17 MARCH 1855, Page 2

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Howns or LORDS. Monday, March 12. Lord Lucan's Case—Secretaries and Under-Secretaries of State (House of Commons) Bill read a second time—Debate on Military Administration.

Tuesday. March 13. Marine Mutiny Bill read a second time—Mntiny Bill com- mitted — Tea-duties Decline Suspension Bill committed — Exchequer Bills (17,183,0001.) Bill read a third time and passed—Debate on War Finance. Thursday, March 15. Marine Mutiny Bill read a third time and passed—Com- missions in the Army ; Lord Panmure's Statement—Ecclesiastical Courts Bill read a second time—Militia ; Lord Malmesbury's Complaint. Friday, March 16. Royal Assent to Exchequer Bills (17,183,0001.) Bill; Common Law Procedure (Ireland) Bill; Mutiny Bills ; Tea-duties Decline Suspension Bill; Secretaries and Under-Secretaries of State ([louse of Commons) Bill— Transport of Horses; Lord Albemarle's Motion for Returns—Criminal Justice Bill read a third time and passed.

Horse oF COMMONS. Monday, March 12. Ordnance Survey (Scotland); Lord Elcho's Statement—Colonial Department; Sir John Pakington's Complaint—Sup- ply; Commissariat Estimate. Tuesday, March 13. Marriage Law Amendment; Mr. Heywood's Bill, leave given—Irish Pauper Children ; Mr. J. Ball's Motion negatived—Vacating of Seats in Parliament; Mr. Wrightson's Bill read a first time. Wednesday, March 14. Friendly Societies; Mr. Sotheron's Bill committed. Thursday, March 15. Newspaper-Stamps Bill; Chancellor of the Exchequer's Statement—Real Estate ; Mr. Locke King's Motion negatived—Probate-ditty; Mr. Williams's Motion negatived—Factory Labour; Mr. Cobbett's Motion negatived_ Lord Raglan's Despatches; Mr. Duncombe's Motion withdrawn—purchaser's Pro- tection against Judgments; Lord St. Leonards's Bill read a third time and paa.,:-fi. Friday, March 16. General Education; Sir John Pakington's Bill rer

"'.,, a first

time—Metropolitan Local Management; Sir Benjamin hall s Bill, 'leave given— Militia (Ireland) Bill committed—Lunacy Regulation Act ARIndm'ent Bill read a third time and passed.

The Commons.

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Vle Lords.

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Tuesday Sh Ilk 15rn Wednesday

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Wednesday Noon . bh 60m Thursday

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Thursday 411 . . 17h em Pride

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Week, 6; Time. 37h Wm

36; — 691' Om

— this Session, 44; — 242h 20.1

Mirsrsity Aninsfierskarir.

„In the House of Lords orkMonday, on, thWond reading of the Secre- taries and Undbr-Searatarles (House of Commons) Bill, there was a desultory debate on several oints connected with the proposed military proceedings of the Government with regard to camps, barracks, and fortifications.

Earl GREY said, he entertained serious doubts whether, even as a tem- porary measure, this is the best that could be adopted, falling short as it does of that general reform so necessary in our military departments. But he felt that it was not proposed as all that can be effected, and he would wait with patience for the promised larger measure. What he desired to bring before the House was this, that it is highly inexpedient, while the departments remain in their present state, to adopt any plans of a large and expensive character, which have no reference to the immediate wants arising from the war. A large sum, 1,000,0001., has been voted for new works, mainly consisting of barracks and fortifications—parts, it was said, of a permanent system of defence. But, approving in principle of the concentration of troops, he contended that this is not the moment to proceed with the works proposed, because the larger proportion of our troops being em- ployed abroad, and those in the country preparing to go abroad, he thouglit temporary barracks would meet the exigencies of the case. With respect to fortifications, this is the moment when our ports are least in danger of being attacked : when works are required, they can be quickly erected, as the Russians have shown us by the earth- works they have thrown up at Sebastopol. If the heads that contrived and the hands that executed our railway system were employed, they would not be long in creating earthworks for the defence of our insuitime cities, to which the earthworks of Sebastopol are but a joke. The works proposed are not urgently necessary. Government is absorbed in a great contest ; and it is impossible that a great plan for the redistribution of our troops during peace, and the fortification of our coasts, can be ma- turely considered. The works that have, at such enormous cost, been executed during the last forty years, have been injudiciously planned and expensively executed. Even in the present estimate the same thing has been done. The Cambridge barracks are to be built for 644 persons at a cost of 37,0001., or 71/. per man. Now a comfortable three-roomed cot- tage could be built for 701. Another item, 18,000/., provides a barrack for 44 officers at the rate of 4001. each. A third, 12001., for the barrack of a field-officer at Shoeburyness. Now a good farm-house can be built for 13001. At this moment there is no person responsible for all the expense it is proposed to incur. This is nothing but reckless extrava- gance; and he regretted that it has not been checked by the House of Commons. It was because he thought we should proceed upon a settled policy, and because a settled policy cannot be matured in time of war, that he objected to these extravagant votes. After the last war there was a reaction, and barracks were precipitately sold : something of the same kind will occur again. He gave Lord Panmure a piece of counsel—that in applying for assist- ance and advice he should not confine himself to the narrow field of a seniority corps.

"Let not the only authorities whom my noble friend consults be the En- gineer officers—men promoted by seniority alone, and wedded too much, I am afraid, to routine ; but let him go to those men whose talents have raised them to distinction in civil life. After all, the same principles of physical science apply to fortifications and to railroads; and it is a profound knowledge and a successful application of these principles that have enabled' our Stephensons and Brunels to fill this country with those great works which will be the wonder of succeeding ages. (" Hear, hear ! ") From euoh men as these, and from our great builders, my noble friend will get far more trustworthy opinions than he -could -obtain within the narrow limits of a seniority service."

