22 NOVEMBER 1935

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Italy's New Cothmandek In a week empty of important military

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event the recall. of General de Bono provideS the most' interesting news. It is probably dictated by developments in Europe rather than on the fighting front. The Marshal's...

Meanwhile, Ras Seyum, in the mountains overhanging the right flank

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of the Northern ad Vance, begins to make his preserice felt. On the left a well-planned ambush in the Azbi gorge comes as a reminder that the arduous precaution of " crowning...


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T HE application of sanctions to Italy by fifty nations has produced no outward manifestations except the issue of a manifesto by the Fascist Grand Council declaring November...

OFFICES : 99 (lower St., London, W.C. 1. Tel- :

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Mus . num 1721. Entered as Becond-clasa Mail Mayer at the New York, N.Y. Post Office, 23rd„, 1896. Postal subscription 30s. per annum, to any part of the world. l'ostage on this...

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The Miners' Ballot The result of the ballot in the

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coalfields is to empower the leaders by an overwhelming majority to call a strike if they think fit. They will no doubt use the authority thus conferred on them as a bargaining...

The Break-up of China Though there appears to have been

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a last-moment hitch regarding the declaration of an autonomons Northern China under obvious Japanese hegemony,. there is no reason to question the determination of military...

Philippine Autonomy The Philippine Islands have entered on a period

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of semi-independence, constituting a temporary interlude preparatory to the grant of independence unqualified which the islands will obtain in ten years' time. For the. present...

* M. Laval in Danger M. Laval's situation -becomes increasingly

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.precarious. Ile has to meet the Chamber on December 3rd—unless its opening is postponed for another week—and as things stand will be faced then with a dangerous resolii? tion...

Greece and Its King Within a few days King George

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of Greece will have landed in the country which has , ecalled him to its throne,. and it should soon be possible to, form some opinion as :to the prospects of a period of...

The Canada–U.S. Pact Any 'reduction in tariffs inevitably evokes protests

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from industries from which protection is wholly or impart with- drawn. No excessive attention, therefore,' need be paid to the clamour that has greeted the signature of the...

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The only important exceptions to this were the mining areas

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and London. Owing to industrial. strife in the minefields every mining seat was lost to the Government. This was the main cause of the defeat of Mr. Malcolm MacDonald in...

* * A Successful Land Scheme The statement issued by

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the Society of Friends regarding Its allotment schemes is highly ,eneouraging. More than 1 20,000 Men participated during the season just ended, althoUgh a reserve fund had to...

The exploitation of the grievances of what after all are

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a comparatively small minority of the electors roused enthusiasm in the Labour strongholds, but it definitely repelled potential support in the areas where employment is good...

Advisers on Housing The appointment of the Central Housing Advisory

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Committee under the new Housing Act is another step forward in Sir Kingsley Wood's plans to ensure the success of his housing pOlicy. It is too late to continue the argument for...

The saddest feature of the election is the de feat of

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Sir Herbert Samuel and nearly all his chief lieutenants. No man in these desperately difficult post-War years has worked with greater courage and public spirit for the revival...

Election Reflections Our Parliamentary Correspondent writes : Seldom at a

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General Election have there been fewer signs , of the way in which opinion was moving than in this Election, in which the Government has scored a majority of close on 250. There...

Natives in the Mines ' " The findings • of

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Sir Alison Russell's CommissiOn into the Copper Belt Riots in Northern . - RhOdesia last May reveal an unsatisfactory situation: The fundamental cause of the .discontent was an...

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S O Mr. Baldwin gets the doctor's mandate this time. No words can more fitly open an article on the Election than those which make up the Prime Minister's name. For though it...

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:T HE disturbances in Egypt during the last fortnight will, it may be hoped„ bring home to the Government the great importance, especially in these times, of coming to a...

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F OR Liberals there is a certain melancholy fitness in the fact that the last election result to be declared, apart from the Scottish Universities, involved the loss of what was...

Undertakers may be the heartiest of men personally, and no

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doubt often are, but as a class there is something sombre about them. And naturally enough. • Their task; necessary as it is, is not one on which most of us desire particularly...

A pleasant little incident is recorded by the Geneva correspondent

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of the Daily Herald. The International Labour Office was last Saturday presented with a magnificent Persian carpet (we have not learned, to say Iranian in this connexion yet)...

