15 SEPTEMBER 1855, Page 16



SWEDEN.* ALTHOUGH conspicuous in his own day as a lawyer, a member of Parliament, and a politician, filling for a time the office of Speaker of the House of Commons, and one of the Keepers of the Great Seal, as well as engaged in other public employments both of war and peace, Bulstrode Whitelocke is known to posterity less for what he said or did than for what he wrote. He wanted force of character. He may not have absolutely run counter to his own convictions, though he seems to have been skilful in recon- ciling his conscience with his interest, but he did not act up to his convictions. A country gentleman of family, an Oxford scholar, and a lawyer by profession, his real leanings were with constitutional monarchy in the abstract, and actually with Charles the First when Parliament began to exceed its legitimate powers. Yet he sided with the Parliament ; he submitted to the fraction which the Army left behind as a screen ; he served Cromwell in any capacity in which the Protector thought fit to employ him, save the trial of the King; grumbling, however, all the time, at the ingratitude of the Protector, and his nig- gardly rewards. In like manner, he accepted office under Richard Cromwell; and when the officers of the Army set Richard aside, he accepted office under the Army. In all his em- ployments he did his duty as an agent, advising truly and acting faithfully, but displaying nothing of the partisan or the zealot. Like most persons of this character, he made more ene- mies than friends. Though keeping up his connexions with the Royalist party, and rather assisting than persecuting them, he was only included in the Act of Pardon and Oblivion by a small majority. He signalized the return of Royalty by writing a treatise on the King's Writ, or government by King, Lords, and Commons. When, safe under the Act of Oblivion, he went to Court, Charles the Second received him graciously, but signifi- cantly dismissed him in these words—" Mr. Whitelocke, go into the country ; do not trouble yourself any more about state affairs, and take care of your wife and your sixteen children." Whitelocke was born in 1605, and died in 1676. He was thrice married, and had children by all his wives.

The name of Whitelocke has been preserved chiefly by his writings ; yet he is more known to historical students than to the public at large—at least more read by the former. This was to be expected from the nature of his mind and the character of his works. He was a man of extensive erudition both in legal and general learning ; not without a touch of pedantry, though less in the manner than the matter. His practice at the bar, which was very considerable, and his experience in public life, had given him an extensive knowledge of men, but rather for practical dealings than large speculation. This native turn and his legal training disposed him to exactness and detail, which, coupled with a per- ception sharpened by exercise, infused great reality and truth into his writings. His palpable though not prominent or offensive vanity, and his lurking regard to self-interest, raise a smile in the reader, but continually induce the writer to overlay his narrative with trifling particulars concerning himself, his family, his retinue, or anything that is his. He was, moreover, deficient in comprehensiveness of mind ; and his subjects, though rarely nar- row in themselves, were narrowed by his treatment. He holds his ground as an historical authority, rather than as an historian.

The Swedish embassy, on which he was despatched in 1653 by Cromwell, was to the celebrated Queen Christina, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus. The ostensible object was to negotiate an offen- sive and defensive alliance with Sweden. The real purpose of the Protector, unknown to Whitelocke himself, was to use the treaty if obtained as a step towards the formation of a Protestant league; for although then at war with Holland and Denmark, Cromwell contemplated a peace. Whitelocke was doubtless chosen for his ex- perience in business, his knowledge of international and maritime law, and his legal dexterity in meeting an argument, as well as for his taste in art and social entertainment ; for it must be borne in mind that the early part of the seventeenth century was a more accomplished age than ours, when universities and inns of court performed masques and plays, and some skill in song and dance were necessary to a gentleman. During Whitelocke's absence Cromwell advanced to the Protectorship, and it was a notion of the Ambassador and his friends that he was sent to Sweden partly to be out of the way : but this is a mistake ; Whitelocke was not the man to have effectively opposed Cromwell, even had be pos- sessed the means of doing so. The volumes before us were originally published in 1772, by Dr. Morton, then Librarian of the British Museum, from the original manuscript placed at his disposal by the Whitelocke family in consequence of the Doctor's publication of the " Treatise on the King's Writ." It contains a full day-by-day account of all that occurred in reference to the Embassy, from the time when Whitelocke's London agent notified to him that such a mea- sure was thought of, till his return after having successfully ne- gotiated the treaty. For which exertions and success, his followers were deceived by a speech of Cromwell, and himself was left un- paid the balance that was found due, and afterwards dismissed