Lord PANMIIIIM supplied an answer to the chief part of Lord Grey's argument by an important piece of information, "namely, that with re- spect to the construction either of barracks or of new works, all that can be suspended, until the plan for the reorganization of the Ordnance has been laid before the House, will be suspended." But he could not agree that this is not the time to undertake defensive works. If he yielded to- that argument, he should be inevitably told, when the necessity for then. arrived, that it was then too late to think of them. With regard to the barracks, an officer has been sent to inspect the barracks in Belgium, [at Beverloo,] the most complete establishment of the kind in Europe ; and after collecting all possible information, he has been instructed to make a plan for Aldershott. The race in economy, which has been run by all the Governments since the peace, reduced us to an admirable regimental system - but we had no army in which the duties of the staff were known to its officers, or the duties of commanders known to generals. These faults must not occur again ; and the plan for erecting large barracks at Aldershott, with ample ground for exercising the troops, is one mode of preventing them. With respect to the expenditure on barracks, he con- curred with Lord Grey in his view of going beyond the limited experi- ence of engineers, and of calling in the aid of great contractors. It is intended to run up temporary hut-barracks at the rate of 6/. a man ; order to provide for the Militia as well as the troops of the line, to reliever the people from the oppressive system of billeting, and the soldiers from demoralizing conditions. In the course of not many days he hoped.to lay before the House a plan for uniting all the civil departments of the- Army under the superintendence and management of the Department of War.

The Earl of Mnesntrav, concurring in the views of the Government on this suble-A, called attention to the fact that the Government was inade- quatelP represented in the House of Lords. The Foreign Office, the rard of Trade, and the Post-office, are represented; but the Treasury, the Home Office, the Colonial Office, the Indian Board, the Woods and Forests, and the Admiralty, are not represented. The President of the Council would, therefore, have to reply to questions affecting all these departments ; and if he do so he must 'possess superhuman powers. Earl Frrzwrimiem said he entirely disagreed with the opinion that our military establishments had been too greatly reduced during the peace. The country is now able to carry an war because we have husbanded our resources ; and he hoped there was no intention on the part ,of Govern- ment to render this country more military than it has been. Earl GRAN- VILLE said, although it is somewhat premature to consider what shall be done with the Army on the conclusion of peace, yet he was sure his colleagues did not intend to increase the military character of the nation ; but, by better arrangements, to render it more efficient.

' The Berl of ELLENBOROIIGN said, that as a preliminary measure to the withdrawal of troops from the towns, Government should establish an . efficient, powerful, and uniform police by some general act of Parlia- ment. It has never been necessary to Call in the aid of the military in London for the last twenty-eight years ; and there would be no neces- sity for so doing anywhere else, if an efficient police were established throughout the country. Lord PANMIIRE said, that in concentrating large masses of troops at Aldershott the large towns will not be left without protection. THE Mune& The Earl of MALMESBITRY called attention to the cessation of enlist- ment in the Militia; which he attributed to a breach of faith on the part of the Government. The Militia were raised on the understanding that they should be engaged only twenty-eight days in the year. But in 11354 a new bill to embody the Militia was passed, and men found them- selves entrapped into liabilities they had no intention of incurring. Many married men had enlisted ; and their wives and families becoming chargeable to the parish, this had discouraged enlistment The Govern- ment had promised to deal indulgently with the men of 1852; but prac- tically that indulgence had never been shown, and leave of absence had been denied. He wished to know whether Government intend to pro- vide some fund for the relief of the wives and families of militiamen now dependent upon the rates?

Lord PANMURE stated that a circular had been addressed in Novem- ber to the Colonels of regiments, directing them to report their opinion on the expediency of granting discharges.

There certainly has been no intention an the part of the Government to break faith with these men ; for when a regiment was embodied, and it was found that there were men in it whose families would suffer by their absence, and become a burden to the locality, thus throwing the Militia service into disrepute, the Colonel was empowered to allow such men to return to their homes on the repayment of their enrolment-money, and in certain eases, where it should appear that they were entirely unable to make such repay- ment, to remit it and grant a full and complete discharge.

Government does not intend to provide for the maintenance of the wives and families of militiamen.

The Earl of ELL.ENBOROUGH said, it would be very improper if the men enlisted before 12th May 1854 were not compelled, by an order in Council, to serve for the full period of fifty-six days. He urged the Go- vernment to make the most earnest exertions for raising the Militia to the full extent of the establishment. A vote has been taken for 136,000 men • 44,000 only are embodied; so that the Militia is 92,000 under its complement. Altogether, 200,000 men are wanted to complete the este- bliahment of the Army, Artillery, and Militia. Earl GREY said, there could be no more flagrant breach of faith than to call upon a man to serve beyond the time for which he enlisted. The men who enlisted under the act of 1852 are only liable for fifty-eix days' service in the year. Ile hoped this discussion would make it generally known throughout the country, that every such man, whether married or not, or -whether he had children or not, who thought he could earn higher wages in some ether em- ployment than in the public-service and who enlisted in terms of an act of Parliament, had a right, that no -Colonel of Militia or Government could set aside, to demand leave of absence when the time for which lie stipulated to serve has expired. All this shows the impolicy of departing from the origi- nal scheme of the Militia; which was intended to be a defensive reserve to be used in case of invasion, and not a force permanently embodied.

Lord PaNisuen said that a sort of general notice had just been given to the Militia, of which manymen might be tooxeady to avarl. themselves, and which might occasion great difficulty. He would not hold Ilimgerf re- , spoilable for the consequences of these statements. The Earl of Damn- urged the necessity-of keeping faith with the.men. No temporary inconvenience can equal_ the permanent inconvenience arising from a breach of faith.

Aaatv Commissicass.

