17 NOVEMBER 1855, Page 4


Mr. Gladstone delivered at Chester, on Monday, by particular desire, a lecture "on the Colonies," similar to that he lately delivered at Hewer- den. The bulk of his audience were the members of the Mechanics' In- stitute; but among the others were Sir Stephen Glynne, Lord Wenlock, the Dowager Lady Wenlock, and Mr. Adderley. The lecture commenced with a dissertation on the extent and origin of our Colonies, their uses and object : "Mr. Roebuck had stated the object of colonization to be the creation of so many happy Englands." Among the motives that led to colonization, the lecturer enumerated love of gold, (foremost,) the pro- pagation of the gospel, the increase of territory, the desire to establish an exclusive trade. Colonies, he said, are really desirable, because they in- crease trade, promote healthy emigration, reproduce in different parts of the world our laws and institutions, so eminently calculated to benefit mankind. He entered into the principles of colonial policy as exempli- fied by the Greeks, and by our own country. The golden age of English colonization was that of Elizabeth and James the First ; the silver age immediately preceded the American war ; the brazen age began in 1783, when the idea arose that "it was absolutely necessary that the affairs of the Colonies should be directed from a certain spot in London." We have now recognized the principle that the local affairs of free colonies should be administered by themselves. Mr. Gladstone worked up as an "instructive lesson" the causes that led to the American war and the loss of the United States.

" How did that war arise, and whose was it ? It originated in an at- tempt to levy taxes upon the people of America, not for purposes exclusively i English, but to defray part of the expenses of the war into which the Eng- lish had entered for the benefit of America as well as themselves. Some in- dividuals thought that the war was not the error of the English people. There must be no mistake upon this; for, if one thing was more clear than another, it was that the British people almost to a man were united in the prosecution of that war. All wars have been popular in this country during the first two or three years, but the American war was particularly popular. This was proved in the case of Mr. Burke, who was elected in 1774 for Bris- tol, but rejected in 1780. On that occasion he defended his conduct, and had to acquaint them why he had not visited them in Bristol as often as they thought he ought to have done. In the first place, he pleaded the business he had done for them in London; and then, that the state of feeling in Bristol with respect to the American war was the reason why he could not visit his constituents. Before the people knew which way the force of arms was tending, there was a difference of opinion in Bristol, especially as that city had a large business with America ; but directly it appeared that the English were successful in the field, the party against the war was put down. It must be recollected that when the English met the Americans in the field, they were successful in the war ; and this implied no reproach to their American brethren, because they had no advantage of a military organiza- tion. It was not want of success in the field that defeated us in the Ameri- can war ; it was that we were no nearer to the subjugation of the country by gaining the battle ; for the great obstacle to the English was in the heart of every man, woman, and child ; and, therefore,. driving soldiers out of the field was not making any advance—they only gained the ground they en- camped upon. Mr. Burke's speech at Bristol showed the state of public feeling at the time ; but when misfortune threatened us, when France took up arms, and Spain followed her example, and Russia and other Powers of Europe indicated their adverse dispositions, then indeed the popular mind re- covered its balance. Mr. Burke found the people not disinclined to hear the common sense of the matter, and he was able in 1780 to show his face among his constituency. The case of the American war was one upon which we may look back with the greatest advantage, for it certainly read to us a

lesson for all generations and times—a most emphatic lesson of circumspec- tion, of moderation, and of caution." Touching on the history of Canada to illustrate the evil principle of in- terfering in the local affairs of colonies, Mr. Gladstone was led to recog- nize the eminent services of those who had taught the true principles of Colonial policy, now triumphant in this country,—Mr. Hume, Mr. Roe- buck, Sir William Molesworth; especially lingering over the memory of the last with grateful acknowledgment. At the close he said that the Co- lonies must feel no yoke on their necks, but understand that the relation between them and us was a relation of affection-

" Defend them against foreign aggression ; regulate their foreign rela- tions : these things belong to the colonial connexion with this country. 01 the duration of that colonial connexion let them be the judges. If you leave them that freedom of judgment, it is hard to say when the day will come when they will wish to separate from this great nation."

