12 DECEMBER 1840, Page 5

PR OG It Le. '!' i I et:11 - .11 N 1 ; The

November overland mail fro .:. I ham serne liicer.ao from. ('Riga to tin. 1tit August, 'Ile expetlitiou of the 11::-.1 to the Northward first t'etnatids attention.

The is,:itel (.11 t Ittison, and vapital• the city of Tingere•-lieen, had been :d.; sl by the initial tore, - it leer the emannenal oe Brigadier Burrell, Dn the :eh July. .S.11 ree. ee. •.:cemint of the is rive' .1,1 a th-,:p ach from ( 11•11•;••!1 to Lord Alleislarul, dated trona Ting-Lac-heen. on the 1..!it '•:•eas thus- ate Lord-1 latva ,:.1 y■• '■ I, 0,;•:::17. that on the 4tft instant 11,..t. . . I .t IlLator ( to the former of which I had tiati,fi•ind l• t,vitlt the wishes of Sir Gordon Iherier '.oche and tics trans- ports, arrive:1 in the -. t!.. .1,- of oar tal.smg tap a position in flout of a hill, ci -0, r e-;•i':, ov jos-e-liouse-

Ai, .

1-.• as also Governor " In the evening, a sumo :.n or the rrotip of bland, and

111111 t,1 110 SO drat i'!• • ti

"The otlicers hearine, the sect -I!, IC' ,.:E■•■I ;Ill Ilk' l i ine>r .1dmiral to the Wellesley, necompanied Iy r• o Mandarins; and, altlitatOt they acknow- ledged their incapacity to resis'• they- mtriopted by cvesioo and roptcMt to obtain time, and left the ship without any satisfactory t-cult, but perfectly understanding that if submi,-ion `0.■;, not toady before daylight next clay, hostihiti s must continence.

"On the morning of the St It, the hill and shore were crowded wills a large body of troops, and from the mastheads of the ships the city was seen at the distance of a mile from the beach, the walls of which were also lined with troops. On Temple HM, the lauding-place or wharf; and a round tower ad- jacent, there were 24 guns of small calibre, independeot uf a number of war- junks ; and from their proceedings it appeared that resistence was to be offered. As both wind and tide were against the transports, and only- 350 men, in- cluding Marines, were in the hurbour, 1 availed myself of the time offered to reconnoitre the beach beyond Temple Hill, with a view of landing at some distance from the batteries; but which I abandoned, as, if opposed there, the shipping must have opened their fire on the different batteries, and the result have been the same eith respect to the loss of life as of opening on the bat- teries at once; besides %thief', it was not considered expedieut to take from the ships of war, under the prospect of action, so many hands as were required to man the boats.

"About two o'clock p.m., her Majesty's ships Cruiser and Algerinc got into position ; and as the transports were then entering the harbour, the signal was given for landing in rotation, as boats could be supplied, in die following order-

" First Division—The Eighteenth Iloynl Irish, Royal Marines, two nine- pounders, and the Twenty-sixth Regiment.

"Second Division—Volunteer Corps, and Forty-ninth Regiment, and a detachment of Sappers and Miners.

"On the Eighteenth and Royal ,Marines quitting their ships for the boats, the waving of flees nod beating of gongs and dome _eve further intimation of the decidedly hostile intentions on the pert Of the Chinese.

"As previously arraneed svith his Eecelleecy Sir G. Bremer, Commander- in-Chief, a guts was fired from the Welleeley, alter the Eiglocenth and Royal Marines were in the boats, with a view el aseertainiug whether resistance was intended. The gun o a> fired et the round tower most cortectly, and no indi- vidual injured then by. As the whole of the guns t;1 shore were manned, a return fire was instantly given from them and a numbee of war-junks, which brought a tire upon the batteries aid junks from the is hole of the ships of war, but of very short duration, the guns and hills being ahandoned aud suburbs evacuated in a very few minutes. The beach and wheel' and Temple Ilill being cleared, the truops landed without opposition, and I immediately took pos- session of the hill, ileen which a very good view of the cite is obtained, at the distance of about 1,:le tetras As soen as the landing of the Twenty-sixth Regiment was completed, 1 lad forward advanced pots from the Eighteenth and 'Twenty-sixth Reeimmee to st :thin 5co yards of' the trans of the city ; which, although in a'dilapidated state, :ire eetrenoly fbrinidelde and difficult of access, being surrounded on three sides with a deep canal of about twenty- five fret slide, and a contismed flat ef inundated paddy-land."

