10 SEPTEMBER 1859, Page 3


The annual dinner at Sheffield, known as the Master Cutlers' Feast, is usually illustrated by the presence of some person eminent in public life. It was held this year on the 2d September. Mr. Robert Jackson, Master Cutler last year, had been reelected, and of course he presided. Among those present were Lord Milton. Mr. Thomas Maley, Sir John Ramsden, Mr. George Hadfield, Mr. W. Fisher, Mr. Dunn, Mr. E. Bramley, Alder- man Matthews, and the chief guest of the evening, Mr. James Wilson, now Financial Member of the Calcutta Council. The speeches were in general appropriate to the °cession, but not of general interest. That of Mr. Wilson was an exception. In reply to the tout proposed in his honour, after thanking the company for the compliment and the Cutlers for the invitation they had sent him, he referred to his mission to India, and entered into some details connected therewith- " From the moment I made up my mind to accept that responsible duty, I determined to make myself personally acquainted with the trading and com- mercial connexions of this country with India. Gentlemen, finance is not mere arithmetic. Finance is a great. policy. It lies at the bottom—at the root of government in every country. Without sound finance no good government is possible. Without sound policy no sound finalise is possible. Therefore, the first conclusion 1 arrived at WU that 1 would devote every day I had in England to personally knowing and under..

standing the commercial relationships of England and India. I have long held the opinion, which cannot be strange to this company or to Englishmen at large, that in the commercial and fiscal policy of a nation are involved the happiness, prosperity, and welfare, not only of the working classes, but of all classes. I have ever been unable to dirstinguieh between the interests of the one from that of the other. I know no principle that is good in Eng- land which is not good also all over the world. There may, indeed, be very striking distinctions of race and nationality. There may be a variety of

reasons why the same principle should be carried into operation in different ways, but a sound principle here is a sound one everywhere. I believe the principles by which the prosperity of the people of 'England has been ad- vanced are the principles on which the welfare of any people in any part of the world may be promoted. It has been with that view that I have sought

to understand the commercial relations of the people of India with this country. "Perhaps Toil will permit me to refer, in a few words, to the peculiar cir- cumstances o our Indian empire at present. One of your honourable Mem- bers, whom I regret not to sec present, has distinguished himself, both in writing and speeches, by describing, in very vivid language, what consti- tutes an English colony. He has painted in bright colours the English co- lonist carrying with him the habits, the notions, the institutions, and the religion of his country. That is not the case with our Indian empire. We have had a committee sitting on the subject of the colonization of India during the last two sessions. They have just presented their report, and they call attention to the distinction existing between India and our other colonies. There seems to be no chance of settling in the East colonies in the ordinary sense of the term. We find a religion there altogether different from our own laws, unknown to us in England, and almost antagonistic to our own ; a dense population, admitting of little further increase, and work- ing at a low rate of wages, inconsistent with the settlement there of Eu- ropean labourers and artisans. But we have an empire of not less than 200,000,000 people. On England rests the responsibility of the well-being of that empire, and it is for us to say if we will shrink from it. I will not

now inquire as to the wisdom of this acquisition. We have it, and with it we have received a responsibility from which we cannot shrink. It may be

that in the hands of Providence we are to be the instruments of spreading a higher civilization there. It may be that we are to be the means of dif- fusing a better religion than the races of India have before possessed. But, whatever the result, we are the rulers of an empire of 200,000,000, and we

cannot shrink from the duty of doing the best in our power for them. (Cheers.) That being the case, let us never forget that the duty we owe to

them is irrespective of the interests of the British empire. I believe the two interests, well understood, are identical, and that to develop Indian in- terests will best promote our own. Be that as it may, we have undertaken a

great duty, and that duty we must perform. It has been well observed by

Sir John Lawrence, that wherever during the late mutiny the power of the British Government was withdrawn, anarchy at once prevailed. Village fought against village. Old feuds, angry discussions, passions, which had slept for many years, again broke out. That proves what would be the case if the ruling hand were withdrawn for one moment, or if we slackened the

discipline which has been successfully- exerted. Seeing we have that duty

to perform, it becomes us to take the most enlightened view of it. Great discussions have arisen in this country as to the extent to which the Government should interfere with the religions of India. I believe almost all right-minded men are agreed that while it is our duty to give unlimited opportunities for the spread of the Chris- tian religion, yet it would be neither wise nor prudent for the Go-