Major Sir Charles Rusgell, of the Grenadier Guards, recently returned from the Crimea to his home at Swallowfield, Berkshire. On his arrival, the inhabitants, headed by the Reverend Mr. Kama, marched to his house and presented him with a congratulatory address. In his reply, after acknowledging the compliment, he said something respecting the present state of our army in the Crimea— He was one of the last who had left the Crimea, and he could assure them that there never was a more gallant set of fellows than those now composing the army in the Crimea. They might not, as had been said, have so much bone and muscle, but they had plenty of "pluck." They only wanted to be. well supported at home, and to be made to feel that they were esteemed by their fellow countrymen at home as the brave and gallant men they really were, and they would nobly maintain—as they would shortly be called upon to prove—the honour of the British flag. He could not help saying a word about the Redan, for it was a point on which he felt deeply. He witnessed the assault ; and, having since been over the whole of the fortifications, he solemnly assured them it was not possible for men to take it. Our men were mown down—positivel5 swept away by batteries which commanded the approach on all aides. No man could stand against it. Our men did their duty nobly—did all that men could do ; and he hesitated not to say that no men on earth could have taken it.

A demonstration took place at Newcastle, on Monday, against the pro- ceedings of the Government in the matter of the Jersey refugees. Mr. Josiah Thomas presided over a crowded audience in the Lecture-hall, Nelson Street ; composed in the main of the ultra-Liberals of Newcastle. The chief speaker, Mr. Joseph Cowen junior, is a conspicuous member of a party in that quarter almost identified with the principles of the foreign refugees. He denounced the expulsion of refugees, without notice, with- out even a written order, without the intervention of a magistrate, with- out discussion, and without defence; and urged his fellow countrymen to protest with vigour against the illegal, unjust, unprecedented, and uncon- stitutional proceedings of Lord Palmerston's Government and their Satrap in Jersey. The other speakers followed in the same strain. Resolutions framed in similar terms were carried unanimously.

The Bishop of Rochester has declined to consecrate a new burial- ground at Cheshunt, unless the consecrated be separated from the uncon- secrated ground, by a strong fence. At a meeting of the Vestry, on Thursday week, it was resolved "that no further outlay be incurred, and no distinction made in the erection of the fences to separate the conse- crated from the unconsecrated part of the new burial-ground." The Vicar, the Reverend M. M. Preston, who supports the Vestry, said he would himself as soon be buried in unconsecrated ground as that which was consecrated : but it was not so with a number of his parishioners, who might have religious scruples on the subject.

The loss of umbrellas frequently tries the temper of those who attend public places of business or amusement. At a recent meeting of the Liverpool Town-Council, the loss of an umbrella led to a ludicrous scene. Before the regular business began, Mr. Councillor Earle claimed five mi- nutes of the public time— At the last meeting of the Council, he said, he lost an umbrella : some Alderman, or Town-councillor, or gentleman of the press, took away his umbrella ; which showed a low state of morality—(Roars of laughter)—in a person who could be guilty of such a transaction. He had advertised for it, but bad not received any reply. If any gentleman had a brown silk um- brella, with white cane handle, he would feel extremely obliged if he would return it. If any one had it and was aware of it—indeed, he must be aware of it, and the spot he got it from—and still kept it, he should consider him in no other light than one of those pilferers the Magistrates were frequently obliged to send to the House of Correction ; and it would give him great pleasure if the person in possession of his umbrella had a turn at the House of Correction too. (Great laughter.) The strike of the Manchester factory operatives began on Wednesday, when the notices in five large establishments, that wages would be re- duced, expired. Other notices will shortly expire. The operatives held a meeting on Wednesday, and confirmed the resolutions previously passed that reduced wages should not be accepted. They also passed resolution respectfully pointing out that short time is the true remedy for over-production. The chairman of the meeting urged the hands on strike to refrain from riotous or improper conduct. He then put these considerations— He would appeal to the masters, whether it was wise to incur a turn-out at a time like this, when provisions are high, when we are at war with a powerful foe, when our relations with other countries are not very satisfactory,—was it wise on the part of those possessing so much property, at a time like this, to persist in a course which must result in anarchy and confusion ? Were they so insane as to force the people into the streets at a time when food is so high that with their present wages they cannot buy enough to eat ?

