17 NOVEMBER 1855, Page 2


The first of the course of winter lectures delivered to the Young Men's Christian Association, at Exeter Hall, on Tuesday night, brought a crowded assemblage; for the lecturer was the President of the Association, Lord John Russell. The Earl of Shaftesbury presided ; Lord Panmure, Lord Wodehouse, Lord de Manley, Mr. Vernon Smith, and many emi- nent clergymen and laymen, were among the audience. A prayer by the Reverend Canon Bickereteth prefaced the proceedings. Then, a few words from Lord Shaftesbury introduced the lecturer; and loud and long were the cheers that greeted him.

The subject was "The Obstacles which have retarded Moral and Politi- cal Progress." In opening his discourse, Lord John offered some apology for discussing the value of things longassersained and appreciated. Al- though he could only open a corner-of the vas* theme, it might not be unoseful to throw some of the light of past History on the future. His sttbfeet diviciaitself inextwoparts,-431e obstacles interposed by govern- menti4.and those interposed by the peoplb. It was upon the former he laid the most stress; for "'the greatest obstacles' have been interposed to moral and political progress by a misapprehensioir of the functions and a misapplication of the powers of civil governments."

" Those functions are extensive in "their legitimate province ; those powers are formidable in their proper sphere At home, a government is bound to protect life and property. These few words imply the whole question of criminal law, the venous relations of property, the laws of marriage, the relations of master and workman, the security of trade, the maintenance of internal tranquillity, the rule of all orders of men in their separate stations, and the complicated disputes which spring out of their dealings with each other. Let us grant, in addition to these—although it

may be matter of some question—the promotion of religion and instruction of the young by public grant or endowment. But there is another duty. still more complex and more difficult. Government is charged with the mainte- nance of the independence of the nation. As such it forms alliances, makes and dissolves treaties, maintains armies and navies, rules, perhaps, extensive foreign possessions, and, whether in peace or war, is bound not to sacrifice any vital interest to a foreign power. Surely here are functions enough for a Burleigh or a Sully—for the wisdom of Somers and the energy of Riche- lieu—for the capacity of a Henry the Fourth of France, or a William the Third of Great Britain. It has been pretended, however, that besides all these functions it is the right and duty of governments to prescribe the rule- of religious faith, and to draw a circle beyond which it shall not be lawful to move A great master of morality and of reason, a pious and vir- tuous Christian—I mean Dr. Johnson—after speaking of the duty of parents towards their children, says, 'Now the vulgar are the children of the state. If any one attempts to teach them doctrines contrary to what the state ap- proves, the magistrate may and ought to restrain him.' On another occasion Boswell relates the following conversation : the speakers are Dr. Johnson, and Dr. Mayo. " I introduced the subject of toleration. Johnson-' Every society has a right to• preserve public peace and order, and therefore has a good right to prohibit the pro- pagation of opinions which have a dangerous tendency, To say the magistrate has this right is using an inadequate word; it is the society for which the magistrate is agent. He may be morally or theologically wrong in restraining the propagation of opinions which he thinks dangerous, but be is politically right.' Mayo= I am of opinion, Sir, that every man is entitled to liberty of conscience in religion, and that the magistrate cannot restrain that right. Johnson- Sir, I agree with you. Every man has a right to liberty of conscience, and with that the magistrate cannot inter- fere. People confound liberty of thinking with liberty of talking-nay, with liberty of preaching. Every man has a physical right to think as he pleases; for it cannot be discovered how he thinks. He has not a moral right, for he ought to inform himself, and think justly. But, Sir, no member of a society has a right to teach any doctrine contrary to what the society holds to be true. The magistrate, I say, may e be wrong in what he thinks; but while he thinks himselff a ht he may and ought to enforce what he thinks.' Mayo-' Then, Sir, we are to remain always in error, and anlirficle truth never can prevail; and the magistrate was right in persecuting the first Chris- tsiagys.m' martyrdom. inthaegiaryatmeetaosclabAgtV reenlifgoceus:huatthiLantpienieisstab; who is conscious of the truth has a right to suffer. I am afraid there is no other way of ascertaining the truth but by persecution on the one hand, and enduring it on the other.'" Now this involves the principle that a man has a right to hold an opinion but not communicate it to others. " Why not permit the free circulation of truth and error—leave to truth its own all-sufficient armour, and to error its own stratagems and delusions—leave argument to be met by argument, as- sertion by inquiry ? Here, in fact, is the turning-point of the whole ques- tion. Dr. Johnson and others contend that governments have the right and duty to control their subjects, as parents oontrol children. The friends of religious liberty contend that governments have no such right, and have no- special capacity to fit them for the task." To make good his position that persecution does not promote the pub- lic peace, but on the contrary leads to war and bloodshed, Lord John de- scribed the consequences of the persecution of the early Christians, of the Protestants in the Low Countries and in France, and the dragonnades of Louis the Fourteenth. These persecutions rent society to its founda- tions, and peace was only established when liberty of conscience was pro- claimed.