vernment as such to interfere with the religions of the people. (Cheers.) I believe that if you have a great duty to perform in a country

like India, it will be beat discharged by example, by showing that we have a religion higher and better than theirs, by impressing them with proofs of the justice of our laws, by liberality in our conduct in regard to them, by that intercourse which may be ascribed to low motives, but perhaps is one of the most effective, consisting in a free exchange of our mutual com- modities in the operations of commerce. Well, then, gentlemen, what we have to look to is to develop the resources of India. No doubt we shall en- counter enormous difficulties in the first instance. There is the difficulty of caste. I ask any man, knowing the habits of the people of this country, to consider how impossible it would be for society to advance here if every class was fixed in its own position, and incapable of rising above it or altering that position. I need only refer to the subject to reed l to your minds many remarkable examples of men rising by honourable exertions in their social position, and affecting beneficially a whole manufacturing dictrict. In India men are tied up by caste, and whatever their exertions or talents they cannot rise beyond it. You may conceive how enormous is this impediment. We know these difficulties. It is our duty to meet them, and we must do our best. And it is the character of the English people, knowing the diffi-

culties lying in their path, not to attempt to shirk them, but manfully to meet them. (Cheers.) Difficult as the task of contending with caste may be, it is not insurmountable. I hope railways, steam navigation, and free

commercial intercourse between man and man, and above all, justice ad- ministered in European courts to the lowest and the highest, will, in course of time, make a great change. Already the railways in India have done much. Already by a sort of compulsion various castes will travel in the same carriage, though formerly they would never meet. The impossibility of keeping up the distinction is puting an end to the distinction, and in course of time we may hope that it will overcome that difficulty, which I take to be our greatest impediment at this moment. However that may be, we have abundance of work before us. We have to follow out a principle which has succeeded in the West, to give it a fair field and that encourage- ment which consists in the maintenance of law and order, and rely for our success on the prosperity it will confer on the natives. Above all, we have to rely on the intercommunication between our Eastern empire and this country. We have had experience of free-trade policy in this country. We know very well that for many years great differences of opinion pre- vailed as to our financial and commercial policy. We know that amid great difficulties the late Sir Robert Peel undertook the subject, and at last put our finances in a flourishing condition. But that was only done by means of improved fiscal and commercial legislation. I believe the same thing may be done in India." Quitting that subject, Mr. Wilson referred to the altered state of Eu- ropean affairs. We arc now at peace. The peace of Europe and the alliance with France should be maintained. This can be beat done by persisting in holding a dignified condition, and remembering that perfect preparation for war is the best preparation for peace. " But, gentlemen, we have been threatened this week with another war, and I for one shall not at all regret if that war be declared. Count de Morny has threatened us with a war in which I am sure England will readily engage —a free rivalry in commerce. (Cheers.) In that strife, upon equal terms, England is over ready to engage. And it is a state of war which we should never desire to exchange for peace. There is nothing the English trader more desires than a friendly rivalry with all the world. And if I may ten- der a word of advice to Count de Morny and our French rivals, I should say

that if they would enter on this war with England they should first dis- embarrass themselves of a great!iumber of prohibitions. If they enter upon that war hampered as they are now, they will find themselves like jockeys very unequally weighted in a race. My honourable friend the member for Manchester mentioned to me today a circumstance that will illustrate this. One of the greatest discoveries of the age in cotton spinning was made in France, but not one French manufacturer availed himself of it. But the inventor came to Manchester, and the manufacturers there paid him 100,0001. for it. When the cotton manufacturers of France were applied to, they said they were protected by the laws; that they had plenty of business and made as much profit as satisfied them, and it would not pay them to make ex- periments. I tell Count de Morny and the French Government that if they will enter into this warfare with England, they must learn to buy the best improvements, though it may be at the highest price. lithe French choose to enter upon that war I am sure neither you nor any other manufacturers will object. Whether they accept free trade or not wawill accept their con- dition of a war of rivalry in commerce and manufactures." ((.heers.)

The other speakers were Alderman Matthews, Mr. T. Dunn, Sir John Ramsden, Mr. W. Fisher, Mr. Hadfield, Mr. Bramley, and Mr. Bazley.