A proposition to hold their meetings in a private rather than a public house met with favour, but was not settled.

To alleviate the privations caused by the high price of provisions, a number of charitable persons at Exeter regularly supply the poor with potatoes, turnips, and other vegetables, much below the market-price. Soup is also to be distributed.

At the hiring of agricultural servants in the West Riding of Yorkshire, now in progress, wages rule high.

Mr. John Stirling, a young surgeon of Byers Green, Durham, was mur- dered last week, in open day. He had been on a round of professional visits, and did not return. Search was made, and his body was found in a copse,

with a gun-shot wound in the abdomen, and severe injuries on the head. It is surmised that he was mistaken for a farmer going to pay his rent, as it seems to have been known that several farmers passed that way for the pur- pose on the day of the murder.

William Cumming, formerly a wholesale ironmonger at Newcastle,. now a bankrupt, has been committed for forging the, acceptance of Mr. Blurry to a bill for 48/. It is said that many similar charges could be brought against him.

. Mr. Pearson, a miller of Horton, near Bradford in Yorkshire, has been waylaid, beaten, and robbed of 301., by three footpads, armed with clubs. Mr. Pearson's life is in danger.

Early on Tuesday morning, some ruffian at present unknown, perpetrated an act in the immediate neighbourhood of the Preston station which might have led to great injury, if not loss of life. The Lancashire and Yorkshire goods-train arrived at the station a short time before the 3.1 a. m. mail-train was due. Shortly afterwards, one of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Com- pany's breakamen perceived that the signal-lamp was " off" ; and, upon going down the line to ascertain the cause, he discovered that the signal- lamp had been put out, and the points turned and tightly wedged up with a stone. Of course the points were at once altered, but only just in time, for i

the mail-train arrived n a minute or two afterwards. If the obstruction had not been removed, the train would have run into the goods-yard, and a se- rious accident must have been the result.—Liverpool Times.

The Finnish prisoners at Lewes have again indulged in a riot, because two of their number were liberated. The Governor of the gaol acted with energy and decision, and the mutiny was quickly quelled. The prisoners will lose some privileges by this outbreak.

The Jury who have sat on the bodies of eight men killed by the explosion of a boiler at Walker Iron-works, near Newcastle, have pronounced a ver- dict of "Accidental death." The disaster is believed to have originated from a lack of water and the intense heating of the boiler; but no blame is im- puted to the men in charge: of the boiler—the deficiency of water was acci- dental.

While Captain Hopton, of the North Gloucester Militia, accompanied by his wife, was driving a tandem in a park at Cirenceater, he lost control over the horses; they ran against a stone, and Captain Hopton and his wife were thrown out. Captain Hopton suffered concussion of the brain, and died two days after ; Mra. Hopton's hurts were not mortal.

During the late storms on the Eastern coasts, Thomas Cable junior, a ma- riner of Aldborough, plunged into the tempestuous sea to endeavour to rescue a lad who was on a wreck : Cable was attached to a rope held by men on shore; it snapped, Cable was drawn under the ship, and no doubt crushed to death. The gallant fellow has left a wife and five children : a subscription has been opened for their relief.

There have been serious floods in most parts of Wales, caused by the re- cent heavy rains. Much loss has occurred to farmers in some places. The river Conway had not been so high for thirty years.