I sec the t'Eurre is making the suggestion, which has

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already seen the light in this column, that the League of Nations wireless station at Prangins, near Geneva, should be used to radiate in Italian plain statements about the...

The Cabinet changes seem likely to be relatively few, so

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that Mr. Baldwin's :decision. regarding them need not be long delayed. If Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, whose defeat is matter for real regret, vacates the Colonial Office, Mr. Ormsby...

The suit against Lord Tavistoek last week provided All interesting

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commentary on recent legislation restricting records of Divorce Court proceedings. Evidence, it may be recalled, cannot now be reported, but the Judge's summing-up can. In this...

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13y H. POWYS GREENWOOD E VERY six months or so since Mr. Vernon Bartlett described the Nazi revolution as the biggeSt question-mark in Europe, I have been paying hopeful...

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By SIR EVELYN WRENCH H AVE you ever been in a country that seeks to do without . God ? It is a painful experience. No amount of reading about modern Turkey had prepared me for...

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By PETER FLEMING J UST before dark we had another puncture. We all got out, and Torgney 'drove the • ear slowly,' on a flat tyre, back to a yurt which we had passed half a mile...

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By J. R. GLORNEY BOLTON T HE attainment of what is virtually swaraj for India brings into bold relief the plight of that pathetic figure—so little known to the inhabitants of...

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By SIR STEPHEN TALLENTS OL , R north-country steam-rollers sailed with us from the Thames to the Tagus—a solid and, as it proved, a. not unfitting introduction to the Portugal...

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By W. W. WINKWORTH WE are at present debarred from 's writing article about the Chinese Exhibition at Burlington House specifically ; but as everyone knows it is going to be...

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/Ty ROSE MACAULAY A N author wrote to a paper lately protesting--as authors will—against certain epithets used by a reviewer about his book. The epithets seemed to me not...

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By the WARDEN OF ALL SOULS T HE future of freedom is the greatest question before the world. Only a few years ago it would not have seemed Open to serious doubt that the world...

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By HENRY W. NEVINSON WISH to write upon a kind of freedom that comes near to our ordinary lives and habits. We may call it personal freedom, and I believe it to be peculiarly...

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By THE VERY REV. W. R. INGE . ` 1 1rF we want to resist the powers which threaten to 1. suppress intellectual and individual freedom, we Must keep clearly before us what is at...

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By J. A. SPENDER. A MAN of my a g e is conscious of a certain chan g e of opinion about the Press. It used to be called " the Tourth Estate," and at most public ban q uets was...

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By PROFESSOR P. CARNEGIE SIMPSON, D.D. F REEDOM, it has been well said, is " one thing." By this is meant that, while it applies to various aspects of life, it is the same in...

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By C. E. M. JOAD T HROUGH the tradition of European culture runs like a continuing thread the assumption that diversity of human beings is a good. While one savage i , s very...

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By WALTER GREENWOOD E XCEPT for a few months in 1929 I never, until recently, earned more than £2 a week. This was considered to be, and still is, a man's wage. I did not reach...

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FORSTER IIE menace to freedom is usually conceived in terms T ' of political or social interference—Communism, Fascism, Grundyism, bureaueratic'encroachment, censor- ship,...

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By ROSE MACAULAY Be free ! The beasts are chartered. Neither age nor force Canquell the love of freedom in a horse. N O, indeed. Nor, one might' add, in anyone else. Cowper...

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CV E SPECTA.TON 14OrEMBER,242, 16'35

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Arctic Adventure

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By PETER FLEMING Tina book is a full and unusually faithful record of the British Trans-Greenland Expedition, 1984. Those who have a special interest in such matters are...

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The Graeco-German Imbroglio The Tyranny of Greece over Germany, By

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E, M. Butler. (Cambridge University Press. 15s.) ON the coast of Columbia stands one of the strangest and most :fascinating towns in the world. Cartagena was founded by Charles...

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The Army Examined

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This, Our Army. By CaptainAT. R. Kennedy, M.C. (Htitchinsoili 10s. 6d.) Tim underlying idea of Captain Kennedy's book is that the, Army is not only the property of the nation...

Emotional Thinking

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Reason and Emotion. By John Macmurray. (Faber and • Faber. 7s. 6d.) R.A.Tima more than three years ago Professcir Macmurray published in book form a series of broadcast talks....