Preparations were attn.'s for storming the north-west angle of the walls on the following day. A fire was opened on the British advanced post by the Chines?, tut it wes checked by eight or nine shots in return. It was, however, keot up at intervals till midnight ; but without any Other effect than " proving that the Chinese -were utterly ignorant of gunnery." In the morning every thing was in a forward state for the attack, ten gluts being within -WO yards of the walls ; hut- " From the stillness of the city, I epprebended a change had taken place there, and 1 waited Mr daylight before issu g orders for offensive operations. On the first dawn the dugs were seen oe the walls, as tiny were the preceding evening; but as the light increased, there did not appear a single person where there had been thousands the preceding evening ; which gate" reason to sup- pose that the city was evacuated ; and I sent forward- Licetenant-Colonel

Montgomerie, Major Deputy Adjutant-General, and Captain Pearse, Field Eueieeer, with a small (oeort, to reconnoitre as closely as pos- sible the state of the works, fuel endt et our to ascertain whelier the city was abandoned or not.

"These officers pre4sed the iemal (tee bridge over which had been broken up) by thrusting spare acreee, and with Caetain Bethune, of the Conway, who had now joined them, sealed the wail 1,) means of a ladder found amongst the buildings outside. ():se or two toeseined Chinese, whorl i r.el above the gate, hung a placard over the wall, and refused by signs to felmit them, but offered no other opposition.

"The gate was fbund strongle. barricedned within by large sacks of grain ; and by the time that a few planks had been thrown over the canal, a company of the Forty-ninth, width 1 bad sent fer took possession of the principal gate of the city of Ting-hoc-heen, upon *hid; the British flee was hoisted.

" Guards were quickly posted at the whole of the Rate:, and every protec- tion given to life and property. I lament that several houses in the city had been plundered by the lower order of the Chinese people before we took pus- - session, and that it was carried to a comiderable extent in the suburbs by the

same ela of people on the Meld of the tied lith, from their occupying house's which were ultimately proved not to belting to the parties claiming them. Order is now restored, but a large portion of the people who wont into the country have not returned." " The city of Ting-liar-been is extensive, the walls !wing about six miles in circumference : they sire built of granite and brick of leferior quality' ; and, with the exception of is 1.111, where the defences arc unusually high, there is a deep ditch or canal, about twenie -five feet wide, cart ied round the wall at a distance of a few yards. The are is umerouS has ions in the works and with good troops, in its present state, the city is capable of making a good defence."

The loss of the Chinese is estimated at 25, only romol-shot having been fired. On shore 91 guns were taken, of two to nine pounds

the numbers of the guns being in an inverse ratio to their size- " The guns, with the exception of a bra;, one, are all apparently of Chinese manufacture, and of a very inferior description. The brass gun has the date

of Mtn made by Richard Phillips, pleec not mentioned. A considerable quantity of gunpowder has been loehh, fled three magazines, containing an ex- tensive supply el leis -shot, jinja!-, met' blocks, swords, bows and arrows, &e.

with steel helmet, and ni,iforn, f.,e a large body uf mem the particu- lars of which hate nut )...t Lieu n ct-rtail..:■1, 1,::t of which an inventory IS being made. With the exreptiu of the ofeeeme, most of the artist-6 are packed and stored with much metleel, (eel uac ir. ‘.tr■ peel order."

A private account states, that the Chinese authorities declared at the conference, that " if they succumbed without any show of resistance they should lose their heads "— " On hoofing, proceed., Ilys private account just quoted, the bootie found the city and suburbs abandoned by the i oh:detente with the except ion of One man

wee !Ton it—

who was holding up a board fl

sate (e. for the 21i‘l• •11: It is needless to add that the poor fellow sits eased. A fire broke out in a part of the town, bet the troops extinguished it. When the List: toilet: left, all was quiet, but three unb uu dilamition sLuwu on the part of the native; to return to their Ma( rued e."