In reply to a question from Earl GREY Lord PANMU.S.E stated that commissions are given without purchase, drat, to those who have distin- guished themselves at the college at .Sandhurst ; secondly, to the sons of • distinguished officers in the Army and Navy; and thirdly, to the sons of poor and deserving officers generally, and of clergymen with large fami- lies, latterly these classes have been exhausted, and many commissions have been given to gentlemen whose names have 'long been on the list of applicants ; and in order to meet the demand, the age at which officers may enter the service has been extended from the age of eighteen to twenty-two. He was satisfied that no commissions have been unfairly given. _ Earl Gene said that statement only &owed that many commissions have been given to persons having no particularclaims. 'What he wanted to point out was, that dissatisfaction must arise if at the same moment, commissions are given to two persons having equal claims, and that for one 450/. is paid while the other is given without purchase. The true way would be to divide the cost of the commission between the two Loan RAGLAN AND "FRE DUKE OF NEWCASTLE.

Mr. Thames DUNCONLRE moved for copies of any despatches or corre- spondence that had passed between Lord Raglan and the Duke of New- castle relative to the wants of the Array in the Crimea. All that he wanted was those parts of the correspondence solely relating to the wants of the Army. He was sure that Lord Raglan would have attended to the representations made to him respecting the want of food, clothing, and medicines ; he was also sure that the Duke of Newcastle was not in- different to the wants of the Army. The non-production of the papers for which he asked was most unfair

both to Lord Raglan and the Duke of Newcastle, particularly if they would exonerate those individuals. He believed the fault rested with the Com- missariat, with the Quartermaster-General, and the Adjutant-General, who were -to blame in many particulars.

Lord Petissasune said that Government has no desire to withhold any information, but a Committee of inquiry is sitting, having power to send for papers' and the House would see that it would not be neces- sary to carry on two parallel inquiries. It would 'be better to leave the Committee to judge what information it may require. Motion withdrawn. THE Elam or Luce:Ws Case. The Earl of Luoaw read two letters to the House of Lords on Monday. The first, from the Adjutant-General, stated that Lord Hardinge, after careful deliberation, saw no reason for altering his decision in respect to the court-martial demanded by Lord Loran. The second consisted of

Lord LIMA'S reply to that communication, and stated that the course pursued toward him is unprecedented ; and that a " great wrong " had been done him, for had a court-martial been granted he could have established the injustice of Lord Raglan's charges " by the testimony of the most distinguished officers, not only of our own but also of the French army." He moved for copies of the papers he had read.

Lord PANMLIRE said that the papers were not strictly in his possession. The Government concurs in the decision of the Co or-in-chief. Lord Panmure said he was ready to justify that decision. Upon this Lord Lome gave notice of a motion for papers on Monday next, with the view of bringing his conduct before the Home.

The Earl of Elmeenosoucui said that Lord Liman had committed a great irregularity in reading an official letter and then moving for its production, and hoped that it would not be drawn into a precedent. COMMISSARIAT ESTIMA.TES.

DI Committee of f3upply, Mr. Pee& moved a vote of 2,351,119/. for the

effective of the Commissariat department; and accompanied the motion by some explanation of the items. In consequence of the the in the price of provisions the stoppages from the soldier's pay were, last year, fixed at 4p.; and the duty of entering into contracts for the soldier, to see that a fair market-price was charged, devolved upon the Commis- sariat, instead of the Ordnance ; and the Commissariat are now charged with the feeding of all the troops in the United Kingdom. The cost for the embodied Militia is 600,400/. ; and 1,200,000/. represents the cost of the army in the Crimea. The increase for the pay of Commissariat officers and clerks is 109,000/. ; of which 91,000/. is due for the expenses of officers at the seat of war. There are 101 Commissariat officers in the Crimea' with 225 storekeepers ; making a total of 326 persons employed iii that branch. The transport service for the Commissariat, including that of the pay of the railway corps, is 238,2.50k The Government have estimated the cost of provisioning 40,000 regular soldiers at home, and 65,000 militia.

After a great deal of conversation on the various subjeets connected with the Estimates, the votes were agreed to.


On the third reading of the Exchequer Bills (17,183,00011 Bill, Lord MONTEAGLE raised a debate on a point affecting Mr. Gladstone's war finance. He remarked that this bill was said to be an ordinary Exche- quer Bills bill; whereas it was a very different thing, and involved a. departure from the principle announced by Mr. Gladstone, almost with- out qualification, "that the difference between right and wrong is hardly more distinct than the difference between raising money to meet the ex- penses of the war by annual taxation and raising it by credit or by loan." 'Last year, Government required a loan to meet the expenses of the war. They raised 1,750,000/. by Exchequer Bills ; stating at the same time, that they differed from ordinary Exchequer Bills in this, that they were simply m anticipation of supplies already voted, and would be paid out of them. Now the ordinary amount required was 16,000,0001.; but, without a word of explanation the former bill for 1,783,0001. has been slipped in, and those short bills added to the Unfunded Debt. Lord Monteagle predicted that it will be the same with the Exchequer Bonds payable in 1858-'9-'60. Common sense does not jostify the course of adopting the principle of these issues and disclaiming the contracting of a permanent debt. It would be a gross perversion of a sound principle to contract a loan in every conceivable case; but in a national exigency, it is obviously wiser to raise money, imperatively required, 'by a permanent or temporary loan, than to crush the resources of industry by over-taxa- tion. He took this bill as the indication of an important change; but he renewed his protest against a return to the doctrine laid down 'last year. It will not do any longer to profess a desire to act uponone principle and then disguisedly adopt another. Earl Git&evirsx vindicated Mr. Gladstone. If he remembered rightly, Lord Monteagle bad stood by his side while they both listened to one of Mr. Gladstone's speeches, in Which he guarded himself against the suppo- sition that he never would have recourse to loans.

The Earl of DERBY said that Lord Granville had made no answer to the

charge preferred by Lord Monteagle. That charge is, that in a measure pro- fessedlyproviding for the service of the year, Mr. Gladstone was practically adding 'to the permanent debt, While he concealed the fact from the country. Putting himself forward as a model of prudence and frugality, Mr. Gladstone issued bills at a certain date, and when the time arrived for paying them they were added to the National Debt. There had been a departure from an absolutely impracticable principle, and an endeavour to conceal it. That is the complaint.