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Lansing's War Memoirs

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War Memoirs of Robert Lansing. (Rich and Cowan. 18s.) Romer LANSING was Secretary of State during four of the most critical years in American history under the PresideneY of...

Herodotus De Luxe

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Herodotus : Rawlinson's translation revised and annotated by A. W. Lawrence with woodcuts by V. Lo Campion. Maps. (Nonesuch Press. £6 OS.) ANY translation, to be real and to...

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That Clydeside

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My Life of Revolt. By David Kirkwood. (Harrap. lea. 6d.) THERE is a certain danger in this book. It is not danger of revolt ; the title is only one of Mr. Kirkv,-ood's little...

safi Wisdom

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An Early Mystic of Baghdad : a Study of the Life and ' Teachings of Harlth B. Asad Al-Muhasibi, A.D. 781-857. By Margaret Smith, M.A., Ph.D. (Sheldon Press. 15s.) MARGARET...

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I Write as I Please. By Walter Duranty. (Hamish Hamilton, ' 10s. ad.) Ttni: authors arc the English correspondent of an American paper, an American correspondent and an...

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Queen Elizabeth as Letter-Writer

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The Letters of Queen Elizabeth. Edited by G. 13. Harrison. {Cassell. lei 6d.) THE danger of this sort of book, a collection of letters, parti- cularly of royal letters, is that...

A Wandering Scot in America

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A Visit to America. 13y A. C. Maudonell. (Macmillan. 7s. Ca.) THE chief industry of Scots, at the moment, is the production of books about Scotland, so Mr. Macdonell strikes a...

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Mountains as Metaphor

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ANY experience which is more intense than usual gives us a standard by which we judge other things we value, and a language in which we think of them, and as ,ye connect it with...

Enjpying : Life

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Personal Pleasures. By Rose 'Macaulay. (Gollanez. 78. 01.) LET us be grateful to this author for her delicate agility of style, preserving in a manner so gay,' so melodious and...

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Why We Laugh

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Humour. By Stephen Leacock. (Lane. 75. 6d.) Ma. LEAeock is like that diVine who once said freen hey pulpit that lie was going to offer up not a prayer but an explanation. For...

A Martyr in the Making

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Charles I and Cromwell. An Essay. 13y C, M. Young: (Davies. 7s. 6d.) SomEoss, I see, has already said that Mr. G. M. Young is One of those rare people who write too little. But...

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Crime or Punishment

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We Who Are About To Die. By David Lamson. (Scribners. 8s. 6d.) DAVID LAMSON, Sales Manager of Stanford University Press, U.S.A., was convicted of murdering his wife in...

The Farj eon Family

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A Nursery in the Nineties. By Eleanor Farjeon. (Gollanez. 10s. 6d. ) THE reminiscences of childhood are always apt to form the most attractive part of an autobiography, but very...

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Proletarian Pilgrimage

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Proletarian Pilgrimage : An Autobiography. By John Paton. (Routledgo. 10s. Oct.) Proletarian Pilgrimage : An Autobiography. By John Paton. (Routledgo. 10s. Oct.) Ix the last few...

Literae Humaniores

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Private and Confidential. Edited by Brian Grayson. (Grayson. 10s. ad.) AT first sight one wonders whether these letters are genuine, or whether they are another of those rather...

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Stalin—And Others

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OF the sixteen photographs which illustrate this book, fifteen depict Stalin, in various . postures and in various company. But the publishers rightly Warn us that it is not a...

The Arctic Trade Route

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THE story of the wreck of the Chelyuskin ' among the ice floes near the Bering Straits brought world-wide attention to bear. upon the Arctic Ocean. Only comparatively few,...

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A Seventeenth-Century Philanthropist

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John Defiers, 1654-1725. His writings reprinted by A. Rah' Fry. (Casson. 6s.) Joins Bra.ixas was certainly one of the most. remarkable men of the later Stuart and Revolutionary...

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Philosophy of the Fool

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The Fool : His Social and Literary History. By Enid Weis- ford. (Faber and Faber. 2 Is.) APPARENTLY there are many varieties of the Fool betWeen the opposite extremes of the...

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The Art of Pastiche

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Tun word ` style " has several meanings, two of which are important for our immediate critical purpose. " Style " may . mean a literary - idiosyncrasy caused by an excess of...