It was reported that the Governor of 'Ping-hoc-been bed received a shot in his thigh fool died ; another account says that he had drowned himself. This lastonentioned account [dated 20t11 July] supplies sonic particulars respecting the navel as well as the' militery part of the attack, which are teeeee1 over in the General's &speed'. It differs also in a trifling (leen e from the preeeding accounts, in the description or the preliminary cenfbrence- " Before the transports had come up, the Chinese Admiral and second in commend were received on board the Wellesley, and every argument urged through the medium of the interpreter to induce them to give up the place without resistance, and avoid unnecessary effusion of blood. All was in vain, and they left the ship determined to resist to the lust, saying that their heads would be cut of if they (lid not do so. All the vessels were allowed to anchor without a shot being fired at them. The defences of the place were a battery, about thirty junks run aground with their broadsides to the harbour, each mounting two or three guns, a few guns on the beach, and hags of grabs piled up. We could see a considerable number of people, soldiers and others. When the troops were ready to land, the Wellesley tired a single shot into the battery. The compliment was returned, and a shot struck her cutwater. Immediately the men-ofovar and steamers opened a heavy fire upon the battery, junks, and houses On the beach, and kept it up for about a quurter of an hour. This was feebly returned for a few minutes, about a dozen shots striking the ships, but without doing any injury. The only casualty was on board the Conway, a man having had his legs shattered by the recoil of a gun. When the smoke cleared nway not it Chinaman was visible. The troops were landed and formed with- out meeting the slightest opposition, or even seeing an enemy. The number of killed Lind wounded could not be accurately estimated ; many of the latter having been carried of It is ascertained that the Chinese Admiral drowned himself, and that the second in command is wounded, and has escaped to Ning-po. One poor man was found in the battery with his legs shot away. He was alive, but refused assistance from the surgeons. Four men were carried to the Wellesley, and amputation was performed on them, but only one survives. He appenred to consider the operation to be inflicted as a torture. Four or five priests were discovered concealed, and half dead with terror, and reassured with difficulty. About twenty men were found killed in the junks."

The account also varies front the despatch in respect to the disorders which took place after the capture of the town-

" It is to be regretted, that notwithstanding strict orders have been issued to respect private property, the sailors were allowed to leave their boats and Om- der the town on the beach. In n short time they had reduced it to a perfect wreck, wantonly destroying what they could not carry off. It is no palliation to Si)' that the property destroyed am) carried off was of little value. The work of destruction was completed by a number of rascally Chinamen, who were allowed to land and care). of every thing they could lay their hands on. This was allowed during a whole (lay. The city has since been kept in better order, and plunder been prevented as much as passible; no one being allowed to leave the town excepting with agricultural implements, and other property to a small amount. Proclamations have been posted up, and every encourage- ment held out to induce the inhabitants to return to the city. Sonic have done so ; is few shops hate been opened, and traffic resumed on a small scale Sonic are also working for us as coolies for hire. Two Commissioners have been appointed at three hundred reels per mensem, to collect and take care of all public property. They are Captain Caine, Twenty-third Regiment, and Major Stephenson, Forty-ninth Regiment. This property is to be disposed of, and a sale takes place to-morrow. Some very handsome dresses are to be disposed of; and one beautiful war-dress, it is said, will be sent to her Majesty. A guard was placed over the treasury ; which was afterwards found to contain fbur dollars! When all the property is disposed of, a captain's share of prize-money may amount to twenty reels. The only formidable enemy we have found in this place is the infernal liquor they call samshu. Incredible quantities of this cursed stuff were destroyed immediately after we lauded; but several days elapsed Wine all the cellars were discovered and destroyed, and indeed it is too easily procurable still. The consequence has been that a great number of men have been drunk." The Indian Gazette presents a much more frightful picture of the excesses committed within the town- " The troops were then landed ; the British flag hoisted ; and a more come plete pillage could not be conceived than then took place. Every house was indiscriminately broken open ; every drawer and box ransacked ; the streets strewed with fragments of furniture, pictures, chairs, taldesograin of all sorts, &c.; and the whole set off but the dead, or living bodies of the inhabitants, who had been unable to leave their city from the wounds received from our merciless guns. Sonic were lying with ene leg shot olf, others with two—some with tawfu'l wounds from 32-pound shots passing through their bodies ; and others, with legs from which the bones had been partly shot out by grape and Can- !lister. For two days the bodies were allowed to lie exposed to sight where they fell; their swelling, and the accumulation of flies, at last rendered them dis- gusting: they were buried on the spot. The 'dander was carried to en extreme—that is to say, did not cease till there was nothing else to take ; and the plunderers will no doubt be able, on our return to Calcutta, to place at their friends' disposal, mid for the ormonenting of their houses, trophies gained, not from Chinese soldiers or from a field of battle, lint from the harmless and peaceable inhabitants and tradesmen or a city doomed to destruction by our men-of-war; who a few days previous issued a very strict order to all the transports to use forbearance towards all the Justices in our dealings with them, as we did not war with the people, but required reparation at the hands of the Chinese Government."

The Brigadier had styled himself Governor of Chusan ; but it is observed that he ought to have contented himself with the title of Governor of Ting-hoc, the only place actually occupied. Mr. Gutzlaff had been appointed Chief Magistrate ; but was soon to make way for Mr. Clarke.

