14 APRIL 1855, Page 4

farttgu null Cuinuial.

FRANCE.—The Moniteur of Wednesday contained a long memoir, ap- parently published with the view of justifying the operations of the Allies in the eyes of the French nation. It seems to have been compiled from official papers, as it quotes the instructions of the Emperor Napoleon to Marshal St. Arnaud, and those of the Allied Governments just on the eve of the expedition to the Crimea. The political purpose of the docu- ment may be inferred from its opening-

" It is the incontestable right of a great country like France, to know the truth when it interests the honour, the security, and the power of the state. It is the sacred duty of a strong government like that of the Emperor, to make known the truth, when silence is not imposed by the patriotism of the public welfare. The expedition to the East, its causes, its object, the military operations prepared to support it, are at present facts for discussion previously to becoming pages of history. That these facts may be usefully discussed and seriously judged, we shall now expose them with the most scrupulous exactitude. This appears to us both loyal and useful. Public opinion is prompt to take alarm, and easily led into error in the midst of emotions and events like those of which each day it experiences the recoil. The best way of reassuring it is to enlighten it.'

Having thus paved the way, the writer proposes to resolve these ques- tions—

" How was the expedition to the East conceived ? On what previsions and data was its plan formed ? What were the causes that modified it? Why did the Anglo-French army land in the Crimea, instead of acting on the Danube and making a campaign in Bessarabia ? How are we to explain the long resistance of the besieged in presence of the ardour and heroism of the besiegers ? "

The first question is answered by describing the circumstances which led to the sending of an Anglo-French force " to defend the integrity of the Ottoman empire, the respect for treaties, the balance of power, and the civilization of Europe." The second question leads to the production of a part of the Emperor's instructions to Marshal St. Arnaud, dated April 12, 1854. " . . In placing you, Marshal, at the head of a French army, to fight at a distance of more than 600 leagues from our mother-country, my first re- commendation is, to have a care for the health of the troops, to spare them as much as possible, and to give battle only after having made sure first of at least two chances out of three for a favourable result.

" 'The peninsula of Gallipoli is adopted as the principal point of disem- barkation, because it must be, as a strategical point, the basis of our opera- tions—that is to say, the place d'armes for our depots, our ambulances, our provision-stores, and whence we may with facility either advance or mem- bark. This will not prevent you on your arrival, should you deem it advis- able, from lodging one or two divisions in the barracks, which are either to the West of Constantinople or at Scutari. " As long as you are not in presence of the enemy, the spreading of your troops cannot be attended with inconvenience, and the presence of your troops at Constantinople may produce a good moral effect; but if, perchance,

after having advanced towards the Balkans, you should be constrained to beat a retreat, it would be much more advantageous to regain the coast of

Gallipoli than that of Constantinople ; for the Russians would never venture to advance from Adrianople upon Constantinople leaving 60,000 good troops on their right. If, nevertheless, there should be the intention of fortifying the line from Kara-su, in front of Constantinople, it should only be done with the intention of leaving its defence to the Turks alone; for, I repeat it. our position would be more independent, more redoubtable, when on the flanks of the Russian army, than if we were blockaded in the Thracian pen- insula.

" This firstpoint established, and the Anglo-French army once united on the sherd of the Sea of Marmora, you must concert measures with Omar Pasha and Lord Raglan for the adoption of one of the three following plans- " 1. Either to advance to meet the Russians on the Balkans.

" I 2. Or to seize upon the Crimea. " 3. Or to land at Odessa, or on any other point of the Russian coast of the Black Sea.

" 'In the first case, Varna appears to me the most important point to be occupied. The infantry might be taken there by sea, and the cavalry more easily, perhaps, by land. On no account ought the army to go too far from the Black Sea, so as to be always in free communication with its fleet. " 'In the second case, that of the occupation of the Crimea, the place of landing must first be made sure of, that it may take place at a distance from the enemy, and that it may be speedily fortified, so as to serve as a point d'appui to fall back upon in case of a retreat. The capture of Sebastopol must not be attempted without at least half a siege-train and a great number of sacks for earth. When within reach of the place, do not omit seizing upon Balaklava, a little port situated about four leagues South of Sebastopol, and by means of which easy communica- tions may be kept up with the fleet during the siege. " 'In the third case, my principal recommendation is, never to divide your army; to march always with all your troops united : for 40,000 com- pact men ably commanded are always an imposing force; divided, on the contrary, they are nothing. " ' If compelled, on account of scarcity of provisions, to divide the army, do so in such manner as always to be able to unite it on one point within twenty-four hours. "'If, when marching, you form different columns, establish a common rallying-point at some distance from the enemy, that none of them may be attacked singly. " 'If you drive back the Russians, do not go beyond the Danube, unless the Austrians enter the lists.