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Voices. from the East

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Wiucii English novelists, I am often asked by literary friends, both in this country and in .France, have portrayed. Indian life with the completest sympathy and understanding ?...

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Ros Rediviva

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Delina Delaney, By Amanda M. Ras. (Chatto and Windus. 7s.' 6d. ) • SOME years ago a publisher, with a rare sense of what was fitting and just, rescued Irene Iddesleigh, one...

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Short Stories

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Press. 3s. 6d.) The Laburnum Tree. By James Laver. (Cresset Press. 3s. 6d;) Mn. MANuoon in an interesting appendix to Fierce and Gentle tries to explain for the benefit of...

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By WILLIAM PLOMER Once We Had A Child. By Hans Fallada. Translated by Eric Sutton. (Putnam. 7s. (hi. ) Isrr.i.Nnus, under Abdul Hamill II is a subject that few English...

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DinEer subscribers who are changing their addresses are asked to

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notify Tint SPECTATOR office BEFORE MIDDAY on MONDAY or gn.cu The 'previous address to which the paper has • been sent and receipt reference number should be quoted.

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"White Cargo." By Leon Gordon. At the Cambridge IN the programme of this revival acknowledgments 10 dons who have supplied the theatre' with " properties " are fora.- in number....

The Cinema

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"Arms and the Girl." At the London Pavilion. —"Accent on Youth." At the Plaza. " The Tunnel." At the New Babylon." At the Forum Arms and the Girl May - haye set out, in the...

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[D'un correspondant parisien]

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UNE coincidence, sans doute fortuite, midis qui ne inerite pas. moil's d'être signalee, pep - let en cc moment aux amateurs tie cinema d'applaudir l'adaptat.ion des oeuvres...

Art and Dictatorship

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IF you visit the exhibition of Artists against Fascism and War at 2a • Soho Square, the first thing that will meet your eye is quotation from an ollicial Nazi pronouncement on...

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A Self-cutting Bush .

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Most of us now are acquainted with the ways of that most. popular hedge plant Lonicera Nitida ; but it has still some surprises. No plant, not even a willow or a poplar, is more...

* * *

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Rubbered Swans • The plight of birds that swim into patches of waste oil has aroused the pity of us all. A similar but, surprisingly, a less serious calamity befell a number of...


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Roadside Trees Those who concern themselves with the n a charm of England, rudely disturbed of late by new means of access, would do well to impress on local councils a point...

The Art of the Hedge

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It is at least arguable that disregard of the nature of the shrub hag in regard to some species tended to spoil even the hedge itself. I saw the other day a yew hedge that...

Cleaner Orchards

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A further set of experiments have been carried through and tested in a theory of orchard purification, produced some few years ago by Sir Arthur Nance in Ireland. He sends me...

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[To the Editor trf THE SPECTATOR.] your issue of November 8th you have an article headed " Through American Eyes." It is a dialogue between the writer of the article, Mr: F....


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[To the Editor of THE SPECTATOU.] Sna—The adjectives " Devastating," " Overwhelming," ascribed by the Government Press to their triumph at the polls is scarcely justified by an...


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[Correspondents arc requested to keep their letters as brief as is reasonably possible. The most suitaWe length is that of one of our " News of the - Week" paragraphs. Signed...

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[To the Editor of TnE Sekx"rxrcort.1 SIR, We, who profess to be civilised and free, are bound down by trivial laws and bygone superstitions. Our activities arc still controlled...

[To the Editor of THE SPEtT.1/4TOR.] have not, so far,

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in . the correspondence about Eutha- nasia, seen any reference to what seems to me the most serious objection to the proposed change in the law. I refer to the mental distress...

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' [To the Editor of TOE SPECTATOR.] Sin,—With reference to the paragraph by Janus about Gray House, gicester, in your issue of November 15th, please allow me to make a few...


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[To the Editor of TILE SPECTATOR.] Sin,----There is something almost magnificent in the confidence of your , young correspondent, Mr. P. Winckworth, who calls those who...


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[To the Editor of Tuts SPECTATOR.] Si IL— If the Words of your article of last week) " Writers and publishers of books which hold up orthodox marriage to mild derision, and view...