The Duke of ARGYLL said that no answer was required to Lord Mont-

eagle's argument, beyond a different statement of the facts. In the bud- get of last year, Government adhered to the principle stated by Mr. Gladstone ; for the expenses of the war had been met by the largely in- creased taxation. With regard to these Exchequer Bills, Mr. Gladstone's view had been misrepresented; for in asking authority to issue them, he expressly said, that if he used them to the fullest extent, "the unfunded debt, after the full exercise of that power, will only stand at the point it stood at twelve menthe ago." The full amount of Exchequer Bills asked for 'has not been used : the amount used was 17,183,0001., while the full amount asked for was 17,750,0001.; leaving about half a million unused. Now Mr. Gladstone had not laid down any principle last year from which -there could be no departure in-future-

What Mr. Gladstone said was, that it would be wrong to rush into a sys-

tem of loans at the outset of the war ; that it would be unworthy of the re- sources and dignity of this country at the outset of the war to resort to a system of loans : and in fulfilment of that principle Parliament was ask, d to give its consent to a large amount of additional taxation.

Earl GREY said that the Duke of Argyll had failed to answer Lord Monteagle. Mr. Gladstone distinctly promised that if he issued these Exchequer Bills they would be paid out of growing supplies. Until lately, there was a general impression that taxes had been imposed sufficient to pay the expenses which Government estimated would be incurred.

between eteurnn theed issued, and which were Eoxuct,hequhoewrevBerifistwhahtichsowefarer th.fromhavtehabteeben being the cbas:t, which were renewed, and be Exchequer Bonds which were nweeiretheprromfessoriengnotor liesencutrh:on dbeiblist aatt faioui,r, tyheier 'wdate,eeplacing w i l e u the en Government e countrym m e nt the burden of a debt the exact amount of which he could that inextenuator., but f not what be 'they badd lreedatoch,exirf4ttididanndotheexcoceneud.derr,000.1. This WAS


Taking advantage of a motion for going into Committee of Supply, Sir Jona; PAKINGTON called the attention of the House to the present extra- ordinary and hardly decorous state of the Colonial Department, which is without any responsible Minister to transact its business. A most extra- ordinary statement had been made in another place, that Lord John Rus- sell has only gone to Vienna to arrange the "general" principles of a treaty, and that he will probably return before Easter. Looking to those negotiations and the importance of the details, he could only conclude that Lord John feels himself embarrassed by the two incompatible situa- tions he fills, and that he is about to return without finishing the nego- tiations he has undertaken. It is a state of things without precedent. Lord Castlereagh was Minister for Foreign Affairs when he went to Vienna ; but now we are left without even an Under-Secretary in the Colonial Office, at a moment when the news from the Cape of Good Hope and Victoria is alarming, and demands the immediate attention of a Co- lonial Minister. It is also unsatisfactory to have the Australian Consti- tution Bills hung up. These bills are part of a bargain entered into by Lord Derby's Government, whereby certain concessions were made to the Colonies on condition that they improved their constitution. They have performed their part ; two years have elapsed, and still these bills are waiting. These are matters of high state policy, and Government ought to be in a position to give them attention. This absence of the Colonial Minister is highly disrespectful to the Colonies, at a time when they have evinced a most laudable desire to support the Mother-country in the war.

Lord PALMERSTON said that Sir George Grey and himself were re- sponsible, and were ready to justify the course they had taken if Sir John Pakington thought fit to make any charge. Really, the way in which the question was put would lead one to suppose that there never had been a case before in which an office had been vacant or the holder absent from his post. When Lord Castlereagh went to Vienna, the whole of the business of the Foreign Office did not follow him there. Did Sir John remember the time when one individual held the offices of all the Secretaries of State ?

Mr. ADDERLEY impressed upon the House that this is an unfortunate moment for the combination of offices and the shutting up of the Colonial Office. If the constitution had been in force, blood would not have been shed in Victoria; and if self-government had been carried out in South Africa, the country would not feel anxious about a Caffre war.

Sir GEORGE GREY said, the question was, whether such a degree of in- convenience had arisen from the absence of Lord John Russell as calls for reprehension. When he heard it implied that the Colonial Office is shut up, he must contradict that statement ; and more, he must say that inconvenience has not arisen from the present arrangement. Taking the cases mentioned by Sir John Pakington, he explained, that the alarming but conflicting intelligence from the Cape had led him to press upon Go- vernment the importance of inviting the Cape Legislature to take mea- sures for completing the defences of the colony. But although the Go- vernor had found it necessary to go to the frontier, he had written to say that he did not think he should need an additional force. The Government have, however, adopted measures for strengthen- ing the hands of the Governor. Had Lord John Russell been here he could not have done more. The next point is Victoria. Upon the " disturbances " there the Government has received no information. Had Lord John Russell been in England, what could he have done when the same account which tells us of the tumult tells us that it has been suppressed ? With regard to the Constitution Bills, there is no real foundation for any charge of delay : one of these bills was only received in May last ; they all required close investigation, and the report of the Crow-n lawyers was not received until Parliament was prorogued. The real state of the case is, that the Colonies have been incited to go beyond the powers conferred on them by the act of 1850, and to pass bills which, being of an Imperial and not of a Colonial nature, could not receive the assent of the Crown unless they first received the assent of Parliament. That course has proved most inconvenient. He intended to introduce bills on these sub- jects; but he must remind the House, that it is not an easy thing to in- troduce a bill of importance and secure the attention of a House engaged in voting means for carrying on the war.

Mr. LOWE observed, that, contrary to his opinion, they had by the act of 1850 delegated to the Australian Colonies the powers of a constituent assembly. After that they should have acted towards the Colonial Le- gislatures with rigid impartiality, and have abstained from expressing any view as to the government of the colony. Unhappily, Sir John Peking- ton did not take that view, but offered the Colonial Legislatures dominion over the waste lands on condition that they would consent to an Upper House nominated by the Crown. Now, he begged that the House would not he bound or prejudiced by the step taken by Sir John Pakington, but deal with the Constitution Bills in a spirit of impartiality, and avoid all bargains between the Imperial Government and the Colonies.

