1 AUGUST 1931

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A Ban on Air-War ?

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• The recent air manoeuvres over London have driven home once more the conviction to which all such exercises invariably point, that no adequate defences against air attack...

The aeroplane is primarily an offensive weapon. If the aggressor

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had no air force there would be no essential reason for the defence to maintain one. It is against air attack that air defence is. needed. The real question is whether it is...

[Signed articles do not necessarily represent the views of the

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News of the Week

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The Premier in Berlin THE Berlin visit of Mr. Ramsay MacDonald and Mr. -I- Henderson, which began on Monday and ended on Wednesday, represented technically the sequel to the...


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1.-A Subscription to the SPECTATOR costs Thirty Shillings per annum, including postage, to any part of the world. The SPECTATOR is registered as a Newspaper. The Postage on this...

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At Westminster Parliament, with an adjournment of which its members

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stand in more than ordinary need impending, has been concerned mainly with questions of domestic interest. The House of Commons, on Thursday, July 25th, showed sonic anxiety for...

France's Disarmament Policy Very similar issues will in any case

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have to be faced in connexion with the memorandum on disarmament which the French Government has just sent to the League of Nations in anticipation of next year's con- ference....

The St. Aidan's Controversy The controversy between the Bishop of

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Birmingham and the Archbishop of Canterbury has now got far beyond the question whether the Archbishop should or should not have instituted Mr. Simmonds to the benefice of St....

The agricultural discussions, on the other hand, have been distinctly

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controversial, not only the two parties but the two Houses finding themselves at issue on the Agricultural Land Utilization Bill, which represents the Government's fulfilment of...

The point of principle involved is fundamental. Whether the Nanking

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Government is unable, or whether it is unwilling, to let its right, or civilian, hand -take official cognizance of what its left, or military, hand is doing, the mere fact that...

China Mr. John Thorburn, a nineteen-year-old British resident in Shanghai,

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disappeared on June 3rd. There is conclusive evidence that he was arrested by the military police. He was in their hands when he was last heard of on June 11th. The official...

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Japan's Expansion One or two competent writers on Japan having

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announced lately, with some confidence, that the popula- tion question in the Japanese Empire would settle itself because the rate of increase was steadily slowing down, the...

Breaking Up The advent of school holidays means one thing

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to readers of the Spectator as parents and something very different as they notice the swarms of urchins of both sexes settling in these last few days like locusts on the London...

Bank Rate 31 per cent., changed from 21 per cent.

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on July 23rd, 1981. War Loan (5 per cent.) was on Wednesday 10211 ; on Wednesday week, 1031 ; a year ago, 1081. Funding Loan (4 per cent.) was on Wednesday 921; on Wednesday...

* * * * Lord Knutsford We record with deep

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regret the sudden death on Monday of Lord Knutsford, of whose devoted work in the cause of medical charity the London Hospital stands as a proud memorial. Sydney Holland, born...

Mr. Bernard Shaw in Russia Russia would appear to be

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enjoying Mr. Bernard Shaw as much as Mr. Bernard Shaw is enjoying Russia. That is not surprising, for Mr. Shaw is saying of Communists and Communism all that in their most...

Outrage in India The sudden recrudescence of outrages in India

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is extremely disturbing, not because it betokens any widespread concerted movement—of that there is no evidence at all—but because such crimes or attempted crimes put invaluable...

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After the Conference

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T HE London Seven-Power Conference, which in a sense began in Paris, may be said in a sense to have continued in Berlin, whither Mr. Stimson betook himself immediately the...

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The New Cancer Discovery TN the light of the amazing

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result of the severe test applied by the investigation committee of the British Empire Cancer Campaign to the claims of Dr. Bendien, of Zeist, it should be impossible any longer...

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The Week in Parliament

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T HE end of session fag (all too apparent among members) has had the paradoxical result of enabling Parliament to complete more legislation than the Govern- ment really expected...

