28 JULY 1855, Page 2

Orturtto nut Iiiruttrhiugs iu Varliarnrut.


HOURS or Loans. Monday, July 23. Royal Assent to the Lord Raglan and Lady Raglan Annuities Bill, the Endowed Schools (Ireland) Bill, the Spirits (Ire- land) Act Amendment Bill, and the Friendly Societies Bill—Prosecution for Schism; Lord Brougham's Bill read a first time—Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Bill in Committee—Religious Worship; Lord Shaftesbury's Bill read a third time and passed—Burials Bill read a third time and passed—Dwelling-houses (Scotland) Bill read a third time and passed—Crime and Outrage (Ireland) Continuance Bill read a third time and passed.

Tisesday, July 24. Metropolis Local Management Bill read a second time—Dis- senters' Marriages Bill read a second time—Dissenters' Relief; Lord Brougham's Bill withdrawn—Public Libraries and Museums Bill read a third time and passed — Stage-Carriages Bill read a second time—Nuisances Removal Act Amendment Bill read a second time.

Thursday, July 26. Stage-Carriage Duties Bill committed—Sale of Spirits (Ire- land) Bill reported—Merchant Shipping Act Amendment Bill read a third time and passed. Friday, July 27. The Bishop of Exeter; Earl Fortescue's Complaint—Religious Disabilities Repeal ; Lord Brougham's Bill read a first time—Stage-Carriage Du- ties Bill read a third time and passed—Convention with United States Bill read a third time and passed—Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction Continuance Bill read a third time and paasA.

House or Contents. Monday, July 23. New Writs ; for Southwark in the room id of Sir W. Molesworth, and for Marylebone in the room of Sir B. Hall—Nuisances Removal Act Amendment Bill read a third time and passed—Expedition to the .Crimea; Mr. Disraeli's Question—Turkish Loan ; Report—Ordnance Survey (Scotland); Lord Seymour's Complaint—Partnership Amendment Bill in Committee —Encumbered Estates Act Continuance Bill read a second time.

Tuesday, July 24. Tenants' Improvements Compensation Bill withdrawn—Part- nership Amendment Bill in Committee—'• Count out." Wn6esday, July 25. Marriage Law Amendment Bill dropped—Bleaching Works, Be., Bill thrown out on second reading—Union of Contiguous Benefices Bill in Committee—Church-Rates Abolition ; Sir W. Clay's Bill withdrawn—Office of Speaker Bill committed. Thursday, duly 26. Limited Liability Bill in Committee—Sale of Beer; Report of Select Committee—Turkish Coal-Mines ; Mr. Layard's Question—Commissariat Difficulties; Mr. Layard's Question—Supply; Educational Votes—Turkish Loan Bill read a second time—Joint Stock Banks (Scotland) Bill read a third time and passed—Excise Duties Bill committed. Friday, July 27. Turkish Loan Bill in Committee—Limited Liability Bill in Committee—Dwellings for Labouring Classes (Ireland); Sir W. Somerville's Bill withdrawn—Sale of Beer ; Mr. H. Berkeley's Bill read a first time.


The Lords. The Commons.

Hour of Honr of Hour of Hoar of Meeting. Adjournment. Meeting. Adjournment.

Monday 6k 85 20m Monday Noon 4h Om

611 .(m) 2h Om Tuesday als 9h Om Tuesday Noon 4h Om 6h .... gh 10m

Wednesday No sitting. Wednesday Noon .... gh Om Thursday 6h 711 6m Thursday Noon .... 4b Om

6h .(m) 2h80m

Friday Sh 6k 40m Friday Noon .... 4h Ora

6h .(m) lh 30m

Sittings this Week, 4; Time.11h 5m Sittings this Week, 9; Time, 46h 10m this Session. 99; — 209h 35m --- this Berton. 137; — man 53m THE TURKISH LOAN.

When the report of the resolution agreed to in Committee on Friday week was brought up by Mr. Frrzaoy, and the question pat that it

should be received, Mr. STUART WORTLEY rose to express his regret that

the House should on Friday night have been surprised into a division, which affords a very imperfect indication of the feeling of the House and the country. He had understood that no division would be taken. He did not contend they had no right to question a convention of this sort ; he saw much subject for animadversion and hesitation ; but that, with reference to the affairs of Europe at this time, our particular relations with France, and the danger that the proceedings of Friday might be taken by Russia as an indication of a misunderstanding between the two Powers, and of a hesitation in carry- ing on the war, he deeply regretted the occurrence.