Sir JOHN PAKINGTON promised to prove, at the proper time, that Mr. Lowe had given an erroneous version of his acts.


Mr. HEYWOOD, in moving for leave to bring in a bill to amend the law as to marriage with a deceased wife's sister, or a deceased wife's niece, recited the history and stated the familiar arguments, with the newest facts, of this question. In 1835, an act of Parliament legalized all such marriages as had taken place up to that time, but enacted that all subse- quent marriages of that kind should be deemed illegal. That was a great injustice ; and its practical effect had been this, that since 1835 there have been no fewer than twelve thousand such marriages. The simplest way of meeting the existing difficulty would be to amend the act of 1835, so as to legalize all subsequent marriages against which no legal decision has been taken. In his argument Mr. Heywood maintained that the present law is not dictated by religion, and is opposed to the natural affi etions.

Sir FREDERICK THESIGER maintained, on the contrary, by learned and elaborate arguments, that marriages with a deceased wife's sister are contrary to the Divine law ; that if allowed they would deeply affect the

this kind fair and honest dealing with Parliament was of the utmost im- portance. It is sometimes impossible to avoid incurring debts in time of war, but, with Mr. Gladstone, Lord Grey believed that "a very large pro- portion of the expenses of war should be defrayed from the revenue of the country." happiness and the comfort of numerous families throughout the kingdom, and destroy the finer feelings of affection that exist in the relationship of a man and his ohildren with his wife's nearest kin.

Mr. BOWYER, Mr. EDWARD BALL, Mr. MONCKTON MILNES, and Mr. Srooremt supported the motion ; Mr. Spooner, in particular, dwelling much on the demoralizing effects of the present law. Mr. DRUMMOND said that Mr. Spooner had set about inculcatibg private morality by advising the House of Commons to defy the law of God.

" Instead of arguing as he has done, he had better get rid of the pro- hibited degrees altogether, and marry his grandmother, like a man. (Laughter.) A niece is better than a grandmother. He had better set aside the Word of God as contemptible in the code of morality, instead of sneaking and snivelling over the opinions of a canting Methodist rather than those of a bold Infidel." ("Rear !" and laughter.)

Mr. R. PHILLDdORE and Admiral WALcorr opposed the motion.

Lord PaLsmitsrost said he should vote for the introduction of the bill. "I think that this is not a question of the law of God. I hold that Par-

liament has settled that by the act of 1835; for of course it can never be supposed that Parliament would have legalized all marriages which up to that period had been proscribed, if Parliament had been of opinion that there was such a fundamental objection to those marriages. It certainly appears to me that this case is one to which you may apply the quotation, 'Nil prosunt leges sine moribus,'—that is to say, that laws are of no avail if the moral feeling of the country does not go in unison with the law. Now it seems to be established and admitted, that the moral feeling of the community at large is not with this law ; that the law, in fact, is not obeyed; and that a great number of persons, not conceiving themselves to commit any moral offence, do contract marriages which the law prohibits. That is not a state of things which ought to exist ; and, not being of opinion that there is any moral objection to the contracting of these marriages, but be- lieving that the law as it stands is the cause of a great deal of misery and social evil, especially among the middle and lower classes of the community, I shall with great pleasure give my vote for the motion."

Mr. Weepout said, Lord Palmerston's main reason for supporting the motion seemed to consist in the act of 1835. This was the first time he had heard that the law of Parliament could determine what was the law of God.

Lord Petsinnwrosr—" I did not say that the act of Parliament could determine that: I said the act showed what Parliament conceived it to be."

Mr. WeeroLz said, he would set him right on this second point. The act of 1835 simply provided that the marriages then existing should not be voided in the lifetime of the parties ; and thus legitimatized the chil- dren; leaving it to the ecclesiastical courts to punish the parties by eccle- siastical censure with reference to such marriages. Lord Palmerston said that the law being at variance with the feeling of the country, you can no longer maintain it : would he consider the consequences of that argu- ment ? A brother has married a brother's widow ; a mother and daughter have in succession been married by the same man ; marriages of a more incestuous kind have taken place; and if it be admitted that the breaking of the law is a reason for altering it, what is there to bind society to- gether?

After a brief speech from Mr. G. H. Moons against the measure, and Mr. COBDEN for it, the House divided—For the motion, 87; against it, 63; majority for, 34. Leave given.


Mr. LOCKE Bum moved for leave to bring in a bill to alter the law as affecting the real estates of intestates. The object of the bill is simply, that where a person possessed of landed property dies intestate, the law shall make a just will for him, in the same manner as if his property had consisted of personalty instead of real estate. Mr. MASSEY seconded the motion.

The Somerroa-GrarEmu, opposed it. He was willing to listen to pro- posals for the amendment of the law, but not to proposals for removing the landmarks of our valued institutions. The preservation of no rule is more important in this country than that by which real estate passes to the eldest son.

On a division, the motion was negatived by 156 to 84.


Mr. Wittiest WILLIAMS renewed his motion, that real property, im- propriate tithes, and corporate ecclesiastical property, should be subject to the same probate-duty as that now levied on personal property. The CHANCELLOR of the EXCHEQUER said, that had Mr. Williams pro- posed any plan for extending the probate-duty, instead of moving an ab- stract resolution, the House might have formed some clear judgment on the proposal. If probate-duty were extended to real property, the whole state of the law would have to be altered, because a will devising real property does not require to be proved in an Ecclesiastical Court. Be- sides, Mr. Gladstone's Succession-Duties Bill had dealt with the relations of real and personal property as affecting the question of succession, and Sir George Lewis could not advise the House to rescind that settlement.

A brief debate ensued, and then followed a division. The motion was negatived by 84 to 61.


