28 OCTOBER 1876, Page 21


published, and is a thoughtful and concise resume of the question. The evils of the competitive and other examinations are strongly insisted on, and the system of specialism recommended, besides other University reforms as to the distribution of Fellowships. The latter introduces the principal contents of an Arabic treatise of the twelfth century on the water-balance and specific gravities. The close coincidence with modern results, and the insight the writer had into many of the mysteries of science, cause regret that the scientific world did not know of this work earlier. Mr. Williams's paper on the philosophy of the radiometer and its cosmical relations is an important contribution to the theories on the subject, in which he differs from the molecular theory of Mr. Stoney, maintaining that the motion is due to the radiant, repulsive energy of heat, into which the light is converted by the blackened side. Papers on Japanese mines, the cradle of civilisation and the constants of colony., with notices of scientific works and the proceedings of the British Association, complete a successful number.