26 SEPTEMBER 1840, Page 5


The tenth meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science commenced at Glasgow on Thursdav. The numbers as-

sembled fully equalled those at any of the pi cc.mi:etings of.the

Association ; and as most or the places where the different sections assembled were concentrated within the College, there was a greater

appearance of bustle anti tednuttion than our it firmer occasion., utill'or

• Ii.seiee years ago, treated, tinning; a variety of other matters, ol tho temper:our:

of the globe. l'orlies is of opiaion th,tt iats.raal heat has it cy„, little or no influence ott tlte external cruet of the veal It, aial that the

portian of the sun's rays which reach through the atm.....1.11ere has , etreet below the surface, except for a hmited distance. heat of the ; •

atmosphere decreases geometrically upwards as the heat of the globe ., . creases arithmetically (harms-a:els.

On Saturday, Mr. I-:spy read it Iona papee on the theery of eterms.

Ills theory is, that duriug storms the NV i11,1 NOW!: pints 10.. wards ;i centre. Ile referred to a g•sot many iestc itsa. in storm: in co.,. It teSeeie 'which he conceived this theory ,v is heree oat. In the section of tIlnetti sr, nud Nlievraloay, a riper, datesri:ae.e• movo result Ltt' some v•xperiments made hv Proi'essor Saieettb.aea e to ; to , the o lour evolved in elcetroo-elts mica' do. compositions, was n':1.1. C01111111.1'illg the ClieetS ito pre:tit:1[e,', with this odo,or: with tL ,

those produced by the odour peculiar to cenenoe lT.n.ks. Pr.,- fessor Schanbein stales, that, both from it , cht•••:,

..S ;lad

likewise- 1'1'0111 its strong atlinity to metals, it is es. i Rattly similar to chlorine, bromine, and iodine. A paper lei a nor wax, by the use of Mirk. aeiol, wit,: read by :Nlr. s .11v . this

means vegetable wax is 111C110111.'11 in .1 ll'W 111111:1*.VS 1.1st lici!!!elill'ic24l, than by the passage of chlorine for hall' an hoar.

ruial " wIto :- graving in relief upon coppe

r by means; of electrivity. i sea:e'er, latian at ;es, tee,. 55 •

from Birmingham, rose and claitited the right of h''' Ii', of sessaa•ery daring the 55,11',

in this tootle of eneraving. Professor Jacobi stated that he had pub- 1;1 the Statistical seetiee, , NI • I s

Fished the diecovery tat the f,t11 day of thdolicr I t mid 1:-cc,, I that whielt it, commenced sm Ix .1

Ibis fact dearly established his claim to the priorhy of the ins eetesla the nativievatent ot the s •:•. t 1)r. James Robb read to the seethe, oe t Icole-sv • :t paper on the s:'' hisp.,,,•ea on pattperist,I iu

logical features of' the river Si, John in Nese I:: Ltase iel, ; and tattueel mated conteet tool, idle,. P.' 1 Among the distinguished persons who attended, were the Dakes ot Argyll and St. Alban's, the Marquises of Lorn, Breadaibano, and Northampton, the Earl of Lincoln, Lords Monteagle; Salaam, 'feign- mouth, &c. ase. The distinguished scientific individuals present, and who took part in the proceedings of the meeting, were—Sir J. Robi- son, Sir D. Brewster, Professors Whewell, Bus %land, Aires', Graham, Thomson, Forbes, regory,J;mobi, Eeeke, M. de la IleJte. Mr. son, Mr. C. Lyell, Major Sabine, Dr. Chalmers, Ds. Alison, &e. &e. The different branches of science and philosophieel itt wiry were di N ;ad into seven sections ; comprising, Mathematics and 1);lysies, Chenistry and Mineralogy, Geology. Zoology and. Botany, :aleaisaI Science, Ste- tisties, and Mechanics. We shall notice in the to:egoing order the points of most interest in the proceolines of each section.