Mr. Comarr sought to revive his measure on the hours of factory la- bour, by moving for leave to bring in a bill to limit the work of females and young persons in factories to ten hours in the day, and to provide the means of more perfect inspection. Former acts have been evaded by the manufacturers ; and to prevent evasion, he proposed to restrict the use of the machinery to ten hours a day ; with increased penalties. Mr. T. De/sconces seconded the motion.

Sir GEORGE GREY relied upon the fact that the present law had been passed with the full consent of all parties; and that there is no further case for the interference of Parliament. Hitherto the House had inter- fered to protect women and children ; but now they were asked to adopt a mode of stopping the mills, which would restrict the labour of adult males.

Mr. W. J. Fox, Mr. NEWDEGA'TE, and Mr. EDWARD BALL, supported the motion ; arguing that the working classes had never assented to the compromise contained in the present law, and enforcing their claims upon the House.

The motion was opposed by Mr. BRIGHT, Mr. Ewor, Mr. CROSSLEY, Mr. WILKINSON, and Lord PALMERSTON. The law is now fairly carried out ; the evasions are few and trivial ; and the compromise ought not to be disturbed. Lord Palmerston said he was especially opposed to placing any restriction on the motive power. On a division, the motion was negatived by 109 to 101.


On the motion of Mr. WRIGHTSON, a bill to alter and amend the 6th of Anne cap. 7, so far as relates to the vacating of seats in Parliament on the acceptance of office, and providing only for those cases in which a Minister merely changes office, was read a first time.


In reply to Mr. DEEDES, the CHANCELLOR of the EXCHEQUER said that he had intended to move the second reading of the Newspaper- Stamp Bill on Monday, and to propose certain alterations • but he found that it would be more in order to begin de novo, and introduce fresh re- solutions. Ho would therefore state the views of the Government on Monday, and bring in the resolutions immediately after.


On the bringing up of the report of the Ordnance Estimates, Lord ELCHO called attention to the Ordnance survey of Scotland. Various scales have been proposed, from 1 inch to 26g inches to the mile. Ex- periments are in progress, but there is great diversity of opinion. He was in favour of a large scale. Lord SEY3IOUR moved that the vote for the scientific department should be reduced by 53,000/. Lord PALMER- STON explained, that the surveys in progress on the larger scale will be completed in July. Nothing more will be done on a large scale until then, and the House will be free to determine what scale shall be adopted. —Amendment withdrawn.


On Monday, the witnesses examined by the Committee were the Duke of Cambridge—whose presence excited particular interest ; and Colonel Wilson, of the Coldstream Guards.

The Duke of Cambridge followed the course of the army from Scutari, where he joined it in May, to Sebastopol where he left it at the end of No- vember.

At Scutari, the Commissariat operations were not "so satisfactory as could be desired" ; there was a great deficiency of forage ; there were no depOts for storing previsions and other things. At Varna, the troops were never actually in want of provisions, but now and then supplies were "not as regular as could be wished," and forage was still irregularly issued. No want of medical men was felt in the First Division, until the cholera broke out : but the Duke thought there shoald always be three, instead of two, assistant-surgeons to each regiment. The sickness he attributed to the climate ; and the great mortality of the Guards, 170 out of 3000, chiefly to the want of pester as a beverage, to which the men had been accustomed in London. These was not enough for the whole army, and it was not thought advisable to make exceptions. The bread issued at Varna was not so good as the French bread ; the Dukedid not like it ; but he heard no complaints as to the deficiency of supply. Whea they landed in the Crimea, they expected to be attacked imme- diately: for that reason, they carried with them as little as possible. With few exceptions, every man wounded at the Alma was taken into the hospital the same evening. The trenohes were begun before Sebastopol two days after 'the arrival of the anny. "If we could have spared men to make a road, it would have been most•eseential ; but, as far as my division, we could not 'find men to make a road and work in the lines too.' The First Divi- sion was very well served by the Commissariat; up to the date ef his de- parture they had never buena day without their rations ; once or twice they might have been short of rum, but they always had bread and meat. The Commissariat is not suited to the field, and should be placed under military authority. He attributed the irregular feeding of the horses te the head- quarter Commissariat; and the non-formaticas of depots to the Commissary- General, Mr. Filder. No ,paevision was made for feeding the baggage- aniingia, and his bagg,age-aninsals constantly had no food at all; so that he was obliged to sheet twenty-two ponies one morning. He was very for- tunate in his staff; two of whem—Captain 'Butler, killed at Inkerman, and Captain Hardinge—had taken honours at Sandhurst. He had a good me- dical staff. The ambulance-carts were too heavy, and inconvenient. The loss of life in the Guards was not caused ho want of medicines. Over-work was the great cause of sickness. "1 comaerwe the men were worked to such a .degree that no men could stand it without being seriously affected in health." The Highland Brigade, stationed near Balaklava, better supplied and not worked half so much, did not suffer half so much as the rest of the division.

The tools supplied for working parties were very bad, especially the bill- hooks, which rendered the obtaining fuel {Oil more difficult, as the men had nothing to cut it with. They had been complained of at Chobhans. The camp-kettles cow in use were made upon a pattern approved by the Duke of Wellington during the Peninsular War. To special questions by Mr. Layard, the Duke answered= .No modern improvements in clothing have been introduced into the army, such as waterproof coats and sheeting." "I think g.enerally there has not been much change in the state of the army since the Peninsular War, except in the antis of the troops, in which there has been a great improvement by the Ilinie rifle." "There has been a very great change in the character of the men—a wonderful change even in my time." [At the close of his evidence the Committee stood up out of respect to Royalty : the Duke, however, did not depart, but, bowing, resumed his seat beside the Chairman, and partook of sherry and sandwiches.]

• Colonel Wilson went over pretty much the same ground as the Duke of Cambridge ; confirming the previous evidence, by details, as to the over- working of the men, the bad effect upon the health of the officers from want of means of transport, and upon officers and men from lack of tents. He also testified to the short supplies of fresh meat, and the inadequate provision for the wounded.