• A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the years 1653 and 1654. Impartially writ- ten by the Ambassador Bulstrode Whitelocke. First published from the Original Manuscript by Dr. Charles Morton, M.D., F.S.A., Librarian of the British Museum. A new edition, revised by Henry Reeve, Esq., P.S.A. In two volumes. Published by Longman and Co. from his place. When the Ambassador had given a formal account of his doings to the Council and Cromwell sitting in state, and received their thanks, the suite were introduced.

" The Protector spake to them with great courtesy and favour bidding them welcome home, blessing God for their safe return to their friends and native country, and for the great deliverances which He had wrought for them. He commended their care of Whitelocke and their good deportment, by which they had testified much courage and civility, and had done honour to religion and to their country ; he gave them thanks for it, and assurance of his affection to them when any occasion should be offered for their good or pre- ferment. They withdrew full of hopes, every one of them, to be made great men ; but few of them attained any favour, though Whitelocke solicited for divers of them who were very worthy of it."

His own reward was no better ; but it could scarcely have dis- appointed him, that " knew the condition of him from whom it came, who, When his turn was served, usually forgot the instru- ments."

" The Committee were pleased to take great pains in pursuing and exam- ining his [Whitelocke's] papers, books, and accounts, not omitting (with strictness enough) any particular of his actions and expenses ; and after all their strait inquisition and narrow sitting, they again acknowledged, which upon their report was confirmed by the Council, that his management of this affair had been faithful and prudent, his disbursements had been just and necessary, his account was clear and honest, and that he ought to be satisfied with what remained upon his accounts due to him. The remainder due to him was above 5001., and, notwithstanding all their promises, Whitelocke could never get it of them.

" The sum of all was, that for a most difficult and dangerous work, faith- fully and successfully performed by Whitelocke, he had little thanks and no recompense from those who did employ him ; but, not long after, was re- warded by them with an injury : they put him out of his office of Commis- sioner of the Great Seal, because he would not betray the rights of the people, and, contrary to his own knowledge and the knowledge of those who im- posed it, execute an ordinance of the Protector and his Council as if it had been a law. But in a succeeding Parliament, upon the motion of his noble friend the Lord Broghill, Whitelocke had his arrears of his disbursements paid him, and some recompense of his faithful service allowed unto him. "His hopes were yet higher, and his expectation of acceptance was from-a superior to all earthly powers ; to whom only the praise is due of all our actions and endeavours, and who will certainly reward all His servants with a recompense which will last for ever."

The Journal of the Swedish Embassy is a remarkable and in a large portion of its contents a very interesting book. The lawyer- like precision of the facts, and the minute detail of particulars, exhibit the manners and customs of the age and its ceremonious practice in a very distinct if not a very striking way, whether they relate to Whitelocke's private consultations with his family and friends at home, his preparations and sea-voyage to Gottenburg, or his overland journey to ITpsala in the depth of winter. His di- plomatic habit of recording conversations with Cromwell, Queen Christina, the celebrated Chancellor Oxenstiern, and others, infuse a dramatic spirit and life into discussions and conferences which have a solid interest of their own. This dramatic spirit is more especially visible in the discourse of Cromwell, possibly from the strong character of the man, and the evident purpose of his speech, whether to evade, to flatter, to draw forth information, or to direct without the form of ordering. The pictures of court entertain- ments and Swedish customs, so far as the Ambassador saw them, are curious examples of court manners, and a theatrical mode of life, only finally passed away within present memory. Whitelocke himself, in his learning, his activity of mind in acquiring in- formation, his diplomatic skill, and the resolution with which he maintained the dignity of the Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, (mistrusting him all the time,) and his ambassadorial rights, forms an interesting character. He is equally a curious object of study in his weaknesses,—his latent egotism, his patent vanity, and his tendency to speechmaking on every opportunity. The manner in which these speeches and formal documents are in- serted in the text is indeed a cause of some tediousness in parts. Another source of weariness is the fulness with which the Am- bassador records trifling particularities, especially if they con- tribute in any way to his honour and glory. When Whitelocke visited Sweden two centuries ago, that king- dom was in the zenith of its power and credit. Norway, indeed, belonged to Denmark ; but the Germano-Baltic provinces, includ- ing the towns of Stetin, Revel, Nerve, and the province of Fin- land, only ravished within the present century, formed part of the Swedish dominions. The Muscovite was then patently barbarous, but actuated by the same cunning and the same ambition as now, to which the sagacity of Peter and his successors have only given a sort of civilized varnish. A Muscovite envoy arrived. while Whitelocke was at IJ peals, to explain the grounds of a war against Poland, and the Ambassador speaks of the Russ and his doings with undisguised contempt.

