17 APRIL 1909

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T HE year 1909 seems likely to prove as restless and momentous as 1848,—the annus mirabilie of upheaval and revolt. On Tuesday afternoon London learned by short and vague...

Though Friday's telegrams show that complete order has been restored

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at Constantinople, that a Cabinet of moderate men, with one or two exceptions, holds office, and that the Sultan for the time at any rate remains in the background, it must not...

The troops who effected the revolution were put in motion

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by a combination of the Jemiyet-i-Mohammedieh (League of M ohammed) and the Liberal Union, a body of extremists who, Cta We have pointed out elsewhere, are alleged to be more...

It is hardly necessary for us to say that our

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sympathies are with the Young Turks. We cannot, however, disguise from ourselves the difficulty of their task, and, short of a miracle, we should say that in the end the Old...

I V The Editors cannot undertake to return Manuscript, in any

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If we go a step further in probing the causes

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of the revolution, we believe it will be found that the Sultan, who still remains the greatest master of political intrigue in Europe, has pulled the strings, playing with...

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The Daily Mail of Saturday last states that the Army

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Council has approved the formation at an early date of a , Reserve to the Territorial Force, Such a Reserve, it declares, will consist of a considerable mimber of ex-Volunteers...

The Standard of Wednesday contained a striking and important article

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on the attitude of the American Press on the naval crisis. It points out that the interest taken in the comparisons between British and German battle- ship strength is quite...

The official answer is that the War Office have quite

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as =my rifles—they will not state the number—as they can use, and that it would be quite useless to arm a mob of untrained men with rifles. That would be a perfectly sound...

The Times of Tuesday states that the small fleet of

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steam trawlers which the Admiralty has purchased during the past two or three weeks is to be used solely for the purpose of dis- covering submarine mines which might be laid in...

We do not wish, of course, to exaggerate the importance

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of newspaper comment, but in this case we can hardly doubt that it represents American opinion. In the first place, the sympathies of the two nations which compose the English-...

The end of such events no man can foresee, and

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we shall make no attempt at a forecast beyond saying that the situation is grave and disquieting in a high degree. Since Russia con- siders herself unable to take a determining...

This change is attributed to the fact that the New

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York Sun learned privately from Washington of the serious view taken by Mr. Taft concerning Germany's growing Navy, and that its second leading article echoed the opinion of the...

The St. Petersburg correspondent of the Daily Telegraph states positively

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in Friday's issue that, in spite of the denials that have been published, M. Isvolsky has already resigned the office of Foreign Minister, and that M. Goremykin has been...

We sincerely hope that this statement may prove to be

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well founded. There are a very large number of men in the country who have received a military training and who know how to use a rifle, but who at the moment belong to no...

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The writer denies that there is any evidence to show

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that the autocracy of Sir John Fisher has enabled him to . do anything without the consent of his colleagues. To i nsinuate as much is to libel the other members of the Board....

The case against the Admiralty is greatly reinforced by an

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able letter from Mr. H. W. Wilson in last Saturday's Times. Under ten different headings he emphasises the remarkable contrast : we precept and practice which has prevailed...

The first of the articles in defence of the Admiralty

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appears in the Times of Monday. After emphasising the similarity of andpoint between the writer of the articles in the Times and Civil]." and drawing therefrom the conclusion...

Mr. Winston Churchill has addressed a long letter to the

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chairman of the Liberal Party in Dundee "to combat the naval alarms." He condemns the "stupid and vicious error" of attempting to measure the strength of the British Navy, or...

Bank Rate, 2i per cent., changed from 3 per cent.

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April 1st. Consols (21-) were on Friday 85i—Thursday week Sq.

The Times of Thursday publishes the indictment of M. Lopukhin,

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formerly Director of Police in the Russian Ministry of the Interior, who is charged with high treason for having betrayed the police spy Azetf to the Social Revolutionaries. The...

The death of Mr. Swinburne a few days after his

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seventy- second birthday removes the last, and in some ways the most richly gifted, of the great Victorian poets. A fine classical . „ a cnolar and deeply versed in the French...

Reticence has never been a strong point of Mr. Churchill,

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but he has never carried his indiscretion or lack of considera- tion for his colleagues further than in this extraordinary letter. What he describes as stupid, vicious, and...

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WHY SHOULD THE NATIONS WAGE WAR? I N writing last week on the need for "a new way of life" we were obliged to leave one aspect of the problem now before the nation almost...

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W HOEVER is in office in Turkey, it is the . soldier who is in power. Such a statement, however, does not take us very far towards an understandieg of the actual situation. To...