Churches in the Wilderness

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By EVELYN UNDER !JILL. 1 N those corners of the daily press which give a more or -L less casual .attention to " religious topics," there have lately appeared insistent appeals...

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Charing Cross : A Study in Metropolitan Indecision By E.

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J. STRACHEY. O UR handling of the problem of rebuilding Charing Cross Bridge and replanning its approaches on either side has not done our community any credit. " July 30th...

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The Colour Bar

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[The Spectator does not necessarily agree with all the views of the writers contributing to this series on the Colour Bar: Our object in publishing the series is to attempt some...

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"T HE Productivity of Labour : this is in the last resort the chief and the most important condition for the victory of Socialism. Capitalism can be defeated only by a Socialism...

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The Pedestrian's Charter

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BY SIR WILLIAM BEACH THOIlL4S. I T was once declared from the Bench that there is no law of trespass in England. Trespassers cannot be prosecuted, as a thousand mendacious...

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Love Me , Love My Dog By J. B. MORTON. T HE

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other day, in Chicago, a woman was granted a divorce and given the custody of the dog. She is reported as having told the Court that when her husband confessed that he had...

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All that can be said about Near Beer, the sale of which is permitted in Hyde Park because it contains under 2 per cent. *Except for purposes of . taxation, landlords do not...

Although neither ignorance nor distortion are out of place in

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attacking what Mr. Joad, whimsically inverting his commas, calls the ' rights ' of the propertied classes " he should, we think, have mentioned that considerable distress and...

A Penny of Observation ARMADO : How haat thou purchased

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this experience ? MOTH : By my penny of observation. (Love's Labour's Lost.) THE NEW SIN. If there is one thing viler than a landlord, it is a landlord who, in his spare...

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The Board of Education of Syracuse, New York, is consider- ing the removal of Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice from their pupils' reading lists, on the grounds that the...


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TURNER'S EARLY OIL PAINTINGS. THERE are those to-day who are tempted to decry Turner's greatness as an artist—perhaps because the majority of his works in the possession of the...

The Cinema

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CHEVALIER AND OTHERS. The Smiling Lieutenant, M. Maurice Chevalier's latest film, which is now being shown at the Carlton, is second-rate as a film, and not quite first-rate as...

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One of the most notable examples of intensive cultivation on a large scale in England is to be seen at Kingston Bagpuze, in Berkshire. On farms almost derelict a few years ago...

First, a word about the author. He comes from that

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stal- wart and not unprosperous country of smallholders, who farm the black land just north of Liverpool, and his name has been associated with the district since the time of...


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Is the British public, on its aesthetic side, " Therion " or Theos," a beast or an angel ? Two modern instances suggest diametrically opposite replies. Wicken Fen, a delightful...

The really amazing success of the National Mark in the

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last six months or so suggests a new form of co-operatior, which may make the merchant an ally, not an enemy, may use his incomparable skill in marketing and overcome the...

So much for the " Therion " in the public.

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Now for the " Theos." The public-spirited owner of a lovely and precious garden by that blessed spot, Henley-on-Thames, gives free access to the public at all sorts of times and...

Country Life

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A FRUITFUL IDEA. One of the standard mysteries of British farming is that co-operation fails—fails as completely as it succeeds in Ireland or Denmark—though most people agree...

The water-lilies at Wicken Fen have a parallel in the

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lilies at Alderfen Broad, which readers of the Spectator (as the Secretary of the Norfolk Naturalist's Trust writes to say) are helping to buy. The white and yellow varieties...

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Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,-It is a matter of gratification that the Government of India have decided to add some more delegates to the Round Table Conference. But the...

Letters to the Editor

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[In view of the length of many of the letters which we receive, we would remind correspondents that we often cannot give space for long letters and that short ones are generally...

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THE -FIVE YEARS' PLAN [To the Editor of-the SPECTATOR.]

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SIR, —One can understand a nation putting up with an intolerable shortage of commodities essential to a decent human existence, such as food, clothes, habitable dwellings, &c.,...