"An Envoy from the Great Duke or Emperor of Muscovia arrived in this town : he came in sledges six hundred leagues ; his train was not above twelve persons. He was entertained at the Queen's charge all the time of

his stay here, as his master useth to entertain the Queen's Ambassador. • • • • • •

" An audience was desired by Whitelocke from the Queen, and at the same time she sent Grave Tott to Whitelocke to invite him to the audience of the Muscovia Envoy. The Grave staid dinner with Whitelocke • and after that Whitelocke went to the lodging of Piementelle, to rest himself there till the time of the audience : whither Grave Tott brought him word that the au- dience was put off, because the Russ had sent word that, the notice of his audience not being given him till about tea o'clock this morning, he had before that time drunk so much aqua-vitas that he was already drunk, and not in a condition to have his audience that day, but desired it might be appointed another day, and he to have earlier notice of it."

This was the appearance of the Muscovite Envoy on his recep- tion.

" The audience was in this manner. First, there presented himself a tall, big man, with a large, rude, black beard, pale countenance, and ill demeanour. His habit was a long robe of purple cloth, laced with a small gold lace; the

livery of his master. On his right hand was a companion in the same livery, and much like the Envoy in feature and behaviour ; he carried on high the Great Duke's letters set in a frame of wood, with a covering of crimson Bar- senet over them. On the left hand of the Envoy was his interpreter. After his uncouth reverences made, he spoke to the Queen in his own language. The greatest part of his harangue in the beginning might be understood to be nothing but his master's titles. In the midst of his speech he was quite out, but after a little pause recovered himself again with the assistance of a paper. When he had done, one of the Queen's servants interpreted in Swedish what was said'; then one of the Queen's secretaries answered in Swedish to what the Envoy had spoken, and that was interpreted to him in his own language by his own interpreter. After this the Envoy cast him- self fiat upon his face on the floor, and seemed to kiss it ; then rising up again, he went and kissed the Queen's hand, holding his own hands behind him. In the same order his fellow demeaned himself, and presented to the Queen his master's letters. " The Queen gave the letter to Whitelocke to look on it : it was sealed with an eagle ; the characters were like the Greek letters, and some like the Persic. After the ceremony ended, the Russes returned to their aqua- vitro, and Whitelocke to his lodging to dinner."

The alleged cause of the war shows that the later Czars of Rus- sia had nothing to learn in respect of picking quarrels with their neighbours.