Mr. BRIGHT said there had been no surprise. Mr. Milner Gibson told Lord Palmerston, two or three weeks ago, that there would be considerable opposition. He hinted that France had been urged into this proceeding ;

that the mortgaging of the tributes of Egypt, Syria, and Smyrna, is the first step to the partition of Turkey; and that it did away with the gua- rantee for the security of that empire. He made a special attack upon the press and " all sorts of writers in the press," asking, " are we to be browbeaten by the press, and told that we do not represent our consti- tuents or the true interests of the country ?" " Do these people out of doors who, in the public press, write lectures to us, think that we are mean, sneaking cowards ? " Mr. Sergeant SHER spoke of the " pre- concerted intention " so manifest on the part of a strong party in the House on Friday week ; of the conduct of Mr. Gladstone, whom be lec- tured for attempting to defeat the resolution and embarrass the Govern- ment in the prosecution of the war ; of the attacks Mr. Gladstone made on

the honour of Turkey and France, and of the fallacy of his arguments. Sir HENRY WILLOUGHBY said he supported the resolution because he

could not give his vote exclusively on finangial grounds. He would have supported a positive grant of money to Turkey. The objections to the proposition have been overrated; but he thoughlt some means should be taken to prevent any entanglement between England and France with regard to the guarantee. Mr. Atcocx, who was in favour of a di- rect grant to Turkey, condemned the Government proposal. Mr. Y. L.

RICARDO vindicated his vote, and protested that there had been no surprise. Mr. DEEDES justified his vote in the majority. Sir DE LACY EVANS said the division had been to him a surprise. Had he anticipated it, he

should have given his unqualified support to the Government. Mr.

LAYARD also contended that there had been a surprise; that Mr. Glad- stone's conduct had been "unwise, unatatesmanlike, and unpatriotic,"

for he had furthered the designs of our enemies,—had done that which,

had it been successful, would have led to an illumination at St. Peters- burg, and gloom and discouragement in Turkey. He believed that the

Porte would pay the interest ; he asserted that both Russia and Austria had thwarted every effort of the Turks to develop their resources ; and finally commented on the importance of arresting Russian progress in Asia Minor.

Mr. GLADSTONE said he regarded as compliments the epithets applied to him by Mr. Layard, who, in his sincere fanaticism, was the chief of those who propagated dangerous delusions respecting the state of Turkey. He contended that he had taken no part in any preconcerted movement; that he had objected to the convention almost wholly on political grounds. Financially the measure is deceptive-

" While I do not in the slightest degree censure those who take a different view, but frankly admit that the case is one of real and great difficulty, I

say that it ought to be treated as one of those fair occasions on which a dif- ference of opinion may prevail, and that it ought not to be taken out of the category of ordinary questions, and made the subject of a retrospective lec- ture." (Loud chews.) Had the bearing of this subject on the French alliance been well con- sidered?

Is that an alliance of today and tomorrow, and not the next day ? Is it our duty to provide some hand-to-mouth arrangement that will keep it

straight for the present, and leave the future to shift for itself ? Are we, on the plea of present inconvenience, even if the exaggerated intonvenience which has been conjured up to alarm us exists, to become ...rate and silent parties to a plan so impolitic and so improvident that in every line of it it is full of the seeds of future difficulty and possibility of division." He vindicated the course pursued on Friday, by a reference to prece- dents in 1795, and 1714, in which the House of Commons had dealt with

treaties. He denied that he had thrown any doubt on the good faith of France ; but he again expressed doubt whether Turkey will be able to fulfil her engagements. He was not surprised at the division of opinion ; but although the House is " almost a menagerie of curiosities in matters of opinion yet there is not one non-official who approves upon their merits of the terms of this convention. He was not inclined to push matters to extremes, but he entreated the Government, without refer- ence to " the squabble in which we, the Dli Minorca], are involved," to try and negotiate some improvement in the convention. Mr. CROWLEY echoed Mr. Gladstone's views ; and Mr. Mom; Mr. CAYLEY, and Mr. PHILLIPS, defended their votes in favour of the reso- lution.

The report was received without a division.

The bill was read a second time on Thursday, nem. con., amid great cheering on both sides of the House.


Mr. Disaasra asked Lord John Russell if he would state what was his authority for alleging, as a reason for the expedition to the Crimea, that the Austrians had declined to cross the Pruth ?

Lord Jonx Russaw, said that his authority was his general recollec- tion—an impression produced in his mind by a whole series of corre- spondence with regard to the operations which Austria would undertake to cause the evacuation of the Principalities by Russia.