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I call your attention to the report of the Mental Deficiency Committee of 1929, which sums up definitely against sterilization? This Committee, a joint Committee of the Board of...


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the SPECTATOR.] Sin,—The decision not to allow coloured boxers to take part in the Empire Games to be held in South Africa is an example of the pernicious influence of the...

KENYA [To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.]

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a,—Mr. J. A. Watson, in a letter published on July 11th, takes grave exception to Professor Malinowski's comments on European production in Kenya, and in order to demonstrate...

ISLAM AND THE COLOUR BAR [To the Editor of the

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SPECTATOR.] SIR,—Surely it is rash to cite the eccentric Akbar as a proof that Muslims are ready to intermarry with Hindus. Akbar was Muhammadan in name alone. He invented a...

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SIR,—Mr. C. E. M. Joad, in supporting the Access to Moun- tains and Moorlands Bill in your last issue, entirely ignores the economic side of the question. Nobody will deny that...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sin,—The statement, emanating from Government sources, was recently made that Douglas fir in British Columbia might hold out for fifteen years....

MIXED BATHING [To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.]

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• Sra,—How refreshing it is that someone is at last willing to admit that the idea of bathing with ladies makes him feel uncomfortable ! Perhaps it is not generally 'realized...

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A Hundred Years Ago It is unnecessary to dwell on

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the general stagnation of business occasioned by suspense as to the fate of the Reform Bills. Every one who lives by his industry acknowledges that he feels in his own person a...


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These are the days of cheap books ; they are also becoming those of cheap prints. There are several series of Views in England, Paris, &c. published- in quarto size; at one...


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, I HAVE something to say to you, Earth ; Let me lie down, stretching my arms on your breast, And be close and at rest. . As my heart leaps at each green birth of you, So let...

THE BATTLE OF BRITNANBURIL In reviewing Mr. Cockburn ' s book on

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the Battle of Brunan- burh, I said that Anston meant " the one or lonely stone," and I said so on the high authority of the English Place-Name Survey, than which I know no...

It is to be hoped that Sir W. Beach Thomas

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will not adopt the practice of his eat (Spectator, July 25th, p. 112) of looking to the left when starting across the road, and to the right when half way over. Only an animal...


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F. J. Leweock's review of building society progress contained in your last week ' s Banking Supplement points out that the scale of these societies ' operations has more than...


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[To the Editor of the SFECrATOR.] Sta,—Mrs. Binstead's letter in your paper is Written under a misapprehension. The R.S .P.C.A. has no existence and no policy apart from its...

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"Spectator" Compet i t ions RULES AND CONDITIONS Entries must be typed or

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very clearly written on one side of the paper only. The name and address, or pseudonym, of the competitor must be on each entry and not on a separate sheet. When a word limit is...

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The Cicadas and Other Poems. By Aldous Huxley. (Chatto and Windus. 5s.) Snow. Poems by Humbert Wolfe. (Gollancz. 6s.) The Collected Satires and Poems of Osbert Sitwell. (Duck-...

Lord Salisbury as Leader Ix this volume—opening a second instalment;

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delayed for nine years after the first twn—Lady Gwendolen Cecil begins with a delightful chapter that sketches Lord Salisbury's relations to his children, who in the period...

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The Real Turner

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Turner. By Walter Bayos, A.R.W.S. (Geoffrey Bios. 10s. 6d.) OWING to a variety of circumstances Turner, the man, has come down to us as a rather unsympathetic figure—gloomy,...

Page 22


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THE doctrine that high wages are one of the principal condi- tions of general prosperity was loudly proclaimed a few years ago by Messrs. Foster and Catchings. This theory was...


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READY. One Shilling (or 25 cents) for each copy should be enclosed with instructions, and addressed to :- INDEX DEPT., THE " SPECTATOR," LTD., 99 GOWER STREET, LONDON, W.C. 1,...