"In discourse upon the way, Schutt informed Whitelocke of the matter of the embassy from the Great Duke of Muscovia to the Queen of Sweden, which was to acquaint her Majesty that- the Great Duke had begun a war against the King of Poland, because in a letter of his to the Great Duke he had omitted one of his great titles,—a heinous offence, and held by the Great Duke a sufficient ground of war, and of his resolution to sacrifice the blood of his fellow Christians to satisfy his wicked pride. Another ground of the war was because a certain Governor of a province in Poland, in a writing, hod placed the name of the father of the Great Duke before the name of the pre- sent Great Duke ; which was so great an indignity, that for the same the now Great Duke demanded of the King of Poland to have the head of that Governor sent to him ; and that not being done, was another cause of the begun war. To this the Queen answered, that it did not appertain to her to give her opinion in a matter of this nature, whether she did approve or dis- approve of what was done by the Great Duke, but she did presume that the King of Poland would therein give fitting satisfaction to the Great Duke; and that she did wish that there might be peace between these two Princes and all the Princes of Christendom. And with this answer the Envoys of the Great Duke returned as wise as they came."

Whether the Commonwealth had introduced a greater freedom from corruption than prevailed under the government of the Stuarts, or whether Whitelocke merely indulged the English habit of commenting on the faults of foreigners without regard to those of his own country, we do not know. Ile is minute in his account of the money he disbursed in gifts, and free in his remarks upon those who accepted it. The Queen herself, according to his ac- count, was not above indirectly soliciting.

"Lagerfeldt often took occasion to speak of the Queen's high commending of our English horses, and particularly, those that Whitelocke had here, which she had seen and much praised them ; and said that she had a great desire of having some English horses, and that she had chidden Lagerfeldt because when he was in England he had not bought some English horses and brought them hither to her Majesty, whom he knew to be so desirous of them.

"Whitelocke understood this Swedish language, and the English of it to be, to get some of his horses for the Queen ; which he the sooner apprehended by the late discourse of the Queen herself in commendation of his horses. He also thought that it might be some furtherance to his business to give the Queen contentment in so small a matter as this, and therefore resolved to make a present of three of his best saddle-horses to the Queen, such as were fittest for her own riding. In order whereunto, he sent the yeoman of his stable to the Baron of Steinberg, the Master of the Queen's Horse, to adver- tise him that he had given order for three of his horses to be brought to the castle, as a small present to her Majesty, whereof he desired the Baron to give her notice. "The horses being brought into the castle-yard, the Queen, having notice of it by Steinberg, came to the window to see them, and stood a great while looking on them, and much commending them, and Whitelocke's nobleness in making such a present to her. Afterwards Steinberg came to Whitelocke's house from the Queen to give him thanks for the noble present which he had sent to her Majesty, highly commending the horses, and saying that nothing could have been more agreeable to her Majesty than this present of horses, and that she should have mounted them herself presently had not the snow hindered her.

"Steinberg sent forty rixdollars to Captain de Crispe, 'the yeoman of Whitelocke's stable, and twenty rixdollars more to the three grooms that brought the horses to the castle ; and some supposed that the Queen's officers took the liberty to retain part of her Majesty's bounty to themselves, which is said to be usual with them."

In justice to Christina, it should be said that she gave a parting gift to the Ambassador equivalent to all that he had given to herself and courtiers ; and it was given him in deals and copper, that he might sell them. In some of his presents at the termina- tion of the treaty, Whitelocke himself was not more delicate.

" To Secretary Canterstein he sent his secretary Earle with a silver sten- dish, curiously wrought : at sight of which Canterstein seemed much dis- contented, till Earle showed him the manner of opening the standish, and in it forty pieces of English gold, of jacobuses ; which made the present very acceptable. In like manner, Whitelocke sent to the Master of the Cere- monies an English beaver hat, with a gold hatband, and a pair of rich Eng- lish gloves : at which the Master seemed offended, saying that ambassadors used to send better presents to the Master of Ceremonies : but being desired to try if the gloves would fit him, he found therein forty twenty-shilling pieces of English gold, and thereby much satisfaction in the present."