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W E are now in possession of the full text of the speech delivered by Lord Kitchener during the discussion, of the Budget in the Viceroy's Connell on March 29th. The occasion...

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M R. GRAYSON has suddenly become a person of more importance than his actual achievements seemed calculated to make him, He has done indeed very little ; but what most of us may...

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of Mr. Swinburne a great name is lost to contemporau literature. We say "name" advisedly, fo r Mr. Swinburne's tribute to that literature was finished, 1 11(1 it was in no sense...

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W HAT was the spirit in which the travellers set out t° make books of road-surveying two hundred years ago P When " Jno Owen, of the Midd: Temple, Gent," as be describes himself...

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T HE Religious Tract Society has signalised the approaching quatercentenary of Calvin by issuing a new Life ("John Calvin," by the Rev. C. H. Irwin, M.A., 2. 6d.) which should...

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THE ADMIRALTY, ITO TIM EDITOR Of VIZ "SPRCTATOR.1 S III,—The question uppermost in all men's minds at this 'foment is that of the right organisation of the Admiralty. I...

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[To TUE Burton OF TUM "SPEOTATOR.1 SIR, —" un-Christian Advocate of

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Fair Play," writing in your issue of Apri110th, expresses his surprise at a clergy- man, as a Christian, appealing to the manhood of the nation to rise and prepare few defence....


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" A NEW WAY OF LIFE." [To TOM EINTOM Or TVA " SPECTATOU.1 SIR,—Many are no doubt already deeply impressed by the truth given in the Fortnightly Review, and quoted in your...


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[To TUN EDTTOM, OW TRIM " EIWZOTAT0101 Sitt,I am sorry that the Christianity of joining the Terri- torials is not self-evident to "An un-Christian Advocate of Fair Play"...


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[To TUM EDITOR Or Till "SPIOTATOMM SIR, — Your correspondent who signs him.self " An un-Claristial l Advocate of Fair Play" in last week's issue quotes the ahoy! saying, and...

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ITo Tu. EDITOR OP TRIO "BPIICTATOR.1 Olnystie says or implies in his letter to you in the last issue that the law is ample for dealing with cases of 'Wretched children such as...


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EDITOR Olfvs." 81•110TATOR.1 S IR, — Under the above heading Mr. T. C. Horsfall has an alarmist letter on the physical decadence of the youth of this country in your issue of...


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(To TRH EDITOR OF TILE " SPECTATOR." Sin,—In the inspiring article on "The Hope of the World" with which your last number was enriched the writer quotes more than once the...


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(TO THIS EDITOR Or TDB " SPECTATOR." J is mistake to suppose that compulsion has been introduced into the Land Bill simply through bad feeling to the minority. It has, in...


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[TO TRII EDITOR ON TUB " OPROTLTDR."1 Si,—A saying which Archdeacon Cheetham reported to me is compared by Mr. Burden (Spectator, April 10th) to a similar saying of unknown...

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[TO THE EDITOn O TIM SrECTATOtt."] SIR, — Classical scholars generally—and, I may add, students of history and of ethics as well—will find it impossible to agree with the...

(TO VIII rearm OF TUN " srecr.vroaai SIR,—I think some

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readers of your last number will be struck by the contrast between your first leader, " A New Way of Life," and the review of Caesar's Commentaries appearing in the same number....

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[To TII IP EDITOR OP THU .91.1101•11TOR:' J SIR,—In a criticism of "The Friendly Craft : a Collection of American Letters" in the Spectator of March 20th, the writer, after...


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ROADS FROM TOWN. Ur the hill at Hotham,—straining, moody, slow, Steaming in the frost and fog, whore do the waggons go ? Rumbled the wheels and clattered chain traces against...


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[To Tap EDITOR OP TSR " SPNOTATOIl." SIR,—Your reviewer of my book on "The Douglas Cause" Says of one of my statements : "He makes Thurlow fight his duel with Stuart, not...


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LTO TIM 'EDITOR OF TIIE " SMICIATOR."J SI R, — Conegitution Papers, the ably edited organ of the British Constitution Association, prints in its issue of April 15th the...

NOTICE-1Vhen Articles or " Correspondence" are signed with the writer's

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name or initials, or with a pseudonym, or are marked "Communicated," the Editor must not necessarily be held to be in agreement with the views therein expressed or with the mode...

Army and Navy Stores.

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Cadbury Brothers. A. J. Caley and Son. Carr and Co. Chocolat-Menier. Co-operative Wholesale Society. Crosse and Blackwell. Epps and Co. grown cocoa :— Fry and Sons. Fuller...