" 'As a general rule, every movement must be concerted with the English Commander-in-chief. There are only certain exceptional cases where the safety of the army might be concerned, when you might act on your own resolution

" 'I place perfect confidence in you, Marshal : I am sure you will folkiw these instructions faithfully, and you will know how to add a new glory 1t that of our eagles.' " In vindication of the choice of Gallipoli as a place of debarkation, the Moniteur gives further reasons. In a maritime war, it is necessary that a place should be selected easy of access, easily provisioned, and easily defended, calculated to serve as a base of operations and a point of retreat. Gallipoli offered these advantages ; while its occupation, in the event of a rapid advance of the Russians South of the Balkan, secured a retreat for the fleet in the Black Sea. There was another reason-

" At the time of the departure of the expedition, that is to say in April 1854, it was anxiously asked whether our troops would arrive in time to cover Constantinople ? A defensive war appeared then more probable than an offensive one. It was the integrity of the Ottoman empire which was menaced and already attacked, and which we were about to defend. A. battle lost by the Turks on the Danube might have brought the Russians in three days' march on the Balkans, and opened them the road to Constanti- nople. The occupation of Gallipoli entirely covered that capital. The two Allied Governments understood that a Russian army, even if it occupied Adrianople, could not advance on Constantinople, leaving 60,000 Anglo- French on its right flank ; and this was provided for in the Emperor's instructions."

The third question—what causes modified the plans of the Allies—is next answered. Scarcely had the troops arrived at Gallipoli when the scene changed. Prince Gortschakoff, instead of carrying the war into the heart of the empire, was arrested by the defence of Silistria ; and the commander of the expedition thought they might reach Varna in time to save Silistria, or to join the Ottoman army and defend the Balkan. This

movement was indicated by the danger of the circumstances; if the Russians had taken Silistria, "the fall of which was announced as inevit- able in Omar Pasha's reports, the fate of the Ottoman empire might de- pend on a great battle." But again events did not happen as they were foreseen. The courage of the Turks and the presence of the Allies sufficed to make the Russians raise the siege, and withdraw to the left bank of the Danube. The Moniteur explains why they were not pursued- " What could the Anglo-French army have done by entering a devastated country without roads, inundated by water, and infected with pestilential diseases? They would have found, not victory, but destruction without a struggle—death without a compensation. It has been said that after the retreat of the Russians operations should have been commenced on the Da- nube, and Bessarabia entered. Let us say it at once—without the consent of Austria, our army was forbidden, under penalty of the most dreadful ca- tastrophe, to advance on the Danube. Let us not, in fact, forget that fun- damentaepoint, that our basis of operations was the sea ; to lose that was to risk and compromise all. It is not only military science but common sense which forbids 60,000 Anglo-French and 60,000 Turks to adventure into an unhealthy, impracticable country ; not having sufficient means of transport at our disposal, nor sufficient cavalry, nor reserve artillery, nor siege-pieces, nor depots of provisions at Sehumla, or Varna, or Silistria. All these re- sources, indispensable to a campaign, could not be conjured up in a day at 800 leagues from home. We should have been totally in want of them. We should have been in presence of a Russian army of 200,000 men, which would have awaited us on a firm footing on its own ground, or in retreating before us would have led us into some still more dangerous position, leaving us no other alternative than an unequal battle or an impossible retreat. A simple two-days reconnoissance in the Dobrudscha, which cost us more than the most sanguinary combat, is a proof of what we say. Generals not un-

derstanding the danger of such an enterprise might have committed an irreparable error, and would have compromised—we do not hesitate to say so—the responsibility of command. To make a campaign beyond the Da- nube and on the Pruth possible, we repeat it, the cooperation of Austria was necessary. Now, a Government never goes to war unless compelled to do so by unavoidable circumstances. It only goes to war if it can do so. Austria was not prepared at that moment. In breaking with Russia, she wished to be certain of Germany, and have 500,000 men under arms. Her dignity, her interests, the example of the Western Powers, urged her to pronounce herself and act : prudence bade her wait and collect her military forces, strengthen her political alliances, before joining in the struggle." After the retreat of the Russian army, "neither military honour nor political interest " permitted inactivity. The Allies resolved to land in he Crimea, and take Sebastopol as " a pledge and means of exchange to obtain peace."