'Whitelocke intimates that part of his diplomatic difficulties with regard to neutral vessels and contraband of war arose from great men about the court being engaged in supplying the Dutch ; and they got ill disposed when their cargoes were seized by the English cruisers. From this charge he does not even except Oxenstiern and his sons. In other respects he speaks very highly of the Chancellor. This is the full-length picture of him, with an ac- count of Whitelocke's struggle for precedence. •

"The Master of the Ceremonies and others pressed Whitelocke to make the first visit to the Chancellor as a compliment expected from him, and which was done by other ambassadors to that great and prime minister of state the Ricks-Chancellor. Whitelocke told them plainly, that unless the Chancellor did first visit him, that he would not visit the Chancellor : and this he did for the honour of his nation, and believing, as it fell out, that for this carriage, though towards himself, the Chancellor would have the better opinion of him. At this distance they stood ; Whitelocke refusing to give the first visit because he was the Ambassador from England, which he did here represent, and the Chancellor was a subject in his own country.

"The Queen heard of this, and seemed to expostulate why Whitelocke should not afford her servant the same respect as other ambassadors did ; and was told that Whitelocke answered, that other men's actions must not guide his, nor could they answer for his actions ; nor would he do anything which he doubted might reflect upon the honour of his nation, although others did so ; that if no question had been stirred about the first visit, he should not have insisted on it, but the question being moved, be thought he could not do it without prejudice to the right of England. The Queen when she saw Whitelocke would not be altered, said that he did herein like a person who understood his right and was careful of his nation's honour ; which she commended, and said she would take order that her Chancellor should give Whitelock the first visit. "Presently after dinner, the Chancellor's secretary came to Whitelocke with a message from his lord, to know if he would be within at two o'clock ; the Chancellor would come to visit him. Whitelocke said he should take his visit for a great honour, and should be within. About three o'clock the Chancellor came. Whitelocke met him at the door of his house : he was in his coach with six horses, though his lodging was not far off; ten or twelve gentlemen, well habited, walking on foot, and four lacqueys attended him.

" Whitelocke offered to conduct him into a lower chamber, because he understood it was troublesome to the old man to go up so many stairs as to his rooms of entertainment ; and he was willing to accept of this ease, and was brought by Whitelocke into his steward's chamber, which he had caused to be hung with his own rich hangings full of silk and gold. He desired to sit with his back or one side to the fire, saying that the light of the fire was hurtful to his eyes. " He was a tall, proper, straight, handsome old man, of the age of seventy-one years ; his habit was black cloth, a close coat lined with fur, velvet cap on his head furred, and no hat, a cloak, his hair grey, his burd broad and long, his countenance sober and fixed, and his carriage grave and civil.

" He spake Latin, plain and fluent and significant; and though he could, yet would not speak French, saying he knew no reason why that nation should be so much honoured more than others as to have their language used by strangers ; but he thought the Latin more honourable and more copious, and fitter to be used, because the Romans had been masters of so great a part of the world, and yet at present that language was not peculiar to any people. " In his conferences he would often mix pleasant stories with his serious discourses, and took delight in recounting former passages of his life and actions of his ring, and would be very large excusing his smith, garrulitas, as he termed it,—the talkativeness of old age ; but there was great pleasure to hear his discourses, and much wisdom and knowledge to be gathered from them."

Whitelocke thought and spoke very highly of the Queen of Sweden : his reports of their conferences sustain her reputation for learning, wit, and genius, and show her to have possessed a Cleopatra-like variety. She understood business also, was quite alive to it, and straightforward in her mode of dealing with it—perhaps more so than her Chancellor, who exhibited some diplomatic wiles in delaying the conclusion of the treaty. It is easy to trace in things small as well as great the effect which Cromwell's success produced on the minds of foreigners. To this is to be attributed not only the general respect that was paid to Whitelooke, but the familiarity, of the Queen. She might further be flattered by the oldfashioned gallantry of the elderly beau ; and perhaps tickled at seeing ;the Puritan, who lectured her on religion in private, drawn into the gayeties of a court. She made the old gentleman dance with her, and on May-day he volunteered a great entertainment.