The election of Mr. Leatham, brother-in-law of Mr. John Bright, for Huddersfield, was celebrated on Thursday at that place. The Rochdale

tent was set up, and about 3000 persons assembled to eat and drink in honour of Mr. Leatham. After the repast Mr. Leathern spoke in answer to a complimentary resolution. Mr. Bright moved a resolution in favour of Parliamentary Reform, and proceeded to make a long speech on the subject. He said there is no real representation. The policy of Parlia- ment has little reference to the wishes of the people. Beneficial mea- sures are forced on an unwilling House. "All that we have done of late years is to vote with listless apathy millions of money for which you have toiled." Then he " glanced " at the question of church-rates, with rubs at Whig statesmen for not abolishing them, and followed it up. by calling for a better distribution of the enormous funds of the Church. Land transfer, the spending of 12,000,000/. a year "by the Horse Guards" (sic) ; flogging in the Army; naval expenditure ; the aristocracy formed topics in succession. The Times has called upon Mr. Cobden and "even me" to aid in decreasing naval expenditure. "You who have been in the gallery of the House of Commons know well that I have opposite to me there a phalanx, when they are all there, of some 300 Members—that is, of the Tory party—and lam not about to exclude all on our side from what I am going to say about them ; but I will undertake to say, and, what is more, to prove, that if you will take those 300 men, and add up everything which they pay directly and indi- rectly in taxes to the State, and put it on one side of the ledger, and on the other side put everything which they and their immediate families received from the State in appointments and salaries in one branch of the public service or another, then it will appear they receive three times, I believe five times, I think I should not err if I said ten times, as much as they pay. Why, then, am I to be asked to go to their stolid phalanx of tax received and tax expended, and to beg, and implore them to be more moderate in the use of the public money ?' Mr. Bright described the bulk of the re- venue as raised from articles of consumption and not from property. "Well, this is not to be wondered at. . . . You have a Government which consists of about 400 great, some of them rich, all of them titled families, and they are assisted and buttressed up by all the untitled territorial pos- sessors throughout the United Kingdom. They rule you, and they tax you„ and they spend your taxes freely. Now, I have not the slightest ani- mosity against these people. I like them to be in their own, but their own place is not, to my thinking, governing without my consent,. nor governing you without your consent. Let them have, then, fair play in the country. . . . I do not find among this class any preeminence either in art or in literature, in industry, or in commerce, or in the science of legislation, or in the practiee of administration. I never met with a lord or a man of title, or a man of family, or a man of blood,' or a man boasting of his an- cestry, but I could match him in any of his qualities to which I have re- ferred—(sm/eh laughter and ehe,ers)—tut notwithstanding this, that class has ruled us for 170 years, and the time in my opinion, not of their final extinction, but the time when they will be reduced to a participa- tion with the whole people of the country, in the government of the country, I hope is rapidly drawing nigh. What has been the general result—and with this I shall conclude my speech—of the legis- lation and the administration of your governing class for 170 years ? When they took hold of your government your National Debt was a mere nothing—not more than 500,0001. or 600,000/. They have raised it to the sum of nearly 800,000,000/.—a sum exceeding in amount, I believe, all the other National Debts of all the other kingdoms of the globe. Your taxation is greater—much greater than that of any other, nation of equal number in the world. . . . You are not in the enjoyment of the results of your industry to anything like the extent you would have been if you had bad for 170 years a Government that could fairly claim to be just and eco- nomical in the expenditure of the resources of the country. Well, now, what do I ask ? Injustice to anybody ? No, not the least. I have never shown myself, as it is termed, the mere demagogue, who panders to the cry of an ignorant prejudiced multitude, against his own light and know- ledge and conscience. I have been as free to withstand what I felt were the errors of the people, as I am now ready to withstand and to condemn the errors and the injustice of the Government."

The resolution was carried. Among the other speakers were Mr. Crossley and Mr. Baines. It was also resolved that "it will be the duty of all shades of sincere and earnest Reformers to unite in assisting to carry the best Bill which it may appear practicable to obtain in the en- suing session of Parliament."