Mr. Disamt, dissatisfied with this reply, appealed to Lord PALMER- ETON; who declined to answer questions taken piecemeal from a long course of negotiation ; adding- " All I can say with regard to myself is, that I always thought that the Crimea was the place where the most effective blow could be struck at the preponderance of Russia in the Black Sea, and, if there had been no other reasons whatever in favour of the expedition, that reason alone would, in my mind, be amply sufficient for the expedition." (Cheers.)


In reply to Mr. LAYARD, Mr. Wawa- explained that it was a mistake to suppose that a royalty of 10s. per ton on coals was paid to the Turkish Government. The mines were in full operation when we undertook to work them. The payment of 10s. a ton, which, with other expenses, made the cost of the coal delivered on board ship 25s. was not a royalty upon the produce of ground hitherto unexplored, but a payment in respect of coal taken out of ground which was already explored. That arrangement was adopted as the most favourable of several alternatives; and the French Government had since made a similar offer to Turkey. The 108. was paid, not as a royalty for working the coal, but as a share of the profit which it was shown that the Sultan actually obtained from the mines when we took possession of them ; and our reason for taking them was that we might develop them more thoroughly than was being done by the Turkish Government.


Mr. LAYARD, stating that it was said considerable embarrassment existed in the East in consequence of the want of money in the Commis- sariat treasury, and that a large number of bills had been dishonoured, wished to know whether such a scarcity of money had been felt, and whether it was likely to continue, or whether any remedy had been ap- plied?

Mr. Wuncus said the circumstances had been exaggerated.

The facts were these. In May the monthly expenditure of coin from the Commissariat chest was from 150,0001. to 200,0001. That expenditure suddenly increased to 300,000/. in consequence of the payments for the Turkish Contingent and for other purposes. 100,000/. had been despatched by the British Queen on the 29th May ; but, unfortunately, her engines broke down in the Mediterranean, and she was detained in Malta three or four weeks for repairs. The non-arrival of that amount no doubt occasioned considerable embarrassment • but, in the mean time, two other sums, amounting to 250,0004 had 'been despatched, which arrived in the interim. The British Queen had now, also, reached her destination ; and, in addition to the sums which he had mentioned, 100,0001. was despatched upon the 3d of July, and 100,000/. on the 8th of July. An amount, therefore, had been sent out which, he was informed by the department, was far more than suf- ficient to meet any bills that could possibly be due. Upon the 12th of July 100,000/. more was despatched, and 240,0001. had been sent out since.


Sir CHARLES Wood, in answer to Sir HENRY Wranuoince, said that despatches had been received from Admiral Dundas containing, among other things, a letter from Lieutenant Geneste addressed to Captain Fan- sbawe, of the Cossack, and which had been forwarded by the Russian authorities; and he proposed to lay it, with the other correspondence be- tween Admiral Dundee and the Russian authorities on the subject, on the table of the House. He was sorry to add that the Russian authorities had refused to liberate the prisoners.


The House went into Committee of Supply, on Thursday, for the pur- pose of taking the Educational votes. On the vote of 296,9511. for educational purposes, Sir GEORGE GREY explained that the sum required for the present year is 381,9514 of which 100,0001. has already been voted, in addition to which there is a supplemental estimate of 15,0001, Last year the sum required was 343,3731.—showing an increase this year of 38,0481. The actual vote last year was 263,0001., made up to 343,3731. by 80,0001. balanoe in hand. The whole of the vote of last year has been expended, including the balance ; and it is therefore necessary to vote the whole amount of the estimate for the current year. Sir George stated how the vote of last year was expended, but he spoke in so low a tone, and with such rapidity, that he could scarcely be heard. The number of schools erected or improved during the past year was 262, at a cost of 198,2794 of which 60,0891. only was provided from the Par- liamentary grant. The total expenditure in seven years upon books and maps, &c., was 57,2811., of which Government furnished 15,0001. The grants for the stipends of pupil-teachers, and gratuities to schoolmasters and mistresses for instructing them, amounted to 145,000/. It has been decided to extend the special aid of capitation grants, al- lowed to schools in poor districts in proportion to the number of children attending, to large populous urban as well as poor rural districts, and this will cause an increase of the sum expended from 12,000/. to 15,0001. The schoolmaster is now assisted by pupil-teachers instead of by monitors as formerly, and the number has progressively in- creased from 5607, in 1851, to 7596, in 1854. Since 1846, the number of pupil-teachers who entered as apprentices amounted to 12,474, of whom only 694 are now either in training-colleges, or engaged as assistant- teachers. There are 38 training-schools exclusive of Kneller Hall, which will shortly be closed ; erected at a cost of 300,0001., maintained at an outlay of 60,000/., with room for 2000, and containing 1600 scholars. The pupil-teachers can obtain by competitive examination exhibitions in the training-schools. There are 2838 certificated teachers at work in the schools; and the machinery now in full and successful operation supplies 1000 well-educated masters per annum, and between 7000 and 8000 ap- prentices. During the last year 5575 schools were inspected, at a cost of 31,9404 There were 65 industrial schools receiving assistance in 1854— an increase of 23 since 1863.