The witnesses on Tuesday were Captain Shakspeare, of the Horse Ar- tillery • Mr. Joseph Crowe ; Mr. Kellock, master of the Himalaya ; Colonel Sparkes, of the Thirty-eighth Regiment ; and Sergeant Dawson, of the Grenadier Guards.

Captain Shakspeare spoke very distinctly on three points. The horses of his troop were well supplied in Bulgaria ; before Sebastopol they were not got under cover until the middle of December, when 70 had died ; the supply of forage was pretty good, but after the storm in November the men had to go to Balaklava to fetch it. The Artillery had fresh meat three and some- times four times a week ; they had a good supply of clothes ; from the first a waterproof sheet to lie on, and had not that severe work which the infantry bad to perform. He was president of a committee which sat to report upon the tools, and all were condemned except the pickaxes. The billhooks were especially bad. Fresh tools were issued before he left, but they were as bad as the first. All the tools, stores, harness, and all things for the Artillery, were sent out direct from Woolwich to Mr. Young at Balaklava.

Mr. Crowe was not employed in any military capacity in the Crimea. He spoke to the mismanagement of the harbour. The Trent, with 240 mules on board, was kept waiting five days because huts for their reception were not ready. She remained some days longer with artillery-platforms, which Cap- tain Christie thought it was the business of the Ordnance department to land; and after all she returned to Varna with a quantity of fodder on board. There were plenty of crews who would have landed the stores had they been paid. The fodder was not landed because there was no place for it. On a previous occasion, the Trent with 200 bales of hay was ordered to Varna without landing them.

Captain Kellock illustrated the transport system. The Himalaya had altogether conveyed 1682 horses, two of which only had been lost. HO transported the horses of the ambulance corps ; the men were old pen- sioners, and addicted to drinking. The Himalaya also took charcoal from Constantinople to Balaklava. There were about 650 sacks. It was much wanted by the army. When he arrived with it at Balaklava, it was not landed, because Captain Christie would not receive it ; aml he took it back to Constantinople again. Witness was extremely anxious about the charcoal, and offered Captain Christie, if he would receive it, to land it by his own boats and with his own crew. It was not received, and witness carried it back to Constantinople again. There he delivered it to Admiral Boxer, who sent lighters to land it. He had daily op- portunities of examining the state of the harbour of Balaklava. It was in a very beastly condition, with offal floating about, thrown over from the ships. The offal floating in the harbour could easily have been removed. He would have niade a requisition to the commander of one of the ships of war, and with 100 meu from her crew he would have under- taken to clean out the harbour and the town in seven days. He did not know whose business it was to keep order in the place. Be never saw any order kept at all. When he was at Constantinople he was under the com- mand of Admiral Boxer. The Himalaya required 1200 tons of coals, and from the want of system at Constantinople they were often seven days being put on board ; at Malta they could have been shipped in twenty-four hours. Sergeant Dawson had lost an arm at Inkerman. He gave emphatic evi- dence as to the wretched things supplied as tools. Be worked in the trenches, and often heard complaints of the tools. " Indeed, the tools we had were very bad indeed. The bills would not cut a piece of wood; pieces chipped out of the edges an inch long. The pickaxes were generally bad; they were always coming off the handles, if they did not break. The shovels were worse than the picks."

On Wednesday, the witnesses examined were Colonel Kinloch, the Earl of Cardigan, and Mr. Macdonald of the Times. Colonel Kinloch told the story of the Spanish mules. In March last, he suggested to the Duke of Cambridge the purchase of mules in Spain • and the Duke communicated the suggestion to Lord Raglan. Colonel Idnloch understood subsequently from the Duke of Cambridge that the suggestion was considered a good one, but that it would cause too much expense. Three months afterwards, he was sent for by Sir Charles Trevelyan, in the name of the Lords of the Treasury, and then received instructions to proceed to Spain to purchase 500 mules. That was about the middle of June. Between that time and the begiuning of September, he purchased 500 mules; 300 for pack-saddles, and 200 for harness. The prices ranged between 15/. and 30/.. He was accompanied by a Commissariat officer, whose duty it was to ascer- tain the expenses and draw Treasury bills. That officer sometimes remarked, when the rate of exchange was very high, that the Government would not like it : but upon witness repls lug that it was a work of necessity, that the animals must be got, and that he would bear the responsi- bility, the Commissariat officer made no further difficulty. He em- barked 300 of these animals at Barcelona on the 26th August, in the Trent ; which was well fitted for the purpose. The remaining 200, strong powerful animals, were detained at Alicante until December. He had to keep them at a daily cost of a shilling per head, besides the wages of the muleteers. Everybody charged him high ; he was cheated by everybody, as he had no non-commissioned officer to look after the distribution of the stores. Several mules died at Alicaute from kicks and disease. The delay arose from the detention of the transports in the Black Sea. At length, on the 20th December, he embarked the remainder at Alicante, in the Beichert/. She had been hastily fitted up, without slings or buckets; the rolling of the ship drove the mules from side to side; two died, and others were maimed. He was not restricted in price. He could have obtained plenty more mules, but there was a difficulty in getting people to take charge of them ; the regular muleteers declined to quit Spain. A proposal was made to him by a capitalist in Madrid, for the English Government to hire mules at so much per day, and he would send out the best muleteers with the animals: but the Government declined the proposition. Witness thought it was the only means by which good muleteers could be obtained, The Earl of Cardigan described the progress of the Light Cavalry Brigade, from Kululee to Sebastopol. According to his account, the Light Cavalry were healthy, and well supplied both with food and fo- rage' until after the battle of Balaklava. Then a great want of forage be- gan to be felt : they were eighteen days without hay, while there was plenty at Balaklava; but "the roads were so impracticable it could not be brought up." The horses were picketed in the open air, and suffered very much. The clothing of the men had become very bad when he left ; no warm cloth- ing had then been issued. "The general impression" was that the army would not winter in the Crimea. No stores were formed. "It might not be prudent to rely upon supplies of hay from England for a long campaign ; but no one expected that this would have been a long campaign." "It was known that the army would have to is inter in the Crimea two days after the battle of Inkerman ; and then arrangements were made for the purchase of clothing," by sending men to Constantinople. The men did not return for a month, because Admiral Boxer found no means of giving them trans- port. The great deficiency of forage for his horses was, under the circum- stances, unavoidable. With respect to Balaklava, nothing could be worse than the state of the harbour. No attempt was made to clean it. He con- cluded that Captain Christie was answerable for the state of the harbour. " But, at the same time," he added, "it always appeared to me to be an anomaly that the officer who is supposed to have the entire management of the harbour should be subject, more or less, to the authority of the captain of any man-of-war which may happen to come in, which causes divided au- thority." He had no complaint to make as regards his medical or military staff; and had no difficulty with the Commissariat on account of forms.