In the section of Mathematics and l'ilysies, on Thursday, a paper by Professor Puwell was read, on lateat hear and the refrangibility of light and heat ; in which the recent experiments on those inierestin:f -11',;ects were described, particularly lb.., polarizition of heat by tm tms of mica. The discevsry Icy PsoCessor nevelt of' a limit to ..r.ut-

gibility of light was also tonionueed which IlIct is eamsi red ];!,i.or- tant as removing one of the remaining tloe , theory of light. A report. Is I

y Attfiseser Forbes on meteorology, -a was a supplementary report ta one road by him to the Ass:teiation ei,/ iii rartteularly the curious Loot, 111:11 it, this ri‘ er there are se% ,or.il t.i1ls. Eat dewnwards, ilS ill the orolioo.ory course or ri,vv,, Intl 1,11,, ,rd, the current. This pliamiiimmou arises from the suililsou now of the

and as the stream is in places -suddenly contracted, the ale rises more quickly than the water can doe. through the contracted channel.

The first paper ever read to any geological society on chemical geo- logy, displayisig the combination of the two seienees, the one illustrating the other, was read in this section on Fri.lay, by Professor Johnston of Durham. It was principally confined to the coal-formation, and to the origin of that valuable substance. De described the process of decom- position which took place under the uoite.t iolltzence ef water and at- mospheric air. Difli:rent kinds of col, he stated, were not derived front different kinds of wood or veeetable matter ; but, in reality, all of them were steps in the descent femit highly-organized matter, to a state, as in the anthracites, where organic structure altogether disappears. Coal was therefore derived front vegetable matter, in obedience to a great general law.

On Mueday, Mr. Murchison, the General Secretery, gave a brief statement of the resu:a: or his 2eehetle.:1 tour in Itusia. After point- ing eat the difficulty of pursuing peoleeicel investie 17 :tit's ill that coun- try, owing to its general ilatisa•-, Mr. alarclae,e plea. e•sled to show that, beginning at the point NN NV. tae ;;;;Iest se . . 'era' deposit of

Russia is the Silurian, formi,,g the 0.. .0, which St.

Petersburg is built, and containing „ cccii tee:sass. Tae Silurian is succeeded by the sandstone ii are i; mo,o1 seci! f its over-

laid by limeatone, vemetillIee a i: 'ti;c, triiei,ie.s, 1;,•' • . I:es, an& other types of 'LIP! 111 the cc-cc-cc is the

carboniferoue syeam ; the s ....e-istiea • 1, mixed with bitumMous shale a!:,1 co',1-p! 11,7•11 11.• • 1- white

limestone awl oslite sit i-, : ■ 1 r. : , .

fill specimen, witIt! o ro . 1 is

stone r:r7ges f !. 1,, he could jedge, sc 'neon, a ,s;•,,:le IC•'. eo I id..-eri!,e the ter-

tiary strum, where he Wa• l'•.111',.;!•• , discover ehitils exactly the ea:ne as those now exi-tie'.: . Thes .mal 5110

miles in the intm:,,r, and 3■ t d-sect s a most important pohl!, •11,:•.,

;:eriud the whole empire of

lit the section of Z. ;eta; y

such a nature- as to melte e .

In tl:e sectioe of .Medi;•..I '

memoir on eeele. %Ia. It cs tigation into lice rol:-•-.• of

the heeet it l:i'.pi!v::i end r• of

Qt.7 , art, 412; a -.zest

. I I ” 45 Les...eine e•.,• t A paper e. .•• , 'Mardi : .`.1l i:11' • :: haulier :Iron; t„ he harmer seas • changes at tie Ititr,o_ an ti blood throuelt the brain.

In the section •• iatendent ending list I -2 • Me-latrines of tit eite, i offences, N\ :1• l'•'..--!1!•.• 11 of the b' tas.

stuailiarlh,„. o•,. 1, o,o11 to•iiceol t o i t occ o'co io • o' t, ,••.o;


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111.;•11-V ; 1

ice-i Ii:• :1, 1.4: L.! 1-


4111! I:.

. •-•';•••. 1)v ?Ir. II.

