10 NOVEMBER 1860, Page 2


of the despatch which Lord John Russell has forwarded to Sir James Hudson at the Court of Turin. It was pub- lished last Saturday ; and its purport appeared impart of our impression on that day.

lord John Russell to Sir James Hudson.

"Foreign Office, OctOber 97. "Sir—It appears that the late proceedings of the King of Sardinia have been strongly disapproved of by several of the Courts of Europe.

"•The Emperor of the French, on hearing of the invasion of the Papal States by the army of General Cialdini, withdrew his Minister from Turin, expressing at the same time the opinion of the Imperial Government in condemnation of the invasion of the Roman territory. The Emperor of Russia has, we are told.. declared in strong terms his indignation at the entrance, of the army of the King of Sardinia into the Neapolitan territory, and has withdrawn his entire mission from Turin. The Prince Regent of Prussia has also thought it neceesary to convey to Sardinia a sense of his displeasure, but be has net thought it necessary to remove the Prussian Minister from Turin.

" After these diplomatic acts, it would ecarely be just to Italy, or respect- ful to the other Great Powers of Europe, were the Government of her Mi!jesty any longer to withhold the expression of their opinion. In so doing, however, her Majesty's Government have no intention to raise a dispute upon the reasons which have been given in the name of the King of Sardinia for the invasion of the Roman and Neapolitan States. Whether or no the Pope was justified in defending his authority by means of foreign levies ; whether the King of the Two Sicilies, while still main- taining his flag at Capua and Gaeta, can be said to have abdicated, are not the arguments upon which her Majesty's Government propose to dilate.

" The large questions which appear to them to be at issue are these:— Were the people of Italy justified in asking the assistance of the King of Sardinia to relievelthern from Governments with which they were discon- tented? and was the King of Sardinia justified in furnishing the assistance of his arms to the people of the Roman and Neapolitan 'States ? There appear to have been two motives which have induced the people of-the Roman and Neapolitan States to join willingly in the subversion of their Governments. The first of these was that the Government of the Pope and the King of the Two Sicilies. provided so ill for the-administration of justice, the protection of personal liberty, and the general welfare of their people, that their subjects looked forward to the overthrow of their rulers as a necessary preliminary to all improvement in their condition. , "The second motive was, that a conviction had spread since the year 1849, that the only manner in which Italians could secure their indepen- dence of foreign control was by forming one strong government for the whole of Italy. The struggle of Charles Albert, in 1048, and the sym- pathy which the present King of Sardinia has shown for the Italian cause, have naturally caused the association of the name of Victor Emmanuel with the single authority under which the Italians aspire to live.

" Looking at the question in this view, her Majesty's Government must admit that the Italians themselves are the best judges of their own interests. " That eminent jurist Vattel, when discussing the lawfalneis of the assistance given by the United Provinces to the Prince of Orange when he invaded . England and overturned the throne of James II., sale, 'The Au- thority of the Prince of Orange had doubtless an influence on the delibera- tions of the States General, but it did not lead them to the'commission of an act of injustice, --for when apeople for good reasons take rip arms against an opp"mor, it is but an sot of justice and generosity to assist brave menin the defence of their liberties.'.

"Therefore, according to Vattel, the question-reaolves itself into ibis

Did the people of Naples and of the States take up arm's:against theiragovernmentefor-good reasons?

"Upon this grave matter her. Majesty's Government hold that the people in question are themselves the best judges or 'their own- affairs: Her Ma- jesty's Government do not. feel justified in declaring that the people of Southern Italy had not good reasons for throwing offtheir allegiance to their former-governments.; her Majesty's Government cannot, therefore, pretend to blame the King of tardima for 'misting them. 'There remains, however, a question of fact. It is asserted by the partisans or the falai govern- ment, that the people.of the Roman. States were attached to the Pope, mid

thapeople of the kingdom.of Naples to the dynasty of Francis but that, Sardinian agents and foreign adizenturers have by face and intrigue sub- verted the thrones of those sovereigns. •

"It is difficult, however, to believe, after the astonishing events which we have seen, that the Pope and the King of the Two Sicilies possessed the loire of their people. How 'was it, one must ask, 'that the Pepe found-ft im- poisible 'to levy al:lomat' army; and that • he was forced to rely alniest entirely upon foreign mercenaries ? How did it happen again, -that-Gari- baldi conquered nearly all Sicily with 2000 men, and marched from Reggio to Naples with 5000? How but fromthe universal disaffection cif the people of Mervin Sicilies ? Neither can it 'be said That this 'testimony of the popular will was capricious or eauseleas.. Forty years ago the'Neapoli- tan people made an attempt regularly and temperately to reform their Goveninient under the reittiffig dynasty. ' The POitei'd of Europa, assems bled atIsayrbach, resolved, with the exception of England, to, put down this atterinft* force. It was pat "own, and a large foreign army was left in thel`woNWilies to maintain spoial order. In 1848, The Neapolitan people ing to Ireetheir country ; What wonder, , that in 1860 the Neapolitans, mistrustful ein again attempted to secure libdtty under, ourbon dynasty; but their beat

patricals'atenell by an imprisontleht of t eras for0eaffence of endeavour-

mistrustful and resentful, sheuld throw- off the Bourbons, as in 1688 England had thrown off the Stuarts ? It must be admitted un- doubtedly that the severance, of ties which bind together a Sovereign and his subjects is in itself a misfortune. Notions of allegiance heeome con- fused, the succession of the throne is disputed, adverse parties threaten the peace of society, rights and_pretensions are opposed to each other, and mar the haemorry of the Stale.' Yet it must be acknowledged,. on the ether hand, that the Italian revolution has been conducted 'with singular temper-and forbearance. The subversion of existing power has not been followed, as is too often the case, by an outbreak of -popular vengeance.- The extreme views of democrats have newherei prevailed. Public opinion has checked the excesses of -the public triumph. The venerated formraconstitutional monarchy have-been associated with the name of a Prince -who represents an ancient and glorious dynasty. " Such heving been the camels and the concomitant circumstances of the revolution of Italy, her Majesty's Government can See no sufficient ground for the 'severe censure with which Austria, France, :Prussia, and Russia have visited the acts of the King of Sardinia. Her Majesty's Government will turn their eyes rather to the gratifying prospect of a people building up the edifice of their liberties, and consolidating the work of their inde- pendence, amid the sympathies and good wishes of Europe. " I have, -&-e.-, (Signed) J. Itussart,. • " P.8...—You are at liberty to give a copy of this despatch to Count Cavour.

" To Sir James Hudson, &c., &o."