sought and found protection (Schutz) in Hungary in 1805, although the country was entirely destitute of troops. When Count Andrassy had concluded his speech, the Archbishop explained that he meant to say Austria would require money and men against a foreign foe, and not against any enemy at home.

Count Barkoczy (Hungary) made one of his usual " slashing " speeches. After severely criticizing the present organization of the empire, he roundly declared that the Ministries for Ecclesiastical Affairs, for Justice, and for the Interior were three useless " central machines." The plain- spoken noble told Count L. Thun that his law for the Protestants had done a great deal of mischief in Hungary, and then informed Count Nadasdy that his new civil laws were mere abortions. On hearing this, the Minister of Justice waxed very wrath, and, hastily rising, he told his brother noble that when he received the orders of the Emperor to appear in the Rcichsrath, " he expected he should have to go into the company of polished men, and not of persons who would make rude attacks on him." BarkoGzy rose to reply, but as he began to speak of Count Nadasdy's "ancient historical name," the Archduke- President requested him to resume his scat, which he did with much apparent self-satisfaction. Nadasdy is considered a turncoat by his fellow-countrymen, and they therefore never allow an opportunity of annoying him to escape them.

Counts Goluchowski and Thun subsequently defended themselves against the attacks which had been made on them by Barkoczy, but the latter was not allowed to continue the wordy war. M. Von Mailath made a brilliant speech in support of the Clam- Szechen programme, and concluded by earnestly recommending to the Government to proceed to the work of reform without the least delay. " A heavy storm is rising on the political horizon," said the Hungarian nobleman. " Indeed, it would appear as if the Peace of Villafranca were a last respite granted to Government, in order that it may be able to prepare for the great crisis. The time granted is nearly at an end. May the last moments be taken advantage of !" Counts Apponyi and Hartig had a warm discussion on the merits of the two programmes, and when it was at an end Dr. Hein (the reporter for the minority) said a few words, the sense of which was that the reception given to the programme of the majority proved " that the centrifugal power was exceedingly great in Austria."

After Counts Szechen and Clam had spoken at some length, the two programmes were put to the vote, and the result was a follows—Gene- rals Count Degenfeld and Baron Sokcsevich, being absent, but fifty-six, instead of fifty-eight members of the Council voted. Thirty-four gen- tlemen accepted the programme of the majority, and sixteen that of the minority of the committee. The voters for the former were,—the Counts Almassy, Andrassy, Apponyi, and Auersperg, Prince V. Auers- perg, the Counts Barkoczy and Clam, Prince Colleredo, Count Haller, M. von Jakabb, Count St. Jullien, Bishop Koritzmitsch, M. von %rain- ski, Prince Francis Liechtenstein, M. von Mailatb, the Counts Mercandin, Nostitz, and Pace, Baron Petrino, Prince Salm, Baron Salvotti, Prince Schwarzenberg, M. von Staroieijski, the Counts Stockau and Borelli, Bishop Strossmayer, Count Szechen, MM. von Szogyenyi, Toperezer, and von Vraniczany, the Counts L. Wolkenstein (the Tyrol), U. Wol- kenstein (Standing Reichsrath), and Mocenigo, and Baron Zigno. The voters for the latter were,—Dr. Eder, Barons Erggelet, Gehringer, Haimberger, Dr. Hein, aron Herbert, Baron Lichtenfels, Bishop Mae- chierevitsch, M. von Vayer' Baron Beyer, Messrs. Schoeller, Strasser, Trenkler, and Wohlwend ; Messrs. Meager and Mocsonyi also accepted the programme of the minority, but conditionally. The Archdukes William and Leopold, the Archbishop of Vienna, Count Hartig, Dr. Polanski (Gallicia), and Bishop Schaguna (Transylvania), rejected both programmes.

After having thanked the Reichsrath, in the name of the Emperor, for its " self-devotion and activity," the Archduke-President stated that his Majesty had been pleased to direct him " to prorogue the enlargedCouncil of the Empire." The Assembly thereupon displayed its loyalty by raising a loud cry of "Long live the Emperor !" M. Manger has had an interview with the Emperor, and has been thanked for his moral courage.

A letter from Vienna gives some very striking items of intelligence—.