One of the chief obstacles to improvement cm the part of the people is intemperance : it was shown by Mr. Porter, in 1850, that upwards of 57,400,0001. a year was spent on spirits, beer, and tobacco. Another obstacle is want of education; &third, the sensualism and selfishness of the rich. How can we counteract these obstacles ? By the force of civi- lization ? Twice—once in Rome in the days of Augustus, again in France and England in the eighteenth century—that has been tried and found wanting. It is to Christian principles, Christian morals, and a Christian spirit, that we must look for a better and higher civilization than any yet attained. Lord John exhorted the young men among his audience to walk steadfastly in the light of Christian truth-

" Some there are who shut their eyes to one truth lest it should impair another more sacred in their eyes. But one truth can no more quench another truth than one sunbeam can quench another sunbeam. Truth is one, as God is one. Go forward to meet her in whatever garb ; welcome her from what- ever quarter she comes, till at last, beyond the grave, you shall hail her in a blaze of glory which mortal eye can only strain in vain to contemplate. Truth is the gem- for which the wise man digs the earth, the pearl for which he dives into the ocean, the star for which he climbs. the heavens, the herald and the guardian of moral and political progress." Lord John resumed his seat amidst prolonged applause. The Reverend Montague Villiers proposed and Dr. Hamilton seconded a vote of thanks to him; which was carried by acclamation. The Doxology was then sung, and the assembly dispersed.

The anniversary dinner of the Warehousemen and Clerks' Schools As- sociation was held at the London Tavern on Monday ; Lord John Russell in the chair. In proposing the "Army and Navy," Lord John uttered a warm eulogy on their bravery, and still more, their fortitude. He ex- pressed regret for Lord Raglan's loss ; but he found consolation in the fact, that " although Lord Raglan is no more, the example of men like him will not be lost, but will lie preserved to future generations, to show in what a school England had brought up her soldiers, and what pupils Wellington had left. In proposing prosperity to the institution, he gave some account of its origin. It was projected in 1853, and within six weeks the young men interested had subscribed 30001. towards its funds ; and the employers, following this good example, subscribed 40001. more. In a short time the fund rose to 10,0001. ; and now the society has 90001. in the Funds, an income of 10004 a year, anda balance at the bank of 8661. Fifteen children have participated.in. the benefits of the institution; and as ground.for a building has been. taken. on. a long, lease, the society is established on s pelt basis. The subscriptions of the evening amounted to 17001.

General Sir Robert Gardiner, who has recently returned from. the government of Gibraltar, was entertained at Woolwich, on the 9th, by the officers of the Royal Artillery. Sir Robert, in acknowledging the greetings which followed the announcement of the toast to his health, expressed his gratitude to Earl Grey for having appointed' an Artillery- officer to the government of Gibralt_s and proceeded to remark upon the way in which he had performed his duties. Almost from the commence- ment, he said, his government had been stormy and laborious ; for there were many deeply-rooted evils of long standing to eradicate, as well as many local and even national benefits to attain : but he had partially succeeded in his task, and at the close of his government he was rewarded by the continued favour of his Sovereign, by the approbation of all honourable minds, and by the favour of his brother officers.

A solemn mass and requiem' for " the repose of the souls of the soldiers who have fallen in the Crimea during the last twelve months " was cele- brated on Thursday, by Cardinal Wiseman, in the Roman Catholic Cha- pel,Moorflelds. A cenotaph was erected outside the altar-rails, sur- mounted. with a silvered cross, and bearing on its sides military trophies, in which the flags of England and Franco were prominent : the pillars, altar, and pulpit of the church were covered' with black hangings. After the mass, the Cardinal preached a sermon. He then proceeded, vested in a magnificent cope of purple velvet, covered with.embroidery, and pre- ' ceded by his cross, borne by Mr. Bowyer M.P., to give the absolutions round the cenotaph (which is supposed. to contain the bodies of the de- parted). The church was crowded in every part by a highly respectable congregation, including most of the Roman Catholic gentry now in town.