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American Crime

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King crime. By Collinson Owen. (Bann. 12s. M.) At the risk of truism it must be said that there exists, of course, in the United States a decent law-abiding, justice - loving...

The Swiss Prophet

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The Significance of Karl Barth. By John MeConnachie. (Hodder and Stoughton. 6s.) The Theology of Karl Barth : A Short Introduction. By J. Arundel. (Chapman. 28.) Christ our...

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The Turmoil of Youth

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Booxs on the training of youth are, as Mr. Castle himself observes, numberless. But there is always room for another good book on any subject, and on that ground the publication...


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Clothes. By Eric Gill. (Jonathan Cape. 10s. 6d.) IN this little volume Mr. Eric Gill proves himself as handy with his pen as with his chisel—as handy certainly, and yet the...

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Four Books on India

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India on the Brink. By a British Merchant. (King. 3s.) Boons published to-day on the Indian situation are likely to fall into one of two elasses—those which violently attack...

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Tim -Hidden Child. By Franz Werfel. Translated by Geoffrey -Dunlop. (Jarrolds. 78. 6d.) MORE and more as the novel grows older is it clear that if it is to be a work of art it...

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Current Literature

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WE do not know what will be the feelings of our Scottish readers when they find in Mr. Clennell Wilkinson's The English Adventurers (Longman, 9s. fid.) James Bruce of Abyssinian...

Mr. Douglas Gordon's very pleasant Dartmoor in all its Moods

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(Murray, 9s.) has something to say about the human dwellers on the moor—their customs, land-tenures and beliefs in white magic, for example—but. much more about its wild...

Having read her previous book with interest, we opened Madame

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David-Neel's new book with pleasant anticipations. With Mystics and Magicians in Tibet (The Bodley Head, 15s.) both entertains and disappoints. An introduction by Dr. A....

India in Crisis, by Arthur Duncan (Putnam, 5s.) repre- sents

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a moderate British point of view. Its author seems to hold that the Simon Report 'should be imple- mented. " Volume I is a masterly survey of a colossal problem. It is perhaps...

The second volume of Major Gerald Burrard's The Modern Shotgun

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(Jenkins, 15s.) deals principally and exhaustively with the problem of the cartridge. This topic involvefi excursions into -the chemical composition of powders and various...


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We publish on this page articles and notes whicb ma!, help o:Ur readers in making their plans for travel at home and abroad. They are written by correspondents who have visited...

Reference Books

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BUILDING SOCIETIES' YEAR BOOK, 1931. (Reed and CO., 37 Cursitor Street, E.C. 4. 7s. 6d.) EVERYDAY GARDENING. By .1. Coutts. (Ward, Lock. Is. 6d.) THE CHINA YEAR Boox, 1931....

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Banking and Industry—The Macmillan Report—II

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THE FIDUCIARY ISSUE. S031E of the proposals of the Committee with regard to Bank of England administration, and with regard to banking and currency regulations, may be...

Finance—Public & Private

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The Financial Outlook THERE was probably seldom a time when it was more difficult to write with precision concerning the financial outlook, in which, of course, is included...

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With regard to the special question of finance and industry the Committee express their belief in the need for - closer co-operation between finance and industry, • but...

Financial Notes

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RALLY IN BRAZILS. THE stock markets during -the past week have been quieter and steadier on the whole owing to a slackening of the gold drain from the Bank. Since my last...

COVENT GARDEN PROPERTIES. - - The latest Report of Covent

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Garden - Properties shows that for the year ending June 30th last the profits were slightly in excess of a year ago, the total being £213,925 against £213,084. After paying the...


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I shall hope at an early -date to return to a fuller examination of the details of the Macmillan Report,' but without any disparagement of the very fine work done by the...


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The dividend announcements (hiking the week by the Metropolitan and Southern Railway companies were generally regarded in the market as somewhat disappointing, though, of...


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At the meeting last week of Waring and Gillow there was a very frank and animated discussion with regard to the general position' of the company and the proceedings ended in...