" Recruits are no longer raised for the Papal Government in this coun- try, but Baron Bach not long ago made a communication to that Govern- ment which may lead to a new misunderstanding between Sardinia and this country. The Ambassador stated that his most gracious master, the Emperor, hoped the Austrian volunteers would do honour to the army in which the greater part of them had received their military education. His Majesty trusted that they would be victorious if they should be attacked by the revolutionary bands. But, should the Papal troops be worsted, which God forefend, the Emperor will not withdraw his protection from such of his subjects as have faithfully discharged their duties to his Holi- ness. On the contrary, his Majesty will take the volunteer battalions, in their present formation, into his service, and allow the officers to retain their present rank.' The communication made by Baron Bach to Cardinal Anto- nelli would hardly have become known here had not the l'olksbote, an Ultra- montane organ, published it. Troops, artillery, ammunition, and supplies of all kinds are continually sent to the South, so that it is evident this Govern- ment considers the danger of war imminent. Several regiments of the line are under marching orders for Venetia, and among others Belgien,' Kinsky," Hessen, Benedek,' and Stainer.' The regiment Benedek,' which was in garrison at Radstadt during ten years, is passing through the Tyrol on its way to Venetia. The Austrian regiment at Mayence is to go to Verona, and the officers are said to have received an intimation that they will not be allowed to take their wives and children with them. The Austrians are making great efforts to complete the fortifications at Verona. The system of detached forts was introduced there some years ago, but the plans were on such a vast scale that a long time must elapse before the pro- jected works can be completed. On the 24th, the Ban of Croatia, who is a member of the Reichsrath, was summoned to the presence of the Emperor and ordered to return to his post without delay. There was a report that Garibaldi was about to make a descent on some part of the coast, and it pro- bably led to the order to extinguish the lamps in the lighthouses. Due notice of the measure was given to all the consuls, and we learn from Venice that the British Consul in that city immediately sent a telegram to the autho- rities at Malta."

The latest information from Vienna continues to speak of the warlike preparations of the Austrian Government. The conscription in Hungary is resisted by the flight of the conscripts. The national feeling in Hun- gary displays itself every day.

unga I' —Tlio Austrian Government is taking "preventive mea- sures" in B' ungary. Numerous arrests have taken place on account of the dissemination of revolutionary proclamations.

It is stated that, should not the former constitution of Hungary be re- stored by the Emperor, a refusal to pay the taxes will be organized throughout the kingdom.

The military classes of 1840-39-38-37-36, comprising young, men of the age of sixteen years, have been called to service. The levy will ter- minate on the 31st December next.

pain.—A telegram from Berlin reports that the Spanish Govern- ment has addressed to the different Powers a note supporting the protest issued by the King of Naples when retiring to Gaeta. The Spanish note recites that, by the Treaty of the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, the king- dom of the Two Sicilies bad been ceded by Austria to the Spanish Bourbons. This cession was afterwards confirmed by the Treaty of Vienna. The article 114 of the Final Act of Vienna having, under the guarantee of Europe, again sanctioned these stipulations, the Spanish Government considers it its duty to maintain, in the most formal manner, the rights of a member of tho august family of Spain, and to raise every opposition against the flagrant violation of solemn arrangements. The Spanish Minister at Berlin has remitted this note to Baron von Schleinitz, and the fact is known ; hence the telegram from Berlin.

k t le—Ali Pasha has formally denied having stated to the Austrian Chargé d'Affaires that he had proofs of Sir Henry Bulwer having con- spired against the Sultan, a story which he declared to be utterly absurd and untrue.

The Grand Vizier has been suddenly recalled by the Sultan. Ho was to arrive in Constantinople on the 29th of September. Another Minister has been sent to complete his mission. In Syria, Fund Pasha and the French general are to act in concert against the Druses. This report coming from Constantinople agrees with the tenor of let- ters received at Trieste from Beyrout-

" Trieste, October 1.—According to advices received here, the commander- in-chief of the French troops at Beyrout has declared to Fund Pasha.that he had received orders from Paris to place himself at his disposal, and to act according to the instructions agreed upon on the 10th of September at Con- stantinople between the Porte and the foreigu representatives. These in- structions state that the European Commission of Inquiry could not claim any legislative or executive powers, the same being exclusively reserved to the Extraordinary Commissioner of the Sultan." Direct from Beyrout we hear that Ewa Pasha had summoned the Druse chiefs to come in and .justify themselves. Many refused to obey, but some had gone in, notably Sheik Syad Bey Djonblat, of Moktura. The Druse sheiks were all to be tried by the extraordinary. Commission sitting at'Reyrou and before which Kurschid Pacha is arraigned. Two brigades of Turkish troops were to move into Lebanon; the one under Ishmael Pasha to Bteddin to pacify all the neighbouring country, the other to the South and towards Anti-Lebanon. Fund Pasha goes with the latter ; Ishmael Pasha (Kmety of Kars) commands the former.