" This being May-day, Whitelocke, according to the invitation he had made to the Queen, put her in mind of it, that, as she was his mistress, and this May-day, he was, by the custom of England, to wait upon her, to take the air and to treat her with some little collation, as her servant. The Queen said the weather was very cold, yet she was very willing to bear him com- pany after the English mode. With the Queen were Woolfeldt, Tett, and Live of her ladies. Whitelocke brought them to his collation, which he bad commanded his servants to prepare in the best manner they could, and alto- gether after the English fashion. " At the table of the Queen sat la belle Comb:sae,' the Countess Ga- brielle Oxenstiern, Woolfeldt, Tott, and Whitelooke; the other ladies sat in another room. Their meat was such fowl as could be gotten, dressed after the English fashion and with English sauces, creams, puddings, custards, tarts, tansies, English apples, bon chritien pears, cheese, butter, nests' tongues, potted venison and sweetmeats brought out of England, as his sack and claret also was. His beer was also brewed and his bread made by his own servants in his house, after the English manner : and the Queen and her company seemed highly pleased with this treatment. Some of her cons-

pany said she did eat and drink More at it than she used-to do in three or four days at her own table.

"The entertainment was as full and noble as the place would afford and as Whitelocke could make it, and so well ordered and contrived that the Queen said she bad never seen any like it. She was pleased so far to play the good housewife as to inquire how the butter could be so fresh and sweet and yet brought out of England. Whitelocke, from his cooks, satisfied her Majesty's inquiry, that they put the salt butter into milk, where it lay all night, and the next day it would eat fresh and sweet as this did and any butter new made, and commended her Majesty's good housewifery ; who, to express her contentment in this collation, was full of pleasantness and gayety of spirit, both in supper-time and afterwards. Among other frolics, she com- mended Whitelocke to teach her ladies the English salutation ; which, after some pretty defences, their lips obeyed, and Whitelocke most readily. She- highly commended Whitelocke's music of the trumpets, which sounded an supper-time; and her discourse was all of mirth and drollery, wherein Whitelocke endeavoured to answer her, and the rest of the company did their parts. "It was late before she returned to the castle, whither Whitelocke waited on her; and she discoursed a little with him about his business and the time of his audience, and gave him many thanks for his noble treatment of her and her company." According to Whitlocke, he very unwillingly undertook the office ; nothing but fear of Cromwell, and the enemies he might. make by refusing, induced him to accept. This may be doubted. In the various arguments of himself and friends for and against,. he generally contrives to let the affirmative be the most cogent.

When Cromwell assumed the Protectorship while Whitelocke was in Sweden, some of his friends urged him to withdraw ; as his dele- gated power was at an end Cromwell had no right to renew his authority, and so forth: but the Ambassador answered by a de facto argument on the text of " talus popnli," and remained. Like many others, he seems to have been continually talking of the pleasures of retirement, though restless and uneasy when out of employment, and though longing for place desirous to be courted i into it. This affectation is visible in his first interview with Cromwell on the business.

"Early in the morning Whitelocke had access to the General, and this discourse with him.

" Whilelocke. I was to attend your Excellency, but missed of you. "Cromwell. I knew not of it; you are always welcome to me. I hope you have considered the proposal I made to you, and are willing to serve the Commonwealth.

" Trlitelocke. I have fully considered it; and with humble thanks ac- knowledge the honour intended me, and am moat willing to serve your Ex- cellency and the Commonwealth ; but in this particular I humbly beg your excuse. I have endeavoured to satisfy my own judgment and my nearest relations, but can do neither, nor gain a consent ; and I should be very un- worthy and ungrateful to go against it. " Cromwell. You know that no relations use to sway the balance in such matters as this. I know your lady very well, and that she is a good woman, and a religious woman ; indeed I think she is : and I durst undertake, in a matter of this nature, wherein the interest of God and of his people is con- cerned, as they are in your undertaking of this business,—I daresay my Lady will not oppose it. " Whitelocke. Truly, Sir, I think there is no woman alive desires more the promoting of that interest; but she hopes it may be done as much, if not more by some other person. " Croswell. Really I show not in England so fit a person as you are for it. " Wititelocke. Your Excellency cannot but know my want of breeding and experience in matters of this nature, and of language. " Cromwell. I know your education, travel, and language, and experience have fitted you for it ; you know the affairs of Christendom as well as most men, and of England as well as any man, and can give as good an account of them. I think no man can serve his country more than you may herein ; indeed I think so, and therefore I make it my particular suit and earnest re- guest to you to undertake it : and I hope you will show a little regard to me in it, and I assure you that you shall have no cause to repent it. " Whitelocke. My Lord, I am very ready to testify my duty to your Ex- cellency. I acknowledge your many favours to me, and myself an officer under your command, and to owe you obedience. But your Excellency will not expect it from me in that wherein I am not capable to serve you ; and therefore I make it my most humble suit to be excused from this service.