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THE GROWTH OF NATIONALITIES.* - True new volume of The Cambridge Modern History deals with the 'chief event of the nineteenth . Century,—the growth of the European...

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TEE fascinating study of mediaeval armour and arms is technical and complex, yet its abounding human interest, and the innumerable facts and deductions which it is capable of...

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THE ENGLISH HOUSE.* THE author of The English House, in

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spite of an occasional lack of sense of proportion, has produced an attractive and a stimulating book. His design is practical and instructive, and he has succeeded in bringing...

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THERE is a romance and pride in the history of islands which a. grave continent can rarely emulate. A narrow compass and an enclosing sea are a strong encouragement to bravery...

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arrival of a long series of books on the social and family hintOry of the nineteenth century. As Lady St. Helier remarks in her attractive though slightly confused introduction...


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THE story of the Isthmian Canal goes back a long way,—to within half.a.century of the discovery of America. Practically, however, it begins with the middle of the nineteenth...


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Mn. SHRINE, who has already given us some of his experiences and conclusions as a schoolmaster in his Pastor Apart" now tells us something of what he learnt and unlearnt in four...

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Jinbo a k'antaey. By Algernon Blaokwood. London klenaulllso ind Co. De. Ccl. not.) Mu. BLACKWOOD has on more than one previous occasion proved his capacity for making our flesh...

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Life and Times of Anne Royal. By Sarah Harvey Porter,

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M.A. (Torch Press, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.)—Were Anne Royal alive now —her time was 1769-1854—she would be an eminent leader of suffragettes. She was militant with speech and pen, a...

RZADAHLIO NOVELS,—Underground. By John K. Leys. (Greening and Co. 68.)—A

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modern story of A narchists. If not credible, it is at least exciting.—The Living Strong Bow. By Frederic Mauzens. (Grant Richards. 6s.)—A story of a man who is believed to have...

The Compact. By Ridgwell Cullum. (Chapman and Hall. 6s.) —Mr.

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Cullum in his preface places an attractive programme before his reader in promising to reveal certain details of South African history before the war. 'rho fulfilment in the...

Of the now edition of The Imperial Gazetteer of India

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(The Clarendon Press) we have received Vol. XXVI. (15s. net), con- taining the Atlas. The maps number sixty-four, of which 49-64 represent the chief Indian cities, beginning...

Teresa. By Edith Ayrton Zangwill. (Smith, Elder, and Co. 6s.)—The

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entire credibility of Mrs. Zangwilrs new novel depends on the extreme simple-mindedness of the heroine, Teresa. But what can be thought of the simplicity of a young lady who...


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[Under this heading ice notice such Books of the week as have not been reserved for review in other forms.] The Wander Years. By J. H. Yoxall, M.P. (Smith, Elder, and Co. Os....

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A First Précis Rook. By G. A. F. M. Chatwin,

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M.A. (E. Arnold. 2s. Chatwin emphasises in his introduction the things which are necessary for a, satisfactory précis. Clear, Concise, giving all the essential, omitting all...

Report of the Nineteenth Eucharistic Congress. (Sands and Co. 58.

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net.)—This volume contains, besides addresses of welcome, some thirty or forty papers, of which the most important (outside the province of theology) are those of Lord Llandaff...

The very useful "Reference Series" (Swan Sonnenschein and Co.) is

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enriched by a Dictionary of Quotations (Italian), by Thomas Bonfield Harbottle and Colonel Philip Hugh Dalbiec (3s. fid. net). There are two hundred and two pages, with about...

How to Produce Ideas and Now to Acquire Fluency. lily

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Charles Seymour. (G. Routledge and Sons. 3s. net.)—To "produce" ideas seems at first sight to be an unattainable thing. The man of ideas 'medlar non fit. But to take the word...

Philips' Handy Administrative Atlas of Ireland. Edited by George Philip.

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(G. Philip and Son. 35. net.)—The word "administrative" in the title of this volume, and of its com- panion, Handy Administrative Atlas of Scotland (3s. net), is to be...

In the "Church Pulpit Commentary" (Tames Nisbet and Co.) we

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have two volumes (7s. ed. each), Acts v. — Romans i. and Corinthians — Ephesians. Two more volumes of the New Testament remain to be published.

A proposed series of "Writings of American Statesmen" (G. P,

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Putnam's Sons, 108 ficl. net) appropriately begins with Writings of George Washington, Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Lawrence B. Evans, Ph.D., who is to act as general...