Chin I.—Fuller details from Tah-lien-hwan Bay to the 25th of July have arrived. it had been arranged that the whole force, both French and English, should disembark at Pehtang, take the forts on the north or left bank of the river, and then assail those on the south. The whole of the English force had embarked on the 25th, and were then making their way across the Gulf of Pecheli for the Peiho. The Times correspondent sends some interesting items of intelligence.

Exchange of Compliments.—" On Friday, the 13th, the French General and Admiral Charner paid a visit to the English camp. Sir Hope Grant had made arrangements for an inspection of the artillery nod cavalry, and at eleven a. m. Lord Elgin accompanied the English and French Commanders- in-chief and the French Admiral to Odin Bay. The troops were drawn up on the beach ; King's Dragoon Guards, Probyn's Horse, Fane's Horse, and half a battery of Armstrong guns. It was a lovely summer's day, as the bright morning sun glistened en the spears of the wiry Sikhs and the heavy sabres of the stalwart King's Dragoon Guards. The bright scarlet coats of the dragoons were in happy contrast with the blue-black tunics and turbans of Probyn's Irregulars, while the red turbans and light blue dress of Fane's Horse, relieved the more sober hues of the Artillery uniform. A salute of nineteen guns welcomed Lord Elgin, and two of thirteen guns each greeted the French Admiral and General. Lord Elgin, General Montauban, Sir Hope Grant, and their brilliant Staffs, were mounted on some thirty magni- ficent Arabs, and cantered along the front of the cavalry drawn up in line two deep. They then ascended a hillock, and the cavalry and artillery de- filed before them. The King's Dragoon Guards turned out clean and soldier- like as if they were stationed at Aldershott instead of being encamped in Manchuria. Probyn's and Fane's Horse were models of light cavalry soldiers, wiry and active, hand and seat equally easy. The Royal Artillery looked as usual,—ready to go anywhere and do anything. There were up- wards of 1000 sabres, and I unhesitatingly say, that in no part of the world could 1000 horses be found in finer condition or more suited to their work. It is more than probable than no one of them had ever been inside a stable, yet they looked as blooming and fresh as the flower of the Pytchley or the front rank of the Quern will turn out soon after this letter reaches England," [The English chiefs subsequently visited Che-fow, the site of the French " ae-fow stands on the North side of the promontory of Shantung about sixty miles from its point. The harbour is formed by a long neck of land running parallel to the main, to which it is united by a low slip of sand, some three miles long. The entrance lies between this point and a group of islands which shelter the harbour towards the East. It is about a mile and a quarter in width. The harbour itself is three miles and a half wide, and running E.S.E. six miles long. The average depth of water is six fathoms, the bottom mud and shingle, and the anchorage good. The province of Shantung contains 30,000,000 inhabitants and 65,000 square miles. It is famous as the birthplace of Confucius and of his disciple, Men.us. The tomb of the former, who died a. c. 479, at Riuhfan, no great distance hence, is a gigantic monument surrounded by a forest of oaks, be- neath whose shade the body of the great Chinese philosopher reposes. Che- fow is the only good port in this district, and was intended to be opened to trade by the treaty of Tien-fain. Tan"chau, however, is the port named in the treaty, as its harbour was known, having been visited by Lord Macart- ney in 1793, and by Captain Elliott in 1840. It is, however, inferior to Che-fow in every respect, and can only be entered at high tide, while at Che-fow there is at all times abundance of water for large ships. This will be set right in the new treaty."

_French Gun,-boats.—" These gun-boats are made of iron, and sent out in fifteen pieces. The hew and stern pieces form two compartments, the re- mainder of the vessel a third. They are 78 feet long, and 18 feet beam, with two rudders, one at the stem, another akthReeteerue. ach botitie 7.5 tone burden, carries one rifled 30.pcunder, and draws firtfeet water. The boiler weighs six toes and a half For eight days past, the Trench. blee jackets have been busy landing these boats, and yet two arelyingdisjointed as they came out of the ship, while the third has seven pieces joined toge- ther. The officers who command them have done all that energy and skill could devise, and the men have worked with a will. But it is one thing to make experiments in a dockyard with everything at hand, another to work in a deserted bay on the coast of China. At Toulon, the boats are put toge- ther in thirty-six hours. Not one of them will be completed here under a fortnight, if then. It was not without considerable test that Great Britain discovered ordinary iron vessels to be unsuited for war; and I do not believe these gnu-boats will prove an exception to the rule, A single shot might sink them, and as the fifteen pieces are only fastened together with screws and rivets, they would be iu great danger of breaking their backs either in a sea or in taking the ground."