Mr. Ramps moved the reduction of the vote to 263,000!., on the grounds that the money was unwisely applied ; that tbo schools were filled with the children of the middle classes, and not of the poor ; that part of the money was extravagantly expended in the education of pupil- teachers who are above their work, and who quit the scholastic pro- fession ; and that although the taxes are paid by the whole people yet the grant is not equally distributed among all who pay taxes. He also objected that the increase of the vote tends to establish a system of edu- cation, although the House had repeatedly determined not to establish any system.

Much desultory conversation followed, but nothing having the charac- ter of a debate. Mr. BARROW, who did not oppose the vote, raised the objection that the schoolmasters aro over-educated—we have been too anxious to teach science, unaocompanied by moral training or discipline. Sir Joins PAK1NGTON said the real complaint against the schoolmasters was not that they are too highly educated, but that their training does not reach sufficiently low, and include industrial training. A remedy for that and other objections would be supplied by a properly- constituted educational department. Sir GEORGE GREY concurred, and hoped that a Department of Education, represented in that House as the Poor-law Board is, will be established before the educational estimate is again submitted to Parliament. Mr. MIALL, putting in a plea for the voluntary system, was rebuked by Mr. COBDEN, and told that he and his friends were the main obstacles to a settlement of the question. Mr. Cobden was not satisfied with the way in which the money is voted; but, looking to the great amount of good which has been done, he should vote for the increase of the grant. But there must be a limit to the present mode of proceeding ; and before a Minister of Education is appointed, it should be well understood what the education is to be.

After further discussion the amendment was withdrawn, and the vote was agreed to. The Committee subsequently agreed to a vote of 215,000/. for public education in Ireland ; and to a vote of 79,3641. to defray the expenses of the Department of Science and Art.

The House then resumed.


Just an hour before the morning sitting of Tuesday would be, in due course, suspended, the House went into Committee on the Partnership Amendment Bill—but made no progress. Mr. BOUVERTE proposed, on the ground of convenience, that the Committee should be postponed until Thursday morning.

A discussion arose on the propriety of dropping both the Partnership Amendment Bill, and the Limited Liability Bill—a course supported by Mr. CARDWELL, Mr. HEN-LEY, and Mr. GLADSTONE, who urged that the standing order of the House of Lords would obstruct the progress of the bills, even if they were adequately_ discussed and passed by that House. Mr. BOUVERIE, Mr. MOFFAT, Mr. BRIGHT, and Lord PALMER- STON, urged that too much stress was laid upon the rule of the House of Lords, which is a qualified rule. The Committee divided on Mr. Bon- verie's motion, and affirmed it by 89 to 41. The Committee was there- fore fixed for Thursday at twelve o'clock.

Before taking the Partnership Bill on Thursday morning, it was moved that the House should go into Committee on the Limited Liability Bill. Mr. MUNTZ led the way in a talking opposition, by moving that the House should go into Committee that day three months. He said that the proposed change would lead to the most disastrous consequences. There is plenty of capital for all legitimate undertakings.

Mr. GLYN seconded the amendment, on the ground that limited liabi- lity cannot be safely introduced under the existing state of the bank- ruptcy law. The amendment was supported by Mr. WILLIAM Bnowfs, Mr. Sraurri_ and Mr. VINCENT SCULLY; and opposed by Mr. EDWARD BALL and Mr. JOHN MACGREGOR.

Lord PALMERSTON entreated the House not to waste time by discussing over again the principle of the bill. He expressed his surprise that gen- tlemen who had been such strenuous supporters of free trade should try to defeat these bills. The contest lies between the few and the many— the opinions of the few are set against the interests of the great bulk of the community. A great multitude of small capitals, now locked up, will be set free, if these bills are passed, with great advantage to their posses- sors and the community.