" This expedition having been examined at Paris and London as an eventuality, the Marshal St. Arnaud received then, not the instructions—

they could not be given at such a distance—but the following advice. To obtain exact information of the strength of the Russian forces in the Cri- mea : if not too considerable, to land at a spot which might serve as a basis for operations. Theodosia (now Kaffa) appeared the most eligible spot ; al- though that point of the coast has the disadvantage of being distant forty leagues from Sebastopol, it nevertheless offers great advantages. First, its bay is vast and safe ; it would hold all the vessels of the squadron and the vessels with provisions for the troops. Secondly, once established on that point, it might be made a real basis for operations. In thus occupying the Eastern point of the Crimea, all the reinforcements coming by the Sea of Azoff and the Caucasus could be cut off. A gradual advance could be made towards the centre of the country, taking advantage of all its resources. Simpheropol, the strategic centre of the peninsula, would be occupied. An advance would then be made on Sebastopol, and probably a great battle fought on that road. If lost, a retreat in good order on Kaffa, and nothing is compromised ; if gained, to besiege Sebastopol, to invest it completely, and its surrender would follow as a matter of course in a short interval.'

" Unhappily, those counsels were not followed. Be it that the Com- manders-in-chief had not sufficient troops to take so long a journey in the Crimea, be it that they expected a more speedy result by a bold and sudden

coup de main, they resolved, as is known, to land at a few leagues only from Sebastopol." The Moniteur then briefly describes events that led the army to the South side. It continues—

"Sebastopol, as is known, is not surrounded by battlements ; it is rather a great intrenched camp, containing generally an army of from 15,000 to 20,000 men, already protected at the commencement of the siege by numer- ous earth batteries, and especially by the Russian fleet, which, well placed in the inner port, could bear upon all the avenues by which the Allies could advance upon the place. "At this period, that is to say when the Anglo-French army arrived be- fore Sebastopol, the assault might perhaps have been attempted : but it was

already a hazardous enterprise, without sufficient artillery to silence that of

the enemy. Doubtless, nothing was impossible to an Anglo-French army, composed of generals and men like those who have given such proofs during the last six months in the dangers, fatigues, and sufferings of this long siege :

but success alone could justify so daring an attempt. The first duty imposed by the responsibilities of command is prudence ; and prudence prescribed to the Commanders-in-chief not to attempt the assault with, at moat, an army of 50,000 men, placed on a rock, deficient of artillery or ammunition re- serves, without being defended by intrenchments in the rear, and with no other refuge but the ships. It would have been risking on a cast the fortune Ana fate of the expedition ; and nothing must be risked at a distance of 800 leagues from the mother-country. " The coup de main which the Generals thought possible after the battle of the Alma having escaped them, there only remained for them a regular siege according to the rules of military art. At the very onset the Russians took two most efficacious measures, very regretable for us. The first was Prince Mensehikoff's strategic move, who, instead of shutting himself up in

Sebastopol, marched on Simpheropol, and kept the field and free communi-

cation with the besieged city ; the second was the energetic decision of sinking a portion of the men-of-war, which rendered the enemy's port in- accessible to our fleets, and gave some 500 or 600 guns, with their sailors as gunners, to assist in the defence of the town. Thus, although the town already presented a formidable row of guns, new batteries rose as if by en- chantment, and our feeble siege-artillery could not master the fire of the town. From this moment it became evident to all that Sebastopol could only be taken after a long struggle, with powerful reinforcements, at the cost perhaps of sanguinary battles.'

The writer then enters into details respecting siege operations, to show the difficulty of the siege of Sebastopol; and a full account of the course of the negotiations is to be given in a separate paper.

GERMANY.—The latter part of the period of suspended animation on the part of the Conference was passed in active intercommunication be- tween M. Drouyn de Lhuys and the English, Austrian, and French Ministers. Nothing authentic has yet been published respecting the renewal of the Conference.

The Saxon Government has expressed its views on the present state of affairs as regards Germany, in a despatch dated the 6th instant, from De Benet, the Saxon Minister for Foreign Affairs, to the Baron de Konneritz, the Saxon Minister at Vienna. The main objects of the document seem to be, to insist that should the question of mobilization be brought before

the Diet, that body should retain what is termed "its freedom of rela- tions," whether the Diet decide for participation in the war or the re- verse. If the latter, writes M. de Benet, the Diet "would have the right and the obligation to maintain its decisions and to defend its safety against any attack upon the independence of its decision; which case the Con- federation ought to be able to rely upon the faithul cooperation of all its members." But M. de Benet thinks that for the present there is nothing

to warrant the execution of " ulterior measures," "in any direction "- certainly not "towards the West, as long as the Confederation is not menaced from that quarter."