At the meeting of the Royal' Geographical Society, on Monday,—Cap- tain Beecher presiding Sir Roderick Murchison gave a description of the memorial lately erected to Lieutenant Bellot at Greenwich. This was a compliment never yet accorded to a British officer. The whole amount of the subscription was about 2200/. ; of which about 5001. had 'been expended in erecting a beautiful granite obelisk to the memory of the gallant Lieutenant, and the remainder would be devoted to his indi- gent siaters,—who have also been provided for by the Emperor Napoleon. Two papers were read ; one on the crossing of the Australian Alps, and the exploration of Central Australia, by Dr. Miller; and the oiler on the researches of Dr. Livingston in Central Africa.

A considerable number of persons met in St. Martin's Hall on Monday, called together for a double purpose—to protest against the expulsion of the refugees from Jersey and an apprehended Alien Bill, and to make a demonstration against the war. But the temper of the meeting forbade any attempt to carry out the latter purpose. Mr. Edward Miall M.P. occupied the chair, and expounded the view he took of the auestion.

The object of the meeting was to protest against the expulsion of refugees without trial. Political exiles have the right of asylum on the simple ground that they are political exiles. We sheltered, under the name of Prince Louis-Napoleon, the present Emperor of the French, and a fugitivesnonarch under the name of John Smith.; we sheltered Orleanists, Fusionists, and Republicans—all acting as they pleased, so long as they kept within the limits of the law. That protection and shelter he claimed for the Jersey re- fugees. From whomsoever the proposal for abridging the right of asylum came, he thought it would have become the Prime Minister of this country to have replied, that the alliance into which we had entered was one for the attainment of certain external objects, and that this was an attempt to tam- per with one of the features of the British constitution to which no British Government could listen. He was sure that the meeting would with one voice declare against any alien bill, any registration, any police surveillance.

Letters of sympathy with the objects of the meeting were read from Mr. George Thompson, Mr. Cobden, and Mr. Gilpin. Mr. Cobden's let- ter said that surely the Jersey proceedings would open the eyes of the people to the gross delusion that the war is a struggle for liberty.

"Depend on it,. the tendency, both at home and abroad, ever since the peace of Europe was broken, has been the very reverse ; and give us but a few years more of war, and we shall find ourselves retrograding to the dark political doings of Sidwouth's evil days."

The following resolution—the only one placed before the meeting— was moved by Mr. Washington. Wilke, seconded by Mr. Ernest Jones, and adopted without dissent.

"That this meeting utters its indignant protest against the recent expul- sion of refugees from Jersey ; and affirms that foreigners landing in the do- minion of the British Crown become at once entitled to the natural and legal right of Englishmen—a public examination and trial by jury before exposure to any penal consequences. That this meeting pledger itself and calls upon the country to resist by all lawful means the apprehended attempt to carry through Parliament an act invalidating or restricting the right of sanctuary."

The Sunday scandals in Hyde. Park have at length produced a vigor- ous effort at repression. On Saturday last, Sir Richard Mayne issued a notice warning the public that such proceedings are illegal, that they would be prevented; and cautioning the well-disposed not to attend' any such meetings in future. Accordingly, on Sunday, a large ffirce of horse and foot police lined the footways and occupied prominent points; but in spite of the warning there was a greater gathering of "'respectable" per- sons, including women and children, than ever. The numbers and dis- positions of the police, especially the two troops of mounted men, who were constantly on the move, and before whom the " roughs " precipi- tately fled, prevented any mischief " No greater proof," says an eye-witness, ." can be adduced to show how completely the roughs' were cowed and dispirited, than the fact that in the middle of the afternoon, when they mustered in. the strongest force, and would under other circumstances have been most ready. for violence, a noble- man's servant, dressed in cherry-coloured coat and breeches of the same gaudy hue, moved about among them—a most attractive and conspicuous ob- ject—without receiving the least insult or molestation. On any of the pre- vious Sundays he would have been hunted almost to death. At one part of the afternoon, a stump orator tried to collect an audience ; but, discoursing only on such passionless topics as the laws relating to what he called 'land, credit, currency, and exchange,' he could not hold them together for more than five or ten minutes. On. the whole, we saw no serious disturbance in the course of the afternoon or evening, and the day may be said to have passed harmlessly away."

At a special meeting of the City Sewers Commission, held on Wednes- day, the seventh and last annual report from Mr. John Simon, late Medi- cal Officer of Health, was read and ordered to be printed. Mr. Simon shows that the death rate in the City, during the last year 26k per thou- sand, though less than the rate of many urban districts, still admitieof being largely reduced. He enumerates the several measures of smarmy improvement already in operation ; points to the existing want of public baths and washhouses ; and, in bidding them farewell, promises that "seven years more, such as have just elapsed, with those increased powers which are at hand, and with exertion proportionate to such powers,, will enable you to show an unequalled'. example of successful sanitary govern- ment."