The Liberals of South Essex gave a dinner at Chelmsford, on Monday, to Mr. Wingfield Baker, their unsuccessful candidate at the late general election. Mr. Hardc.astle and Mr. Sutton Western were the Members of Parliament present. The speeches were remarkable for their strong leaning in favour of parliamentary reform—the admission of the working dames to the franchise being stoutly advocated. Mr. Sutton Western said of the opponents of reform— They try to hit the people in two ways. If the people agitate for the franchise the bugbear cry is set up that the country is in danger of being deluged by democracy ; and if the people do not agitate, "Oh," say these self-same wiseacres, "Don't you see that the people like to be left as they are ? " Such conduct resembles that of greedy boys at school, who, when they have got anything very good and do not like to share it say, "Those that ask shan't have, and those that don't ask don't want." (Loud laughter.) His intelligent unrepresented countrymen were not likely to be put off much longer by such a slow process. He did not wonder that the agricultural constituencies were formerly the strongholds of Toryism ; but a wondrous change has now come over the spirit of their dream. Even the most obstinate of the self-styled farmer's friends have abandoned that claim to peculieFfavour ; the bubble of protection has burst, and it is difficult to see how the agricultural constituencies can go on much longer in blind re- liance on the politican who, intentionally or not, has so grossly cajoled them with baseless hopes. He believed that with free trade recognized by all parties as the law of the land the farmerto perceive that no less than the townsman, he had an interest in pubtreconomy and retrench- ment, and in those progressive reforms which were the watchword of the Liberal party. The old cry of the "constitution in danger" will not serve now in the counties any more than in the towns; the farmers are finding out that the Tory alarmists, who are continually crying out against de- mocracy, however useful they might be as drags when the State coach is going too fast down the hill, are not needed with Palmerston on the box, and Gladstone, Sidney Herbert, the Duke of Newcastle, and others inside. (Cheers and laughter.)

A civic banquet at Leeds on the 2d September, in honour of the Lord Lieutenant Earl Fitzvrilliam, brought together the elite of the West Riding. Sir Peter Fairbairn presided ; the Members of Parliament pre- sent were Mr. Moncliton Mines, Mr. Frank Crossley, Mr. Greenwood, Mr. Hadfield, Mr. Titus Salt, Mr. E. Baines ; and among the guests were the mayors of the chief towns. In the course of the speaking a strong desire was expressed that a more intimate union should exist be- tween town and country, trade and agriculture; and Sir Peter Fairbairn said that he had that object in view when he invited his guests.

Statistics of election expenses continue to be produced. At Derby Mr. Bass paid 5761. 15s. 3d. for his seat ; Mr. Beale, 5711. 14s. 2d. for his. At Bath the expenses of Messrs. Tite and Phim were 11961.; while Mr. Way paid down 1149/. At Oxford Mr. Langston's costs were 440/. 2s, 4d. ; Mr. Cardwell paying 4681. as, 5d. At Helstone Mr. Trueman's election cost him 133/. 10s. 9d. - and Mr. Rogers paid 2141. 16s. ld., at the same place. Sir John Pflkington, on the contrary, only paid 1681. 3s. for two elections at Droitwich.

The "revival" movement has reached Woolwich. On Monday two meetings were held there to hear from the lips of two personal witnesses, General Alexander and the Reverend J. Baillie, some account of the re- vival movement in Ireland. The Town Hall was crowded. Colonel Eardley Wilmot occupied the chair. The two gentlemen said they were so solemnly impressed with the works of the Most High that they shrank from coming forward before a mixed assembly to tell of His marvellous doings; but, as these were not simply subjects of curious speculation, but matters of life and death, which deeply concerned every soul before them, they felt called of God to speak the things which they had seen and heard. The stillness of the audience was very marked while the experience of several of the converts was related, especially while General Alexander stated three most striking features of the Holy Spirit's work, —deep overwhelming conviction of sin, perfect realization of the personality of the Devil, and the abounding mercy and almighty power of Jesus the Deliverer. The Reverend W. Hare, Chaplain of the Forces, offered up prayer. Then the hall emptied, to be filled again by an equal crowd, and the general and the clergyman told their stories over again.

The foundation stone of the Staffordshire wing of the Reformatory Institution at Saltley, near Birmingham, has been laid by the Honourable Mrs. Adderley, in the presence of Lord ,Lyttelton, Lord Naas, M.P., and a numerous assemblage of ladies and gentlemen. Mr. Charles Ratcliffe addressed some remarks to the company illustrative of the usefulness of the institution since its foundation ; and, upon his in- vitation and that of Mr. Thomas Bagnall, the company were afterwards entertained at luncheon.

The Channel fleet, consisting of eight powerful ships of the line, five large frigates, and a gunboat, visited Torbay last week, greatly to the delight of the inhabitants of the coast, who flocked to the shore in thousands to witness the magnificent spectacle.