" This is a question of free trade against monopoly. I do not say it offen- sively, but that is the real fact of the ease ; and you cannot disguise that from the public. It is a principle which is understood by every man in the country will and I can assure the House that I feel so strongly on this question that I will urge the House to go on, day after day, and morning after morning ; and, if it is attempted to talk these bills out by long speeches, the country shall at least see with whom the fault rests, and who it is that deprives the nation of the advantage which, I contend, these bills will afford. Of course, at this period of the session, if honourable gentlemen will waste time in making long speeches, and prevent business being done, we may have to sit here until September. I can only assure the House that no determination shall be wanting on the part of the Government to give the public, the benefit of these changes in the law during the present session of Parliament." The discussion of the principle of the bill, however, went on for a long time. Mr. SPOONER; Mr. MITCHELL, and Mr. F. Resszo,, said they were not opposed to the principle of limited liability ; but to the pro- posed mode of applying it. Mr. HBNLEI asked how Lord Palmerston could say that this is a free-trade measure, when it limits the capital of limited liability companies to 20,0004 and the shares to 251. ? Mr. LAING and Mr. MALINS, "as practical men," supported the view put forward by Lord Palmerston, that the bills would lead .to,the beneficial investment of small capitals. Mr. ARCHIBALD Hahne said the bills would produce "unmitigated evil."

Mr. BOUVERIB said that the Board of Trade ought no longer to be in- trusted with the odious power of granting charters of limited liability, and Parliament ought to deal with the question this session. Such charters ought not to be granted at the discretion of a Government Board, which is incapable of deciding whether a particular company should carry on business on the principle of limited or unlimited lia- bility. Mr. CARDWELL admitted that the Board of Trade cannot pro- perly exercise the powers intrusted to it ; but he contended that the 'bills before the House offered an unsatisfactory solution of the question ; and asked whose fault it was that these great free-trade measures had not been proceeded with before ? On a division the amendment was negatived by 121 to 40, and the House went into Committee. But the period allotted to the morning sitting had now nearly expired, and the Chairman was ordered to report progress.


Lord WODEHOUSE moved the second reading of this bill on Tuesday, and briefly explained its provisions. Lord PORTMAN and Earl Fox- TESCUE notified that they should propose amendments in Committee. The Marquis of SAIJSBURY regretted that such an important bill should be in- troduced so late in the session. The Earl of DERBY shared in that regret, but admitted that both the Government and the other House had bestowed great care on the bill. He thought he should not be present when the bill went through Committee, but he felt satisfied that the Government would fairly consider any suggestions made to them.

The bill was read a second time.


At the morning sitting on Tuesday, Lord PALMERSTON stated that, looking to the position of the Tenants' Improvement Compensation Bill— only thirteen out of seventy clauses adopted—the Government were of opinion that it should bo withdrawn. He restated his own position with regard to the bill. He thought it would be better that there should be no interference between the buyer and seller, the landlord and the tenant; but he contended that, in the case of Ireland, a departure from the prin- ciple is justifiable. The only chance of passing the measure lay in the belief that extreme parties would second the endeavours of the Govern- ment, and consent to mutual concession. They had not done so. On the contrary, extreme views had been enforced by those who opposed and those who supported the bill. Further discussion and more divisions would attend its further progress, and there can be no greater waste of time than to proceed with measures there is no rational expectation of passing. "The great economy of time is to do that which may produce a result." Government bad done all they could to induce the House to pass the measure ; and they had no other course to pursue than to recom- mend that it should drop for the present session.

Much conversation ensued. Mr. Friesen expressed his "astonish- ment" at the course taken by the Government. Mr. KENNEDY and Mr. DUFFY rejoiced at the abandonment of the bill, which would have proved "an insult and a curse to Ireland." Mr. J. G. PHILLIAIORE and Colonel GREVILLE thought Government had followed a manly and independent course, and had exercised a wise discretion. Mr. VINCENT SCULLY had no idea the bill would be abandoned. He read papers to show that the Irish deputation to Lord Palmerston was caused by the defection of mem- bers of the Government on the division on clause 14, and the desire that another division, supported by all the strength of Ministers, should be taken. Lord PALMERSTON said the Government were not divided. If it were May instead of July be should persevere. Mr. NAPIER and Lord Nees were not surprised at the course of the Government. Mr. STAF- roreD thought the bill had been used with great dexterity by Lord Pal- merston. Mr. G. D. Frrzointetn vindicated the conduct of the Govern- ment. Mr. DE VERB regretted the shipwreck of a good measure. Mr. F. SCULLY reminded the House that they had been discussing a subject already disposed of for two hours and a half ! Bill withdrawn.