The London omnibus-proprietors seem to resent the project entertained in Paris of establishing a "London Omnibus Company." Some of them are, however, willing parties to its furtherance. Two meetings were held on Thursday, from which it appears that great doubts are felt as to whether there be a company at all. No money has been yet paid up on the shares. One meeting was decidedly hostile; the other adjourned the consideration of the question until the money be deposited.

Before the war broke out between Russia and England, the Russians occu- pying Galati fired at and sunk a British ship, the Bedliogton, in the Danube. The ship was insured, but there was an exception in the policy as to the ship being " free from capture and seizure and the conseqtenoes of any attempt thereof" ; and under this exception, an underwriter contended he was free from liability. The shipowners brought an action ; and at the sittings at Guildhall after last term, a verdict was given for the plaintiff; but leave was given to the defendant to move to enter the verdict in his favour if the Court of Queen's Bench should be of opinion, on the facts, that the case name within the exception to the policy. The defendant moved for a rule ; it was granted; and the question was argued on Thursday, before the Judges sit- ting in Banco. The Court were of opinion that the exception was not con- fined to a legal capture or seizure, but extended to any capture or seizure whereby the ship was lost or damaged. Rule absolute to enter the verdict for the defendant.

There ie a " Working Men's Educational Union," in King William Street, Strand ; and a question has been raised and carried into the Court of Queen's Bench, whether the Union has a legal claim to exemption from poor-rates. On one side it is argued, that the Union does not come within the 6th and 7th Victoria, under which exemption is claimed, because the object of the society is not "the promotion of literature, science, and the fine arts ex- clusively," but, as stated in the report. "the elevation of the working classes, as it regards their physical, intellectual, moral, and religious condi- tion." On the other side it is contended, that the primary object of the society was the promotion of literature, science, and the fine arts, though it looked to " the elevation of the working classes, as it regards their physical, intel- lectual, moral, and religious condition," as the beneficial result of carrying out the objects of the society. The Court has taken time to consider.

In the Court for the Consideration of Crown Cases Reserved, on Saturday, the case of Davidson and Gordon was argued. When they were oonvioted of felony in not surrendering under their bankruptcy, Mr. Justice Erie re- served no fewer than eight legal points. After hearing counsel on both sides, the Court intimated that on seven of the points their decision would be against the prisoners ;. but with regard to the remaining one they took time to consider.

The Reverend Dr. John Vaughan, incumbent of St. Matthew's Chetah, 'Brixton, attended before the Lambeth Magistrate on Monday, to answer the summons issued against him last week. His counsel demanded that some person should be made responsible in charging Dr. Vaughan ; and eventually the three Churchwardens of St. Matthew's gave him into custody, on charges of falsifying the church register of burials with a view to his own pecuniary gain,—that is, receiving double fees for interring non-parishioners, but making false entries of the places where they had resided, so as to make it appear that they were parishioners ; then entering only single fees, and pocketing the extra fees. Only one case was fully entered upon ; and with respect to it the evidence waaao diametrically opposite that it seems an inevit- able oonolusion that perjury was committed by some persons. William Raven died in September 1854, out of the St. Matthew's district ; be was buried in St. Matthew's churchyard. Hayden, an undertaker, swore that when he had an interview with Dr. Vaughan about the interment, he gave the Doctor- the Registrar's certificate, and paid double fees : Dr. Vaughan said, if any one should inquire about the matter, Hayden was to " tell a lie," and say the deceased lived in St. Matthew's direct:it. Malby, the sexton, who accompanied Hayden, fully corroborated this evidence. (Malby himself is under a charge of perjury, preferred by Dr. Vaughan, in regard to pro- ceedings in a County Court about money oharitably lent by the clergyman to the sexton.] A copy of the church-registry of the burial of Raven was produced, but it was not read.