" Cromwell. For your abilities I am satisfied ; I know no man so fit for it as yourself; and if you should decline it, (as I hope you will not,) the Com- monwealth would suffer extremely by it, your own profession perhaps might suffer likewise, and the Protestant interest would suffer by it. Indeed you .cannot be excused ; the hearts of all the good people in this nation are set upon it to have you undertake this service; and if you should waive it, being thus, and at such a time when your going may be the moat likely means to settle our business with the Dutch and Danes, and matter of trade, (and none, I say again, can do it better than you,) the Commonwealth would be at an extreme prejudice by your refusal. But I hope you will hearken to my request, and let me prevail with you to undertake it: neither you nor yours, I hope, shall ever have any cause to wish you had not done it.

" Initelocke. My Lord, when a man is out of sight he is out of mind. Though your Excellency be just and honourable, yet, your greater affairs calling you off, those to whom matters of correspondence and supplies must be referred will perhaps forget one who is afar off, and not be so sensible of extremities in a foreign country as these who suffer under them.

"Cromwell. I will engage to take particular care of those matters myself, and that you shall neither want supplies nor anything that is fit for you : you shall be set out with as much honour as ever any ambassador was from England. I shall hold myself particularly obliged to you if you will under- -take it ; and will stick as close to you as your skin is to your flesh. You -shall want nothing either for your honour and equipage, or for power and trust to be reposed in you, or for correspondence and supplies when vou are abroad : I promise you, my Lord, you shall not ; I will make it my business to see it done. The Parliament and Council, as well as myself, will take it very well and thankfully from you to accept of this employment ; and all people, especially the good people of the -nation, will be much satisfied with it: and therefore, my Lord, I make it again my earnest request to you to accept this honourable employment."

"This extraordinary earnestness of Cromwell, so that he would not be satisfied unless Whitelocke did accept the employment, nor by any means be prevailed with to excuse him ; and Whitelocke seeing plainly that he could not decline it, without making Cromwell, the Parliament, and Council, highly distasted against him, and to be his covert if not open enemies, for neglect- ing and slighting them, who had opportunity, and power, and will, to be even with him, he came to this resolution,(which, upon prayer to God and advice of his friends, he had formerly taken,) that if he should find it with Cromwell as he did, then to consent rathek to go the journey in great danger than to stay at home in greater, and to hope to do some service for the Pro- testant people and interest."

It will be seen from this account of the book, and the specimens quoted from it, that the Journal of the Swedish Embassy was well -worth reprinting. To the student of manners or history it is of great value; notwithstanding the changes of forms and customs that two centuries have brought about, the negotiator may study it for the substance and spirit of diplomacy that pervade it ; its quaint pictures of life, its exhibitions in their serious or familiar moments of historical persons, many of whose names are household words, and its travelling sketches of voyaging, Swe- den, and North Germany, in the middle of the seventeenth cen- tury, render it interesting to the higher class of general readers.

j Mr. Reeve deserves thanks for the judgment which selected the work for republication, and the manner in which he has fulfilled his task of editor. In this of he may not seem to have done much. In addition to modernizing the spelling and recasting the essential parts of the matter of Dr. Morton, he has only contri- buted an introduction, and explanatory foot-notes. What he has done, however, is well done; and it is in doing enough and there stopping that the art of an editor mainly consists.