On the motion of Lord BROUGHAM, a bill to exempt from all penalties and prosecutions for schism persons who conscientiously dissented from the Church of England, and who had ceased to be clergymen of that Church, and to take away from them all the privileges and benefits which they would otherwise have derived from continuing clergymen of the Church of England, was read a first time.

On Tuesday Lord BROUGHAM moved the second reading of the bill. The Earl of DERBY said he would oppose the motion if he stood alone. The bill would effect an entire alteration in the system of the Church of England, and it was not fitting that it should be introduced in this hasty and hurried manner. But ho would not bind himself to oppose the princi- ple of the bill in a fii,ture session. Lord BROUGHAM said that at this inauspicious period of the session he would not press the motion.

Bill withdrawn.


In moving the second reading of the Bleaching, &o., Works Bill, Mr. Iseee Burr explained that he proposed to extend the benefits of the Factories Act to persons employed in bleaching works. Young women and children are now frequently employed in these works from half-past six in the morning to eleven at night, two hours only being deducted for meals. The bill provided that the hours of labour for persons between the ages of eleven and eighteen should be limited to ten and a half hours a day, between six in the morning and six in the evening—the hour and a half to be deducted for meals.

Mr. KIRK moved that the bill be read a second time that day three months. Sir GEORGE GREY, Lord SEYIdOUR, and Sir Joan PAKINOTON, appealed to Mr. Butt not to press the measure this session. But Mr. Caoox, Lord Joan Mammas, and Mr. Witurems, urged Mr. Butt to proceed. On a division the motion was negatived by 72 to 67.


The motion for going into Committee on this bill, on Wednesday morning, was opposed by Mr. PEIr.srr, Mr. HADFIELD, Sir Joni.; SHELLEY, and Lord Joan MANNERS; while, on the other hand, it was supported by the Marquis of Ilamaranan, Sir GEORGE GREY Sir JOHN PexinoTox, and Mr. HENLEY. Objections were, however, Urged to the bill by those who were in favour of going into Committee, to the exten- sion of the operation of the bill to the whole country, and the arbitrary powers it would bestow upon the authorities. On a division the original motion was carried by 70 to 47.

The House went into Committee, and the Chairman reported progress at clause 2. - -

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY Emu Mr. &suer inquired on Monday whether it was Lord Palmerston's in- tention to proceed with this measure ; and, if so, upon what day ?

Lord Per.measrox said—" It is impossible for me to answer that question. We are very anxious to go on with it if there be time for its discussion."


Mr. HENRY &annum brought up the Report of the Select Committee on the Sale of Beer Act ; and gave notice that he would, on Monday

next, move for leave to bring in a bill, in pursuance of the Report laid on the table, to alter the existing law.


On the motion for going into Committee of Supply, on Monday, Lord SErmouri complained that the Government had committed a breach of faith with regard to the Ordnance Survey of Scotland. A pledge had been given that the results of an experiment of the 25-inch scale, made in Dumfriesshire and Ayrshire, should be submitted to the House before further proceedings were taken. That had not been done. On the con- trary, the Treasury had decided that the 25-inch scale should be applied to the survey of populous, cultivated and mineral districts, and even that the thinly-populated Highlands should be drawn on a 6 inch scale. Thus the House had been defied and defeated by the Treasury ; which ought to bear the whole expense of the survey. The Lord ADVOCATE referred the costliness of these surveys to the con- stant changes of plan. There had been no pledge given to the House_ of the kind mentioned by Lord Seymour, further than this—that only those surveys actually in progress should be carried out on the 25-inch scale. Four other counties, besides those of Ayr and Dumfries, were then par- tially surveyed on that scale, and the work was continued to save ex- pense. The cost of a 6-inch survey would amount to 817,0001., while a 25-inch survey would only amount to 100,0001. more. Mr. HENLEY and Mr. ELLICE expressed dissatisfaction at the course taken by Government. Lord PALMERSTON defended it, and promised a Committee of inquiry for next session. Lord ELCHO urged the Govern- ment to persevere; and Mr. Wittman denounced "this gross and mon- strous job, intended exclusively for the benefit of Scotch landlords."


As notice was taken that there were only thirty-six Members present soon after the commencement of the evening sitting, on Tuesday, the House adjourned at ten minutes past six.