A case of some importance was decided in the County Court at Barnsley a few days ago—Mr. Thomas Wilkinson, pig-jobber, of Archdey, against the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company, to recover 2/. 10s. damages sustained by negligence on the part of that company. On Whit-Tuesday the plaintiff took a third-class ticket to Leeds by the train starting from Barnsley at 7 25 a.m., and which is due at Leeds at 85 a.m. The train did not leave Barnsley until after the time stated, and on its arrival at Wake- field the Leeds train had gone, and plaintiff had to remain at Wakefield until the next train. The consequence was that plaintiff was too late for the Leeds pig-market, which he had gone purposely to attend, and had to buy at a considerable loss ; the pigs he had intended to purchase were sold, and he had to purchase at an advance of 2s. 6d. each. The lateness of the train, it was contended on the part of the plaintiff, was caused by some excur- sionists. For the defendants it was contended that the delay did not arise from their neglect or the neglect of their servants, and if any loss had been sustained by the plaintiff, it was not to be attributed to the company. The delay at starting was occasioned by the lateness of the Sheffield train by


which the plaintiff was a passenger, and if the company's train had not waited the plaintiff would have been kept at Barnsley. The plaintiff's loss, if any, was occasioned by his own act, in being late at the Barnsley Station, and, with regard to the excursionists, they were all seated in the train before the arrival of the Sheffield train. Witnesses were then called, and the judge gave judgment for the plaintiff—damages, 1/., with railway fare and costa.

At the Wimborne Petty Sessions, last week, a case occurred which pain- fully illustrates the condition of the Dorsetshire peasantry. George Frampton, a labourer, was charged with being in possession of a hare which he had caught while he was at work in a harvest field. A nominal fine of i

is., but a real mulct pf 128. costs, were inflicted upon him' but, inasmuch as t was stated that he had a wife and five children, and that his wages were only 88. a week, a fortnight was allowed him in which to pay the money.

Thomas Clark has been committed by the Bradford Magistrates for the wilful murder of Patrick Crowley.. The latter was the guest of Clark ; a quarrel arose in consequence of a discussion on the merits of England and Ireland ; and Crowley being drunk was turned out. Attempting to regain admittance by force he was met by Clark and stabbed.

Two men are in custody on a charge of murdering Richard Broughton at Roundhay, near Leeds. The crime was committed in broad daylight, and a watch was the booty. This watch was pawned on the night of the murder. On Saturday week, a young man named Smiles, tendered a ticket for a watch he wished to redeem—the watch that had belonged to Broughton, as it proved. Smiles was arrested. His story was that he had bought the -ticket for 58. from one "Charley Normington, a collier." Officers were put in the track of Normington, and it was found that he had been hawking the ticket among his fellow-workmen, and that he had sold it to Smales. The accused was followed from place to place and apprehended at Sheffield.

• Several other facts tend to connect lurn with the murder. The evidence

against the other prisoner, Bearder, is less strong. Normington has ad- mitted that he was present the murder, and has indicated his accomplice.

An attempt was made by three footpads to rob the mail running between Cowbridge and Bridg.end. The driver of the cart, foreseeing their object, used the butt end of his whip with decisive effect and defeated them. In- formation being given, constables went forward, and arrived in time to arrest the trio while engaged in robbing a butcher.

Some smart robberies have been committed in hotels at Yarmouth and Norwich. Thus a man carried off from a room in which a lady was sleeping a gold watch and a purse containing upwards of nine sovereigns. It is really foolish to leave purses lying about bedrooms. At Norwich a gentle- man saw a thief decamping with his watch taken from the head of his bed. Jumping up he pursued and caught the man in the hotel yard. He is a German. The remedy is to lock your bedroom door, and to secure watches and purses in proper places.

Mr. Thomas Willis, a Manchester brass-founder, and Mr. John Willis, his son, lately returned from Australia, drove from Bradford in a dog cart, on Sunday, to Ilkley and thence to Addingham. They drank freely on the journey, and in returning goaded the horse until he ran away. They were thrown out. The father was so injured that he soon died ; the son is not expected to recover. Mrs. Willis and her daughter set out from Bradford in

cab towards the scene of the accident. On leaving the town they en- countered two other sons of Mr. Willis driving into Bradford, and the vehicles came into collision. No one, however, was hurt.

The village of Willingham in Cambridgeshire, was partially destroyed by fire last week. Sixteen houses were rendered uninhabitable, and a great number of stacks of corn and hay were destroyed. The greater part was in- sured. No lives were lost.