The English Camp and Cavalry Embarkation.—" The good health of the troops continues. Less than 4i per cent are on the sick list, including therein all the men who have cut their feet with oystershells while bathing. There are not more than 1 per cent of serious cases. One regiment, the 99th, is 598 strong, and has but two men absent from duty. The hospital- ships are models of comfort and even luxury. No want of medical com- forts' here. Whatever the patient requires is at hand, from champagne and sherry to sago and arrowroot. The consequence is that Sir Hope Grant has embarked 11,194 men for service at the Peiho, in as good condition as though they were taken from the healthiest rural distriot at home. The horses were shipped on the 23d, and I went over to the bay to witness the sight. The transports were anchored in the bay, and paddle-box boats, rafts, and horse-boats were all in requisition. The best device came from the Magieienne. Two of her paddle-box boats were boarded over, and carried thirty-two horses at a time. There was no crowding, no confusion, no orders and counter-orders. The arrangeraents had been carefully made, were properly carried out, and reflected the greatest credit on Colonel Mae- kenzie, Colonel Walker, and the Quartermaster General's State as well as on Lord John Hay and the naval officers. 2000 cavalry and artillery horses, and nearly 3000 ponies and baggage horses, were embarked without a single accident. As each transport was filled, a saucy little gun-boat walked up to her—a pigmy. beside a giant—hooked her on, and carried her whither she listed. There is nothing afloat like these English gun-boats. They turn within their own length, poke their noses into every creek along the coast, and are the school in which some of the best men in our Navy have been &Wined."

The Times makes the following comments on " an authentic sketch of the Tai-ping insurgents in China from an'eye-witness, Mr. Edkins, the Missionary," published in its columns on Wednesday- " While Mr. Edkins's narrative adds little to our knowledge of the origin or political bearings of the insurrection, it professes to throw sonic light on its religious aspect. ' When, the ietelligence reached Shanghai that the semi-Christian rebels were become our neighbours, great curiosity was felt to leara from personal intercourse what are their present opinions and feelings in regard to foreigners and Christianity.' This was the chief object of Mr. Edkins's expedition, and we cannot say that its results at all satisfy us that the Chinese have any leanings towards orthodoxy. It is true that a book called Thee risions of Hung-ein-tshucti, containing, according to Mr. Ed- kins our best lights on the early hietory of the rebellion,' vindicates satisfactorily its religions origin, and shows that while the founder has erred in regarding himself as the subject of immediate Divine inspirations, he is a sincere believer in Christianity.' We have not had the advantage of reading this work, but the facts of Mr. Edkins's interview with the rebel leaders are quite inadequate to support such a conclusion. One chief, Ho-sin-i, when questioned respecting the religion of the party to which he belongs, excused himself from entering into particulars by stating, that being a late adherent, and not having devoted his time to anything but mili- tary operations, he could not. do more than repeat the elementary formula of the Ted-ping creed.' Another chief, who was an original adherent' of the movement, confined himself to remarking that the Chinese and foreigners should be in harmony, seeing that they worship

the same Heavenly Father and Heavenly Brother (Jesus), ' and profess the same religion.' Very similar language was held by the Chung-Wang, or Faithful King,' himself, after the conversation had been opened with the following. leading' question—' Faithful King, may you live a thousand years! We come from Shanghai, and belong to the great English nation. i We have heard that your religion is Christian, like our own. We worship, like you, the Heavenly Father. We have, therefore, come to make inquiry respecting this.' Thus primed, the Faithful King spoke of Jesus as the Saviour of the World,' adding that the younger brother of Jesus is our chief.' Prudently evading the discussion of this heresy, the missionaries eli- cited that the first day of the week was kept as the worship-day,' and ob- tained leave to send the Chung-Wang some religious books. This is really all that the conversation amounts to, and, even though they are said to perform baptism by rubbing water on the chest,' and to distribute the New Testament, it would be a great stretch of credulity to mistake their spirit for that of Christianity. The Mahomedan Koran and the history and institutions of Buddhism present far more striking analogies to our own faith than this studied or fortuitous identity of certain theological terms and practices. Travellers agree in representing the prevailing creed of China as practical Atheism, and, as the materials of a religious system had to be procured somewhere, it is not wonderful that ours was laid under con- tribution."