Mr. Macdonald administered the fund intrusted to the Times for the re- lief of the sick and wounded. Before he went out to distribute this fund,

he saw the Duke of Newcastle and Dr. Andrew Smith. They told him it was not likely the fund would be of any kind of use for the relief of the sick and wounded even admitting the want of supplies, they said thatosuch want must have long ago ceased. Mr. Macdonald described the conditionfurnished from hospitals ; and gave an account of the varied supplies he had frn from the fund at his disposal. The whole of the purveying establishment consisted of an old man of seventy, Mr. Ward; succeeded who, "When the

by Mr. Wreford, aged sixty, two assistants,

supplies fell short, the chief officer did not pauurdchtahse supplies, but wrote home. The sick suffered from the want of necessaries, but there was no oe to order them to be purchased. Lord Stratford de Redcliffe had the r' of making purchases; but, for some reason, it was not used. The -utcal authorities did not apply to the Ambassador ; and the blame of -at having sufficient supplies rests with them, as they knew where to obtain what was wanted, and could have obtained it much more easily than Mr. Macdonald. The great failure was in the purveyor's department. If a man wanted a shirt, for instance, a requisition was written for a shirt, and taken to the purveyor, who would say "there is no such article in store," or "call again tomorrow." Miss Nightingale would then be applied to, and she found means of supplying it. Dr. Menzies was at the head of the hospital de- partment when he arrived; but there was no real head—no one who would take responsibilities on himself, until the arrival of Dr. Cumming.

On Thursday, the Earl of Lucan was examined, and his evidence oc- cupied the entire sitting.

In command of the Cavalry Division, Lord Lucan had the state of the horses prominently before him. From the outset there was a deficiency in the Commissariat arrangements. Arriving in May at Kulalie Barracks, with- in four miles of Scutari, he found two inexperienced young gentlemen—Mr. Murray, son of the Bishop of Rochester, and Mr. Cookesley—both fresh from the Treasury, in charge of the Commissariat. There was DO hay. In June the cavalry reached Varna, and the same sort of scarcity was felt there. Lord Lucan made frequent complaints in person to Commissary-General Filder, and the Quartermaster-General; but matters were not mended, and latterly he communicated only by letter, and kept copies in a book, deeming it the "safer" course. He had to employ an aide-de-camp to discharge as he best could the duties which ought to have been discharged by the Com- missariat.

Arrived at Balaklava, matters reached extremity. For about three weeks the supply of fodder was pretti regular; but it consisted of barley, which did not agree with the horses. Ito hay was delivered till the end of October, and the supplies soon fell off. While the horses were suffering and dying, there were immense quantities of hay at Balaklava; it was not landed, but was carried to and fro from port to port. Quantities, too, were floating about in the harbour. All this misconduct Lord Lucan freely attributed to the Commissariat. In consequence of a visit which he paid to General Canrobert, the French General undertook to "lend" the English cavalry under his Lordship's command thirty days' forage of chopped straw. This was done ; but the French becoming short of the article themselves, com- plained that the loan had not been repaid. To short provisions, excessive labour in doing the work of the transport service was superadded ; and the horses died in great numbers. On the 17th January, Lord Lucan wrote to the Adjutant-General, complaining of the cavalry being employed in such destructive work. An "observation" was made on the margin, in these terms—" Lord Raglan desires me to observe, that the more work and less food, the more care." Lord Lucan addressed the Commander- in-chief himself on the subject; remarking that "the suffering of the horses was so great, that unless a speedy cessation of their labour took place, the whole regiment would be destroyed." To this no answer was given. The men were also badly fed, and suffered much from the mud in which they were obliged to stand. "Their appearance was remarkably good, neverthe- less." The cavalry was further employed in removing the sick to the -coast ; a bad arrangement as regarded the performance of the duty. Many of the sick persons had never been on horseback before, and deaths in the saddle were not unfrequent. On October the 8th the Heavy Brigade had 884 horses fit for duty, and 23 sick or lame. The Light Brigade, at the same date, had about 1000; but the men were very sickly ; and when the Heavy Brigade joined he transferred 100 horses from the Light to the Heavy Bri- gade, to make up the losses sustained by them at sea. On the 31st December the whole division possessed 1153 horses. On January 31st it possessed 810. Between the 8th October and the 31st January 1100 horses were lost. The want of nosebags for the horses had led to much waste of food ; and by this hangs another tale of the transport service. " In the month of January, the captain of the Jason came to me and begged me to assist him in getting nosebags and other horse materials landed from his ship, which had been on board from the previous May." Horse medicine too was defi- cient—" The Medway brought out a large quantity of horse medicine in June, but it was never discovered till the following January."

When be took charge of the last lot of mules that arrived, he proposed to Lord Raglan to form a transport corps, to be entirely separate from the Com- missariat. Lord Raglan wrote him a private letter, thanking him for the suggestion; but said the matter had been under the consideration of the English Government, and the officers were coming out. 'Witness had no doubt that he could have formed such a corps from the materials on the spot. He calculated the weight of each man's daily rations, including everything, at 3 pounds; and, assuming each mule could carry 240 pounds, 300 mules would be sufficient to carry all the provisions of the army from Balaklava to the front. He also said he could have organized an ambulance corps in a week.