(Extract.) The Earl of Clarendon to Lord John Russell. Foreign Office, Feb. 22.

The Queen having been pleased to confide to your Lordship, in conjunc- tion with the Earl of Westmoreland, the duty of conducting on her Ma-

hsty's behalf the negotiations about to be opened at Vienna, I have received er Majesty's commands to convey to your Lordship such general instruc- tions for your guidance as may serve to place on record the views of her Majesty's Government with reference to this important crisis in the affairs of Europe. It is a duty of no ordinary character which her Majesty has intrusted to your Lordship. In common with her Allies, her Majesty most anxiously de- sires to see peace restored to Europe in such a manner as to afford a reason- able assurance that it will long remain uninterrupted ; but this can only be expected if the conditions of that peace are such as to afford a sufficient gua- rantee for the future security of Turkey. If, however, such a peace cannot be arrived at, it is her Majesty's most earnest desire to see the Great Powers of Europe arrayed in a combined effort against the spirit of encroachment and wrong by which the councils of Russia have been animated; not only because such a league would most probably lead til an early termination of the existing contest, but because an assurance would there be obtained that the termination of the war would place on a sblid and secure basis the general interests of all Europe.

As regards the subjects to come under the consideration of the Conference, her Majesty's Government are of opinion that they must be taken in the order in which they have hitherto stood, notwithstanding that the third basis is the one the satisfactory development of which is likely to meet the greatest obstructions ; but it will be in vain to stipulate that the Danubian provinces shall be withdrawn from the exclusive protectorate of Russia, or that the navigation of the Danube shall be set free from the obstructions which impede it, unless effectual precautions are taken to render the Turkish empire an integral part of the European' system, and sufficient restraint be imposed upon the military and naval power heretofore exercised by Russia in the Black Sea, and the overbearing influence which, by reason of that power she has acquired over the councils of the Porte. Buealthough much may be urged in favour of making the third basis the first for consideration, such a course would be open to objections of a serious nature; and her Majesty's Government have reason to believe that Austria and France would both demur, although on different grounds, to force into discussion at the outset the important stipulations involved in the develop- ment of the third basis. Nevertheless, it will be for your Lordship to judge whether, before entering into negotiation with the Russian Plenipotentiary, or before the third basis comes into discussion in the Conference, it would be expedient for the three Powers to come among themselves to some general understanding, subject, indeed, to be modified by future circumstances, as to the form which that basis should ultimately assume. The end in view is the formal recognition of the Turkish empire in its character as an inde- pendent and self-existent state, as a member of the great European family, and as an essential element of the balance of power in Europe. One of the means by which that end is to be accomplished is the abrogation of Russian supremacy in the Black Sea. How this is to be effected with the least in- convenience to the Powers of Europe, is the problem to be solved. It might be brought about by a common agreement that the maritime Powers should maintain in the Black Sea a force adequate to counterbalance the naval forces which Russia has heretofore maintained, and, if uncon- trolled, may again hereafter maintain in that sea. But this would be nothing more than an armed truce, liable to be interrupted at every moment by chance collisions, and entailing on the maritime Powers a perpetual ex- penditure to keep up, at a distance from their arsenals, an efficient force in the Black Sea, while Russia, having her arsenals at hand, and her harbours of refuge always open, would be relieved in a great measure from the costs to which the other Powers would be exposed. It may well be doubted whether, after a few years, Great Britain would continue such an expen- diture.

This object might be effected by a twofold process : by reducing the mari- time force of Russia in the Black Sea within reasonable compass, and by opening that sea, with the consent of Turkey, to the maritime forces of other nations. Her Majesty's Government would much regret that the Porte should be so impressed with a sense of its own comparative weakness as to be prepared to abdicate its power to defend the Turkish empire against even a limited display of hostile force. It would be better for the nations of Europe that the Porte should be encouraged to rely on its own resources, though left at liberty to call in the aid of friendly Powers to counteract the menaces of its powerful neighbour ; but the reduction of the Russian naval force in the Black Sea within such bounds as might, in coo ration with an


equal Turkish force, suffice to provide adequate protection for peaceful com- merce, would have the further indirect advantage of preventing, at any future period, the march of Russian armies on Constantinople, or at all events of rendering any such operation one of extreme hazard ; for, as far as

present experience extends, the support of a powerful fleet, capable of cooperating with the advance of armies and affording the means of providing them with requisite supplies, is essential to the success of any movement on the Turkish capital.