The Admiral arrived at Chnsan on the Cdh of July. The Blonde frigate was ordered to Amoy, where a boat sent on shore with a flag of truce was fired upon. The fire was returned with such effect that the fort of the place was derstroycd.

The Admiral and Captain Elliot proceeded to Ning-po ; where they were received with more courtesy, but their overtures for negotiation were repulsed. One account says— "'!'he effret of the destruction of the fort of Amoy seems to have been ex- cellent; for the cumin uoications stithi the Admiral at the mouth of the Ning-po river were extremely courteous, and, for the first time perhaps in the Chinese annals, the Governor of the Chitican province cunducted his correspondence upon terms of equality with the English, culling them the honourable officers

of the great foreign nation. The letter to the Emperor was not formally sent by the Governor; but an open eery of it was shawl to his Excellency, who, it was believed, would immediately despatch an express to the Emperor mention-

ing its purport. The blockade of the Ning•po river lied been established: fifty or sixty junks were tensed kick ; hut no attempt at resistunce was made by this accummodating Governor, although the boats of the squadron, con- foundy employed in enforcing the blockade, were dose in-shore. The Admiral only waited the arris-al of the Blenheim, when be would precced to the mouth of the Peelm, to deliver the ultimatum of the British Government, and the documents of which be is the bearer."

Several opium-vessels were lying outside the harbour of ChuSan ; but the Admiral would not allow them to enter.

At Macao, the lust vessel of the squadron, the Blenheim, arrived oil the 2211 of July. Three days before there had been a gale, almost a typhoon, in the Macao waters. It does not appear, however, to have been felt at any great distance from that place. A large fleet of war- junks had ventured out, towards the end of July, against the blockading squadron ; but they fled into the shallows on the first attack. Much dissatisfaction prevailed at the very inefficient manner in which the blockade was said to be maintained. It seems that such junks as were taken laden with salt were restored, but the cargo detained. as the article forms one of the Government-monopolies ; while rice and other grain passed free, the Macao passage being left open, and the exports from 'Macao remaining unmolested, apparently with an understanding to that effect. The force was also considered too small. The following extract from the postscript of the Singupore Free Press contains a mys- terious intimation, which is not elsewhere explained- ", Six men-of-war proceeded to the Bogue yestevItly morning (the 3d of

August) early, and by this time have doubtless suet:mi.:it in reducing the bat-

teries and clearing the passage op to Canton. * * 'We have just dis- covered that the men-of.war which went up the river yesterday are in sight, making for Macao. What it means none can say. The Chinese have blocked up the passage with chains and stones.' Ihe six men-of-war alluded to, adds the Singapore Free Press, are the Druid, Nimrod, Larne, Hyacinth, and

Columbine, with the steamer Enterprise."

Lin was taking active measures to defend Canton. The Hong mer- chants, it is said, had been employed to inlist 5,000 recruits, of whom they were to support 2,000 at their own expense. By Lin's order, the Governor of Keang-shan-heen had issued a new proclamation, dated. July 2d, offering higher rewards than those already promised fur the destruction of the English. The proclamation represents that Enelish ships of war had lately appeared on the coast, "not daring to attack the Government forces," but merely to protect the opium-trade ; end the people are exhorted to unite in endeavouring to repulse the intruti .ers- " The high provincial authorities call upon the people-.--this being a ense in which all are equally concerned—to unite heart and hand with the Government in opposing the barbarians; and order that no Chinese vessels he allowed to proceed seaward, except such as are laden with combustibles wherewith to de- stroy the English vessels. Fishermen and other seafaring pttople are called on to go out and destroy foreign vessels; and whilst thus engaged, are promised that their tlimilies will be housed, clothed, and fed in the public others and at the public expense; and, says his Excellency bin, they will be entitled to even higher rewards than have already been offered them in a former pruclaniation. The people are again told that rewards will be given them for killing English- men but they are cautioned not to mistake such for Portuguese, or indiv blinds of any other nation than English, as such mistake will be. punished according to the existing laws against murder."

The Hong merchants hal recommended. all foreig,ners to leave Can- ton, as the populace might mistake them for English.

Several letters received from China at Madras speak of the measures of the Mandarins to put down the opium.trai.le on the coast as beving become exceedingly formidable, and evincing a degree of vigour and well-planned arrangement far beyond any thing that has hitherto been experienced. Among other instances, is mentioned the narrow es- cape of the Black Joke ; which was attacked while at • anchor in the most vigilant state of preparation in Chin Chew Bay, by sixteen junks, and was chased twelve miles off the coast tinder a smart and well-di- rected fire, with great damage to the sails and rigging, as well as some injury to the crew.