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[To the Editor of Tai; SPECTATOR.] Sia,—In The Spectator of September 20th you drew attention to the remarkable feat of a fire-walker, a Kashmiri Mahomedan, who walked in a...

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[To the Editor of TIM SPECTATOR.]

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SIR ) —Your correspondent writes : . " It is one of the advantages of a•professional . diplomatic service that its members are trained to distinguish between their views of what...


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[To the Editor of THE SPECTATOR.] SIR,—Miss West's scathing criticism of " our contemporary juliets " overshoots the mark. Granted that Juliet should not be played as a child,...


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[To the Editor of THE SPECTATOR.] SIR, —The subject may be of sufficient importance, alike to British and AMerican readers of The Spectator, to allow a rejoinder to Mr. D. W....

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The opening of a very necessary Extension at Moorfields Eye

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Hospital in City Road, London, E.C.1., has increased the annual maintenance cost to £45,000. The Hospital is faced with the possibility of a big deficit on the year's working,...

Winter Daffodils

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SOMETHING suddenly went wrong with the eyes of a cousin Of mine in the country, and she had to be brought to London for an operation. As hick would have it, I was the only...

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[To the Editor of Tim SeiarrATou] • Sin.---No one who is concerned for the progress of Christianity could fail to be interested in the articles and letters which you have...


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[To the Editor of TOE: SPECTATOR.] Sui,--ITnder :the heading " Musieicns d'autrefois " Mr. I. Berlin informs his readers that my book—Down Anzong the Dead Mcn.- 7 -11,s . " in...

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[To the Editor of THE SPECTATOR.] Sin,—In four weeks' time it will be the first anniversary of St. Peter's Kitchens, and we are asking for the courtesy of the columns of your...

On Edington Hill

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STAns wink beyond the dowaland barrows Where Alfred marched to meet the. Danes, Far in advance of flinthead arrows And unaware of aeroplanes. Now the white owl en silent wing...


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[To the Editor of THE SPECTATOR,] Silt,-- It is only too true, as your correspondent describes, that the conditions of overcrowding and the general " mix-. up " of patients in...

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By Emile Cammaerts M. Canunaerts emerges with flying colours from the ordeal of writing a royal biography. His Albert of. Belgium (Ivor Nicholson and 'Watson, 21s.) is not,...


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By Arthur Gardner Of all kinds of art books, that which gets least credit in proportion to labour involved is the class in which Mr. Arthur Gardner's Handbook to English...

Current Literature

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THE ROYAL ACADEMY By W. R. M. Lamb The standard histories of the ROyal Academy being all more or less out of date,there was room for a new treatment of the subject. In the...

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THE -INTERNATIONAL - WHO'S - - WHO Who_. (witligaut...Alisrespeat)—is.-Dx,.,..Zygmunt. What are the

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details of the public career of Sir Padamji Pcstonji • Ginwala ? How old is Dr. Ernst Jfiekh ? Where was Baron Aloisi educated ? What is the address of Herr Hans Fallada ? This...

PLUMER OF MESSINES By General Sir Charles Harington Of all

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the qualities which make for greatness in - a commander none is rarer or more valuable than the power to inspire confi- dence and affection in the minds of thousands, many of...

BOOKS OF TOMORROW Soviet Communism : A New Civilisation? By

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Sidney and Beatrice Webb (Longmans. 85s.) Mars His Idiot. By H. M. Tomlinson. (Heinemann. 7s.fid.) A History of Europe: The Liberal wit. A. L. Fisher. (Eyre and s Spottisvioade....

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A FEW weeks ago I was asked by :Morris Motors

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Ltd. to try lair new 25 h.p. car which sellS. complete, at the remarkable figure of £265; It had been impresSed upon me, though not' by its makers, that here at last WIIS a...

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Current Travel News

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Sunshine and Snow IT seems improbable that the famous Crestu Run at St. Moritz would inspire many readers of this journal «Mitt the am- bition of entering for the World...

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Tho fourth Olympia Winter' flames will in February next ho

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held at the German centre, Garmiseh-Partenkirchen, in the Bavarian Alps. This is the starting-point of the Zugspitzo cable railway. which reaches a height. of over 11,700 feet...

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The Spectator

Another Year of Progress Before passing in review some of the main features of 1E035, I once again offer the reminder that the article is written before the close of November,...