For the defence,. Mr. Ballantine urged the gross improbability that Dr. Vaughan—a gentleman of property—should commit such crimes for the sake

of a few pounds a year : was it credible that he would have placed himself in the power of Hayden, in the way that person represented ? He called a son and two daughters of Dr. Vaughan, and a female servant, who were all present at the interview between Dr. Vaughan-and Hayden ; and they swore positively that the statements of Hayden and Malby were false—no money was paid to the Doctor, no certificate given to him, and he did not tell Hay- don to "tell a lie." As there was not time on Monday to go into the other cases, the investigation was adjourned ; the accused being admitted to bail. From what was elicited in the examination of the witnesses, it seems that there is a very bitter feeling between Dr. Vaughan and a number of the inhabitants of his district,..and all parties seem to have acted in an intem- perate manner. At the time of the alleged offence as regards Raven, the cholera was raging, and there was a great pressure for interments in certain churchyards, and perhaps some laxity and confusion in registering deaths and burials.

A case came before the Southwark Magistrate, on Wednesday, curiously illustrative of the trade with Russia carried on through Prussia. A labourer was charged with stealing a quantity of Russian tallow from Mark Brown's vanillin the City. Mr. Combo asked who the tallow belonged to ? One of the owners of Mark Brown's wharf said that the tallow had just arrived from Russia, consigned to an English firm ; and it was unloading at this wharf, to be bonded for the owners. The tallow came over in casks; and on the previous afternoon witness perceived the head of one broken out, and a large quantity of the tallow taken out. The prisoner worked on the wharf, and he bad no doubt the tallow produced came out of that cask. Mr. Combo—" You say this is Russian tallow, and unloading from a vessel just arrived : how is it that you have Russian tallow from that country, when we are nt war? " Wharfinger—" Easy enough, sir. We have large dealings with Russia al- though we are at war, and our money is extensively received in return.

Nearly all our tallow comes from Russia." Mr. Combe—" How does it come from Russia, when all her ports are blockaded and the war is proceeding?" Witness—" It comes through Prussia, your worship. The tallow in question came from Memel in a Dutch vesseL" Mr. Combs—" What part of Russia

does this tallow come from ?" Wharfinger—" From St. Petersburg. It is there sold by the merchants on English account to the care of a Prussian firm, who convey it through Russia and Prussia to Memel, where it is publicly shipped to England. Not only tallow comes into the market largely from Russia, but hemp, flax, and dyewoods. We are constantly receiving those sort of goods : but tallow is declining, so much so that the prices are much higher, having risen to 738. the hundredweight."—The thief was sen- tenced to two months' imprisonment.

Jane Williams, a girl of seventeen, has been remanded by the Southwark Magistrate on a charge of introducing instruments into Horsemonger Lane Gaol to facilitate the escape of a prisoner. Her brother is confined there on a charge of burglary ; she handed in two loaves for his use ; they were bro- ken by the officers, and in one was a large key, in the other a skeleton-key and two files. Jane pretends that she knew nothing of the concealed im- plements. The offence for which she is in custody can be punished by four- teen years' transportation.

The Lambeth Magistrate has committed John Brown for stealing oats, and Edward Burt for receiving them. They were the property of Mr. Hopper, the employer of Brown. Burt is a fishmonger at Camberwell, and reputed a man of substance. When the oats were found in his cart, he avowed that he had bought them of Brown, and that he was not particular of whom he bought if he got a bargain.

Mr. Moseley, a cle?k in the Bank of England, has committed suicide, at Dalaton. He was a man of probity, and had long been employed in the Bank. One night he dreamt that officers had taken him into custody on a charge of forgery upon his employers; the dream made a deep and painful impression, and Mr. Moseley spoke of it in very desponding tones. On the following night he had a similar dream ; on waking, very early in the morn- ing, he went down-stairs, got a carving-knife, and, before his wife had time to follow him from the bedroom, gashed himself in the bowels : in three hours he died; but his mind seems to have been unclouded after he had wounded himself.

A fatal boiler-explosion occurred on Monday, at the sugar-refinery of Messrs. Hall and Boyd, St. George Street, Whitechapel. The boiler was a very large one, and its explosion did much damage to the premises; but had the hindermost portion, which was rent from the bed, swerved a little from the course it took, it would have struck the immense chimney-shaft, or knocked down the iron columns supporting the upper floors, and the conse- quences must have been far more disastrous. Upwards of a dozen of the workmen appear to have suffered from the accident ; three were so fright- fully scalded and hurt that they did not long survive ; a fourth died on the following day ; a fifth on Wednesday; and others have seriously suffered.

An inquest was opened on Thursday. The evidence threw no light on the cause of the disaster ; but scientific and practical men are to examine the ruins and endeavour to discover the origin of the explosion. The witnesses examined—people employed in the manufactory—stated that there was no apparent mismanagement or neglect just before the explosion, and that the men in charge of the boiler were of good character for prudence. There were two engines worked by the boiler, but only one was in action at the time ; the boiler was nearly new.