.1 • 7', rs .:ol of 7v.1.1 a ,`,.1 the

• :

:1.• :.!.;

• 1; erend with ; .1.:7111an,

• • es front am vice', .

from smoke, by means of breathing through water. A box of tin con- taining the water is placed on the man's back, with tubes connected, forming a ring round die body and strnps for the shnulders. A. hood of 3Iacintosh cloth, elazed in front, is put on the head ; and, being

attached to the shit-a en- gallons f water %till enable a person to bear the densest so. .1,.• fOr t Wenty minute,.

111r. 11.0g1■1116011I c-„,1 a paper describing a series of' experiments made by him on tht streogth of iron It appetred from these,

that a pillar square a: : at ti 1,0-"ont is ;delta three times as strong as

tine rounded at the e•. Is : 1 LI :he pillars are not placed perfectly per- pendicular, at least te •'s of their strength is lost ; and that they are out-se vent.1

i strona, r ,ll swelled in the naiddle like the frustrate

of a came, milli the Ita.• in the centre of dm pillar. In this section. te, lay, a litIe•hoat was es.hibited, called a

" riddle lift-boat,- fr• m, the ! licing pierced like a riddle. The characterist p:•ele•rty • .1i is ittat it 121111110i fill with water, as

the fluid runs out a- rask rs. 1:s buoyancy' is derived from a

hollow elliptical t.n. • to the sides of the boat. The labours of this ag.1 of most of the other See: ions termitotted on Wednesday.

Oil Thursday there .s a genertl in it of the members of•the Association it Theat:e. which ha I been fitted up for the pur-

pose. The al:gat:is Bre.,..! tine was called on to preside. Mr.

.Murchisen, •...r...taries of the Asseciation, then read the report, detalli,,,4: thel: ig gigLining the past year. The Antarctic expedition, an ..1 -.,.:;:eal observations, undertaken at the expense of tilt' cr". „ Or die Associatiom were particularly doe „ , report, Ohe Of fur most important advantage::: of th:s -tit, arises frk..n the right it claims

of makina k eon dm , • gee z the wmts If eienee, et hithi r: right, had leaded to give bgreased weielg I ;le.: re- e It \ g•siviation. The first ; Friday night. in the Royal

Exchaegv. ;i: Whit

the Duke and I a • . 1. . 1 Nei kiiampton, Lint Mont- eagle, and the -1. • • strangers it; the teem. Two bands or n,..1.: ee:.• ...1.ee: i --:.1! went me:ry as a

marriage-bell." The s i ie. enthade ilk the

Rooms took fIts on II,. ..: ening. Loci was also attended.

On Sitturday reernie arrenzement, e'hflIty-four

gentl, e et. 1.. ea 1:14. eg,:egi-ts. and =meet of the other ,1' • , :II ss. prove:led by

A " . r rraa by the steamer- al. •-• gseeived by the Marquis of lata_g.: ht. A! -ix in the looming,

party or „

in the Fiattheae -tete •:::, kassi at their disposal for the day tv the 1,7'..;'7,•7 ;I„ .! ' 111,:il Were of a hind to enable ieve-Oga: m of the island than was ; '" ' • ag. Ir. lb: "c-ssir Nichol, Mr. Thom •- 11 .: - AS they passed

doe in i, ti:'., :he prer.ent should

deseri'.t. :I. • g 1.2 or ,:o• Het they were acqu..:: e : _ . _ ailagieat 1,-,!:: conversatiens ocenpo: the party t:'.: a ittI. • voyage. The ge teal phtenomena preset ,!•• 1 by the ishe :i An. n. ;:nd more espeei.:lly in the parish c,f Kilbriee. are :tiniest it pars..el in Seetland tOr interest and impor- tance. They exighir 1,1 a s..kaii compass a kind of epitome of the Illinerr1 sir:mama:1.f i v. m. 1. ...okk ino in re:_alar proeression the sue-

1.....stratlaeti gra .ite to the diluvial en the 1.,..e•t-formed roehs. held itt Ct., l'avulty 11.11 of the A.s.n.ikition should that Professor -1,1eat.

cssiNe kLes, I.,.

gun'. • I rk At a