The Berlin telegraph will soon take the first rank among inaccurate in- telligencers. It now appears that General Wedell had not left Berlin for Paris; that he had not received a counter-order, or any order to proceed to Luxembourg ; and that, at the beginning of the week, Colonel Olberg was still at Paris, waiting the return of the General.

The Pays, of Paris, has published a paper without signature or date, which professes to be the text of instructions given by the Porte to Ali Pasha, its Ambassador at Vienna. It has also been published in the Trieste Gazette and in the Independence Beige : the Journal des _Dards, in reprinting it from the Pays, throws the responsibility upon the latter journal. The Vienna correspondent of the Times states that it first ap- peared in the Fronden Blatt.

By this document, the Turkish Minister is empowered to attend the Con- ference, and discuss the questions raised merely ad referendum—the ques- tions are too vital for the Sublime Porte to permit of their being decided without the greatest circumspection • and it will be only " when everything shall have been concerted with our allies, that our plenipotentiary at Vienna can be furnished with precise and definite instructions." The following succinct instructions were imparted to the envoy as general indications of the language he should hold.

" When the time shall have arrived for giving a complete definition of the four articles, and drawing up a plan for a treaty of peace, the Sublime Porto having the indisputable right to be heard both on the principles that consti- tute its basis and on their practical consequences, it is indispensable that this plan should be submitted to our consideration before it shall be proposed to. Russia for her acceptance, and that we should first discuss it with the Allied Powers, with the view of arriving at one common resolution.

" This mode of proceeding is too natural to admit of a doubt respecting the adhesion of the representatives of those Powers on this subject. Neverthe- less, by way of additional precaution, and to obviate any future misunder- standing or difficulty, your Excellency will on this point enter into formal explanations with Count Buol, Lord Westmoreland, and Baron Bourqueney ; and you will transmit to us the result.

"Let us now proceed to the four articles above mentioned. "In the first, it would be incumbent, when abolishing Russia's protector- ate over Wallachia and Moldavia, that the rights granted by the Porte to these two Principalities, as also to Servia, should be established in one or- ganic law, and placed under the guarantee of the great Powers. On this article there are numerous other important observations to be made, which deserve the attention of the Allies. In the first place, they should not be left under the erroneous impression, which appears to exist, that a real pro- tectorate has ever been granted to Russia by virtue of treaties concerning the Danubian provinces. All that results from those treaties may be re- duced to an assurance given to Russia, that the institutions established in these provinces should be neither modified nor destroyed. But under the pretext of neighbourhood and similarity of religion, Russia, as is well known, without the slightest respect for existing institutions, and by a great perversion of engagements, sought merely to gain her own ends, and satisfy her own private interests ; as thr. conduct of the Russian Consuls, in arro- gating a de facto sovereignty at Jassy and Bucharest, has at all times proved. It is therefore meet that the guarantee of the Powers should be clearly de- fined and explained, so that, without at all interfering with the internal condition and administration of the Principalities, it may confine itself ap- propriately to securing their privileges from destruction, and their existing institutions from encroachment. It is equally. essential to constitute the prerogatives of the princes governing these provinces, so that they may not indirectly trench upon the sovereign rights of the Porte. For the rest, further and more special instructions will be sent to your Excellency on this last-named point.

" With respect to the second article, concerning the question of the Danube, Rums, by her assumption of rights appertaining to the Sublime Porte on various fluvial points of the river, has given rise to numerous and serious difficulties as to its free navigation. It will be necessary for us to explain on our side our observations respecting the means of both safeguard- ing the navigation of the Danube and maintaining intact the rights of the Sublime Porte along the banks of this river.

"The third article relates to the revision of the treaty of July 13, 1841, with the view of connecting the existence of the Ottoman empire more closely with the equilibrium of Europe, by putting an end to the predomi- nance of Russia in the Black Sea. The Sublime Porte, grateful for the dis- play of sincere friendship which the great Powers intend bestowing en hat in this matter, approves of the material means by which these powers are desirous of virtually terminating the Russian preponderance. But it is at the same time the duty of the Sublime Porte to take good heed that the re- vision of the treaty of 1841 be not couched in terms capable of infringing on its rights of sovereignty in the Bosphorus and Dardanelles, or over any other part of its territory where the safety of the empire might possibly be endangered.