The imposition, therefore, of adequate restrictions on the naval power of Russia in the Black Sea, would give to Turkey the material protection of which she stands in need; while her recognition as an essential element in the balance of power in Europe, would afford her a moral guarantee under the safeguard of which she might fearlessly carry out those plena of internal reform and social reorganization which have been so earnestly pressed upon the Porte for many years. Taking the bases in the order in which they stand, the first point to be placed on record is the entire abrogation of all former engagements between Russia and the Porte, in regard to the provinces of Moldavia, Wallachia, and Servia. Not that those provinces are again to be brought into imme- diate subjection to the Porte, but that Russia shall no longer have to plead special treaty engagements with herself as justifying her single interference with the sovereign power, in regard to the relations between that power and the established authorities in the province; and that those provinces should not look to Russia as the arbitress of their destinies, and pay that court and deference to her which should be reserved for the Sultan alone. There would be no occasion to interfere, at least in principle, with the system of local self-government established in those provinces, or to place the rulers of the provinces in more direct dependence on the sovereign power than they now are.

It may be a question for discussion whether the tribute now paid by the provinces to the treasury of the Porte should be augmented. But the nomi- nation of the Hospodars and the attributes of sovereignty in the Principali- ties, as far as other Powers are concerned, would rest with the Sultan,. and the agents appointed by foreign Powers to watch over the commercial inte- rest of their subjects would still require the formal recognition of the Sultan for the legal exercise of their several functions. Remaining thus under the suzerainete of the Sultan, the provinces would be bound by the treaty obliga- tions of the Porte with the foreign Powers, no less than the other portions of the Ottoman dominions; and appeals for infraction of treaty rights would be addressed to the Porte, as they now are, by the representative of the aggrieved Power at the Court of Sultan, who must therefore have authority to give redress.

Again, as regards the second basis, the abrogation of the rights of Russia to interfere with the freedom of the navigation of the Danube might be most effectually secured by the retrocession to Turkey, in the first instance, of the territory at the mouths of the river which she renounced at the treaty of Adrianople, subject to the condition that the retroceded territory should be placed by the Porte under the safeguard of the Great Powers of Europe, acting in concert with the Porte for the preservation of all the navigable chan- nels of the river from the exclusive domination of any one Power, and for the removal of the obstructions which now impede and have long threatened to render the channel of the Danube altogether unserviceable for the purposes of commerce. A mixed commission, in which England and France should be represented, should be appointed to regulate all matters belonging to the navigation. But if Russia enters upon the discussion with a sincere desire to meet the reasonable wishes of the Powers most interested in the naviga- tion of the Danube, there may be ground to expect that those questions will receive a favourable solution by the establishment of a syndicate authority, invested with the necessary powers for the destruction of the obstacles now existing at the.mouths of the river, or which might hereafter grow up there. The basis which remains to be considered is one peculiarly calculated to call into action the sympathies of Christian nations, and therefore likely to be attended with more than ordinary difficulties in the discussion and set- tlement of it. For the object in view is to reconcile and to bring in har- mony for secular purposes the conflicting passions and prejudices of Islamism and Christianity.

Then, again, it is almost needless to remark, much abnegation and self- control are required on the part of the Christian Powers in their dealings with the Porte in behalf of the Christian subjects of the Sultan.

It would tend greatly to the peace of Turkey if the Powers of Europe would mutually renounce all sectarian prejudices as applied to the subjects of the Sultan, and look upon all Christians, whatever ritual they may belong to as entitled to an equal share in the religious privileges and immunities which the Sultan may, at the instance of the Great Powers of Europe, con- sent to accord to them.

It would seem desirable that the Sultan should by his own act abolish all legal and other distinctions between his /dahoraetan and Christian sub- jects, and formally communicate to the Powers of Europe the firmans by which this shall have been done.

I have thus briefly touched upon the several important points which, if the Conferences proceed, will successively be brought before the assembled Plenipotentiaries.

The intimate acquaintance which your Lordship possesses with the various points to which I have adverted, will suggest to you the fittest arguments in support of the policy' of her Majesty's Government, which is to restore peace to Europe on a solid foundation. The blood and treasure which have been so freely expended in support of that policy would be altogether thrown away if the only result off our efforts should be a hollow truce, to be broken whenever a suitable opportunity should arise for the attainment of the long- cherished ebjects of Russian ambition—the subjugation of the Ottoman em- pire in Europe, and the enthronement of a Russian prince in the capital of Turkey. Your Lordship will communicate this despatch to Lord Westmoreland, for his instruction and guidance.