" Finally, on arriving at the fourth article, since the repose and welfare of all the subjects of the Ottoman empire are of paramount interest for the Sublime Porte, it has for this object assured to all its Christian subjects in the most solemn and public manner the enjoyment of the rights and ancient privileges accorded to them by the Sultans who were the predecessors of his present Majesty, as likewise those recently conceded by his gracious impe- rial will and pleasure. In again declaring before all the world that he has no intention whatever of encroaching upon or diminishing those rights, his Imperial Majesty doubts not at the same time, that, on the part of the allied and friendly Powers, they will continue to deem as an object of the highest importance, that whatever concerns the internal administration of the subjects of the empire should not be the subject of any stipulation not i

compatible with the independence of the Sublime Porte (an independence which these very Allied Powers have declared their wish to protect against the encroachments of Russia). It is on that account that the Sublime Porte will, iu concert with its allies, reject any attempt on the part of Prince Gortschakoff to obtain the insertion into the treaty of peace of any gua- ranteeing clause whatever by which the full integrity of its independence may be exposed to encroachment."

THE CitnirEa.—The intelligence extends to the 27th March ; but it does not report any change in the military position. Some details, however, of the fight on the night of the 22d are fur- nished ; and examples of great bravery are not wanting. Thus, when the Mortar Battery was carried by an immense force of the enemy, a portion of the Ninetieth Regiment, under Captain Vaughton, were re- turning from fatigue-duty to the Gordon Battery, and they heard a sharp musketry fire on their left-

" They moved up, along the covered way, in double time, and found the Russians in complete possession of the Mortar Battery. The Ninetieth at once opened as heavy a fire of musketry as they could upon the enemy ; who returned it, but the coolness and steadiness of our men were giving us the ad- vantage, when an alarm was given that our men were firing on the French;. but the mistake was speedily discovered by the enemy's fire being poured in with more deadly effect, and the small party of the Ninetieth were thrown, into great confusion. Captain Vaughton at this moment shouted, Men of the Ninetieth, follow me !' and Sergeant Henry Clarke, Sergeant Brittle, a Sergeant of the Seventh Fusiliers, about fourteen men of the Ninetieth, and a few of the Seventh, dashed out of the confused ranks, and rushed right into the Mortar Battery. In a few momenta these brave fellows drove the enemy beyond the first traverse • and at the narrow way leading into the second traverse they made a stand, and opened a heavy flanking fire on the parapet, over which the Russians were making determined efforts to come upon them. The narrow pass was meantime defended by the sergeants and a few men, who delivered fire as fast as they could load right into the Russians; who gradually began to give way. With a loud 'hurrah' the gallant little band sprang with the bayonet upon the enemy ; who at once precipitately retired over the parapet, followed by our rifle-balls, which were poured upon them


neessantly, till every round in the men's pouches was expended. In order

tolreep up the fire, the men groped about among the dead Russians, and exhausted all the cartridges they could find in the enemy's pouches. At the first charge at the Mortar Battery, the Russian leader, who wore an Albanian costume, and whose gallantry was most conspicuous, fell dead. As an act of ustice, the names of the officers and men of the party of the Ninetieth t whose conduct was distinguished in this affair should be recorded. They are Clarke, Brittle, and Essex, sergeants; Caruthers, severely.wounded, corporal; Fare, Walsh, Nicholson wounded, and Nash. Captain Vaughton received a severe contusion in the affair."

Captain Browne, in another part of the works, was severely wounded at the commencement of the attack ; but he " refused to go to the rear, though nearly fainting from loss of blood. He led on his men, encouraging them by voice and gesture, to the front. When his body was found, it lay far in advance of our line, with three balls in the chest."

Captain Vicars, at the head of a party of the Ninety-seventh, at first mis- took the Russians for French. When he found out his mistake, "he ordered his men to lie down, and wait till they came within twenty paces; and they did so. When the enemy was close enough, Vicars shouted, Now, Ninety- seventh, on your pins, and charge!' They poured in a volley, charged, and drove the Russians quite out of the trench. Vicars himself struck down two i Russians, and was in the act of cutting down a third with his sword, when another man, who was quite close, (for the coat was singed,) fired, and the ball entered his uplifted right arm close to where it joins the shoulder, and he fell. The arteries were divided, and he must have bled to death in a few minutes."

The great event mentioned in the letters to the journals was the ar- mistice, requested by General Osten-Sacken, to bury the slain. It took place on Saturday the 24th March, and lasted two hours. The scene—one ei the most striking in the whole campaign—is thus described by the species correspondent of the Times.

" It was arranged that two hours should be granted for collecting and carrying away the dead on both sides. The news spread through the camps ; and the races which she Chasseurs d'Afrique bad got up in excellent style were much shorn of their attractions by the opportunity afforded to us of meeting our enemies on neutral ground. All the ravines leading to the front trenches were crowded with officere.hastening on horse and foot down to the seene of so much hard fighting. The crest.; of the hills and the slopes in front of the batteries were covered with men ;- er..4. they dotted the deadly interval between the batteries, which had been before occupied alone by thousands of tons of shot and fragments of shell discharged by French and English and Russians during this protracted siege.. The day was beautifully bright and warm. White flags waved gently in the faint spring breeze above the embrasures of our batteries, and from the Round Tower and Hamden. Not a soul had been visible in front of the lines an instant be- fore the emblems of peace were run up to the flagstaffs ; and a sullen gun from the Mamelon and a burst of smoke from Gordon's Batteries had but a short time previously heralded the armistice. :The instant the flags were hoisted, friend and foe swarmed out of the embrasures. The riflemen of the Allies and of the enemy rose from their lairs in the rifle-pits, and saun- tered towards each other to behold their grim handiwork. The whole of the apace between the Russian lines and our own was filled with groups of un- armed soldiery. Passing down by the Middle Picket ravine, which is now occupied by the French, and which runs down in front of the Light Division camp, I came out upon the advanced French trench, within a few hundred yards of the Mamelon. The sight was strange beyond description. French, English, and Russian officers, were walking about, saluting each other scourteously as they passed, and occasionally entering into conversation ; and a constant interchange of little civilities, such as offering and ea,,ivine cigar-lights, was going on in each little group. Some of the Russian officers were evidently men of high rank and breed- ing. Their polished manners contrasted remarkably with their plain and rather coarse clothing. They wore, with few exceptions, the in- variable long gray coat over their uniforms. The French officers were all en grande tenue, and offered a striking contrast to many of our own officers, who were dressed a la Balaklava, and wore uncouth head-dresses, catakin coats, and nondescript paletots. Many of the Russians looked remarkably like English gentlemen in style ' of face and bearing. One tall, fine-looking old man' with a long gray beard and strangely-shaped cap, was pointed out to us aslletman of the Cossacks in the Crimea ; but it did not appear as if there were many men of high military rank present. The Russians were rather grave and reserved ; but they seem to fraternize with the French better than with ourselves, and the men certainly got on better with our allies than with the few privates of our own regiments who were down towards the front. But while all this civility was going on, we were walking among the dead, over blood-stained ground, covered with evidences of recent fight. Broken muskets, bayonets, eartouch-boxes, caps, fragments of clothing, straps and belts, pieces of shell, little pools of clotted blood, ahot round and grape, shattered gabions and sandbags, were visible around us on every side ; and through the midst of the crowd stalked a solemn procession of soldiers bearing their departed comrades to their long home. I counted seventy-seven litters borne past me in ,fifteen minutes, each filled with a dead enemy. The contortions of the slain were horrible, and recalled the memories of the fields of Alma and In- kermann. Some few French were lying far in advance towards the Mame- lon and Round Tower among the gabions belonging to the French advanced trenches, which the Russians had broken down. They had evidently been slain in pursuit of the enemy. The Russians appeared to treat their dead with great respect. The soldiers I saw were white-faced and seemed ill- fed, though many of them had powerful frames, square shoulders, and

'bread chests. All their dead who fell within and near our lines were stripped of boats and stockings. The cleanliness of their feet, and in most cases, of their coarse linen shirts, was remarkable. Several sailors of the 'equi- pages of the fleet of Sebastopol were killed in the attack. They were gene-

'rally muscular, fine stout fellows, with rough soldierly faces. The Russians tarried off all the dead which lay outside our lines to the town, passing down between the Mamelon and the Round Tower. In the midst of all this stern evidence of war, a certain amount of lively conversation began to spring up, in which the Russian officers indulged in a little badinage. Some of them asked our officers when we were coming in to take the place' ; others, when we thought of going away ?' Some congratulated us upon the excel- lent opportunity we had of getting a good look at Sebastopol, as the chance of a nearer view, except on similar occasions, was not in their opinion very probable. One officer asked a private confidentially, in English, how many men we sent into the trenches ? Begorra, only seven thousand a night, and a wake covering party of ten thousand,' was the ready reply. The officer laughed, and turned away. At one time a Russian with a litter stopped by a dead body, and put it into the litter. He looked round for a comrade to help him. A Zouave at once advanced with much grace and lifted it, to the infinite amusement of the bystanders ; but the joke was not long-lived, as a Russian brusquely came up and helped to carry off his dead comrade. In the town we could see large bodies of soldiery in the streets, assembled at the corners and in the public places. Probably they were ordered out to make a show of their strength. The Russians denied that Prince Menschikoff was dead, but they admitted that Admiral Isturmin was killed. He was one of the principal officers engaged in the destruction of the Turkish fleet at Sinope ;

and the Czar had rewarded him by giving him an order of St. George of higher distinction than that worn by Prince Menschikoff, and of a class which is generally accorded only to successful generals who have conducted an army and closed a triumphant campaign. A distinguished-looking man, who com- plained that he was likely to be deprived of his cruise in his yacht this year by the war, was pointed out to us as Prince Bariatinski. Owing to some misun- derstanding or other, a little fusillade began among the riflemen on the left during the armistice, and disturbed our attention for a moment ; but it was soon terminated. General Basquet and several officers of rank of the Allied army visited the trenches during the armistice ; and Staff officers were pre- sent on both sides to see that the men did not go out of bounds. The ar- mistice was over about three o'clock. Scarcely had the white flag disap- peared behind the parapet of the Mamelon before a round shot from the sailors' battery went slap through one of the embrasures of the Russian work, and dashed up a great pillar of earth inside. The Russians at once replied, and the noise of cannon soon reechoed through the ravines. It was curious to observe the masses of shot and shell in the ravines which had been fired by the enemy at our men on their way to and from the trenches. It was impossible for them to see us, but they poured their shot and shell right into the path from the Round Tower, the Mamelon, and the ships."

Among the minor incidents is an accident to Captain Hill, of the Eighty-ninth. Proceeding to post his pickets in advance of the extreme

left, Captain Hill got too near the Russians; he replied in French to their challenge, thinking they were French; fired, and Captain Hill fell, wounded. The two or three men with iim ran back for assistance; but when they returned, his body had been removed.

At Balaklava, the Croat labourers have had a bloody quarrel. They were disarmed after the riot was quelled. A fire broke out in a transport in the harbour ; but it was fortunately soon extinguished.

In a despatch, dated March 27, Lord Raglan reports the arrival of Dr. Gavin, the Sanitary Commissioner, and Mr. Rawlinson, civil engineer.

" They are earnestly applying themselves to the discharge of the duties they have undertaken to perform ; and I will take care that they receive every assistance it may be in my power to afford them." In his latest published despatch to the French Government, General Canrobert supplies two facts : thet Prince Gortscbakoff has assumed the chief command in the Crimea, which General Osten-Sacken held ad interim; - and that "Tartar communications confirm the report of the death of Meneehikoff, which took *ace when he was on the point of leaving the Crimea."

The casualties, from the 23d to the 25th March inclusive, are four rank and file wounded.

French Losses.—" Notwithstanding the perhaps prudent silence imposed upon the correspondents in the French army with respect to its losses before Sebastopol, the truth is gradually oozing out from invalided soldiers re- turned from the Crimea, and more particularly from some of the very few

women who were permitted to accompany the army as vivandibres and camp nurses, the death of their husbands having led to their reembarkation. Now it is learned that the losses of the French army, by fatigue in the trenches, and diseases caused by the severity of the weather, have been im- mense. 'Nos pertes out std terriblea,' observed one of these poor widows; 'personne ne sacra jamais tout ce que Fermis a souffert." Fever and mor- tification of the lower extremities, from remaining many hours in the trenches, sometimes up to the waist in water and mud, have been the main cause of this fatality ."—Paris Correspondent of the Globe.

Balaklava.—" The clean, orderly, and comfortable appearance of the troops, affords a striking contrast to the state of things which existed two months ago. The bastions and parapets are swept clean ; the footpaths

round the lines have been paved, in anticipation of more wet weather; and the works around Balaklava present an aspect that would do credit to an old fortified town. Whether Sebastopol fall sooner or later, it is gratifying to'

know that all is safe at Balaklava the lines of the Allies presenting too formidable an appearance for the enemy to make an attack with the small- est chance of success. Under the management of Colonel Harding, the town improves rapidly : wharves are in course of construction, the harbour is comparatively clear of shipping, and the scavengers are in full occupation ashore and afloat. Should Balaklava be visited by pestilence, as some have predicted, it will not be through any neglect of the sanitary precau-

tions within reach. So great, however, is the change that has taken place, that the prospect of such a visitation grows daily more remote."—.Daily Papers.

SrAur.—In the last sitting of the Cortes, the Minister of the Interior explained that Lord Howden had remonstrated with the Government, on the ground that a British clergyman, named Anthony Frith, had been " molested " at Seville. The Minister said, that neither the clergyman, nor the Protestants who worshiped in private with him, had been mo- lested ; nor had he or they given any cause, or raised the least scandal. Upon this Lord Howden wrote a letter to the Clamor Publico to " rectify assertions not in accord with facts" ; at the same time charging the Mi- nister with a suppressio veri- " It is quite true that the civil authority of Seville refused to interfere in the affair, as was required by one of the priests of the wise ohaptey of that diocese ; but it is also true that the ecclesiastical authorities, or pretending to be such, intimated to the English clergyman in question to suspend the private reunions (which never reached twenty. persons) which he held on Sundays in his house ; that these same ecclesiastical authorities, or calling themselves such, intimated to the mistress of the house, that if she con- tinued to tolerate these reunions the house should be taken from her (being, I presume, church property) ; and that in consequence of this double inti- midation, which may without exaggeration be called persecution in the age in which we live, the English clergyman had suspended his reunions, and sought another lodging, to deliver himself and deliver his hostess from all molestation on the subject. I leave meanwhile for the consideration of M. the Minister to decide whether the word ' molest' is suitably applied in this case."

ITALY.—Another Protestant has been imprisoned at Florence for reading the Bible. Domenico Cecchetti, employed in the tobacco-manu- factory of Fenzi and Company, bankers, who farm the tobacco monopoly —a widower with four children, a trusted and sober workman—possessed an Italian Bible and two New Testaments, which he read to his children at home. This fact came to the knowledge of a young man living in the same house and employed by a vintner. He casually mentioned it to his master ; adding, that the Bible could not be such a bad book after all, seeing that it produced such happy fruits "—as in the instance of the

Cecchetti family. The vintner confessed what his apprentice had said about the Italian Bible, and the priest at once suspended the confession

and refused absolution, Next day, Buratti, a persecuting priest, met the vintner, much depressed in spirits; and inquiring the cause, found that it was because absolution had been refused. Buratti at once confessed and absolved him, and thus learned that Cecchetti was a Protestant. The consequence wee, that the police suddenly entered his rooms and seized the Bibles. The matter rested here for nearly three months ; but at last, on the 14th March, Cecchetti was ordered to appear before the Chan- cellor of the Delegation of Santa Maria Novella. This he did, and was subjected to a close examination respecting his religious belief - in the course of which he denied that the Pope is the head of the Church, and declared that he knew "no headship save that of Jesus Christ." He de- dined to answer any questions involving others. The Chancellor sent a paper, containing the evidence to the Council of Prefecture • and on the 25th March, without further tkal, Cecchetti was seized and taken to the penitentiary of Inbrogiano, there to suffer imprisonment for one year. Such iS the story as told to 'the public in a letter from Florence published by the Christian Times.

Thump STATES.—The Africa arrived at Liverpool on Saturday, with advices from Halifax to the 29th March.

The proposition to raise a Foreign Legion in Nova Scotia has caused an incident in New York. No sooner was it known that foreigners would be enlisted at Halifax, than an enterprising Scotchman, Angus M`Donald, advertised the fact in the New York journals, and opened an office avowedly for the purpose of assisting persons desirous of passing from New York to Halifax, really for the purpose of turning a penny by trafficking in recruits for the Foreign Legion. But he did not go far in this line. Seeing the advertisements, " John M'Keon, United States District Attorney," forwarded a letter to the United States Marshal, stating that an office was open for the purpose of recruiting men for the British army, and calling his attention to the following section of the Act of Neutrality, which he desired the Marshal to enforce. " If any person shall, within the territory or jurisdiction of the United States, enlist or enter himself, or hire or retain another person to enlist or enter himself, or to go beyond the limits or jurisdiction of the United States, with intent to be enlisted or entered in the service of any foreign prince, state, colony, district, or people, as a soldier, a mariner, or seaman on board of any vessel of war, letter of marque, or privateer, every person so offending shall be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanour, and be fined not exceeding 1000 dollars, and imprisoned not exceeding three years." The New York Herald of course took occasion to comment on the mat- ter in a spirit adverse to British interests ; but the notoriety given to the whole affair will probably send thousands of unemployed persons to Nova Scotia.

INDIA.—The summary of the overland mail, with dates from Bombay to the 18th of March, was received in London on Thursday. " Mr. Lawrence has gone to Peahawur to negotiate a treaty with Dost Mahomed. Lord Dalhousie was at the Nielgherries. The reorganization of the Military Departments is complete, and the system works admirably. All usury-laws throughout India have been abolished. The natives are petitioning the Conadi for an act to prevent polygamy. " No intelligence from China."