21 MARCH 1931

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Mr. Baldwin's Speech Mr. Baldwin, who spoke in the Queen's

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Hall on Tuesday afternoon, had to pass when he arrived through an avenue of sandwich men who bore the scandalously tendentious legend, " A vote for Duff Cooper is a vote for...

again, they would be hire the General Council of the

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Trades Union Congress, which in • the General Strike in effect demanded the reversion of the right to govern, although it was responsible to only - a small proportion of the...

University Representation

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On Monday in the House of Commons the Government were surprisingly- dtteitt4 on the .clause in the Electoral keforin nfir ibolisbes - University iepresentation. An event of the...

Lord Beaverbrook and Lord Rothermere, he went on to say,

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aimed at power without responsibility. " That has been the prerogative of the harlot throughout the ages." Mr. Baldwin made good play with the appeals of the Press Lords to...

News of the Week

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St. George's THE old practice was for Party leaders not to intervene directly in by-elections, but that restraint was broken down some years ago—by Mr. Lloyd George, we think...


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1.—A Subscription to the SPECTATOR costs Thirty Shillings per annum, including postage, to any part of the world. The SPEcTATos is registered as a Newspaper. The Postage on this...

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The Exhibition at Buenos Aires The British Empire Trade Exhibition

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at Buenos Aires was opened last Saturday by the Prince of Wales in the presence of President Uriburu and Sir Herbert Gibson. He spoke in Spanish and English, and wireless...

The defeat of the Government on University reprel sentation caused

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recriminations between the Govern- ment and the Liberals, and the end of them is not yet. Besides the bitterness between those who are supposed to be allies there is internal...

Ministerial Changes Lord Ponsonby has become Chancellor of the Duchy

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of Lancaster in succession to Major Attlee, who is now Postmaster-General. Mr. Henry Snell has been created a Peer and has succeeded the late Lord Russell as Under- Secretary of...

The Indian Debates The Indian debate in the House of

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Commons o n Thursday, March-12th, turned out exactly as• might have been expected. Mr. Baldwin hinted that the Unionist India Committee had taken the bit between its teeth—...

The Coal Industry The regulation of output under the Coal

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Mines Act has caused much heartburning in the Midlands during the past week. In Nottinghamshire and South Yorkshire it is said that pits are idle or working short time because...

Australia In the House of Representatives on Friday, March 13th,

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Mr. Scullin's Government averted defeat on a vote of censure moved by Mr. Latham, the Leader of the Opposition, only by an appeal to Mr. Lang's following of New South Wales...

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The Yes - Men In his evidence before the Commission on the

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Civil Service on Monday, Sir Josiah Stamp expressed his fear of what Americans call " yes-men " in the Civil Service. He emphasized the importance of selecting men who would...

Mr. Vernon Hartshorn In Mr. Vernon Hartshorn, who died on

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Friday, March 13th, the Government lost a servant whom they could ill spare. Behind his genial and unassuming manner and his obvious devotion to his work was some- thing more...

Sir. Charles Eliot Those who instinctively associate the intellectual life

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with armchairs should study the life of Sir Charles Eliot, who died last Monday at the age of 68. The trav- eller, the scholar, and the administrator have seldom been more...

It has long been manifest that the fortunes of our

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coal industry could not be dissociated from those of the German and Polish industries. Owners and miners in all three countries would be in a much happier position if the...

The first act of the present Government on coming into

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office in 1929 was to kill the London Traffic Bills promoted jointly by the London County Council and the Underground Railways. Now Mr. Morrison, Minister of Transport, has...

Confessions of Murder On Monday in the House of Commons

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the Home Secretary, on being questioned about alleged confessions by Rouse, said that he had no power to interfere with newspapers which published such stories, but that the...

Mr. Morrison's scheme has, of course, been denounced as Socialistic

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and defended on the ground that the new Board is akin to the Central Electricity Board, the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Port of London Authority. It is also...

Bank Rate 3 per cent., changed from 31 per cent.

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on May 1st, 1930. War Loan (3 per cent.) was on Wednesday 104; on Wednesday week, 1031[ ; a year ago, 1021,. Funding Loan (4 per cent.) was on Wednesday 931 ; on Wednesday week,...

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Tariffs and a National Policy

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O PINION is tending towards a general or flat-rate tariff. There is nothing like an effortless drift of opinion ; there is rather a shaping of policy under the compulsion of...

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The Trial of Strength in St. George's extraordinary mental confusion

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is necessary for the belief, which many people seem to hold, that the real and proper issue before the electors in the St. George's division is whether Mr. Baldwin shall con-...

The Week in Parliament

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T HE benches of the House -of Commons were crowded for the Indian debate last week. The Leader of the Opposition, who opened in an atmosphere of tense expectation, began by •...

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Psychology and Religion

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[This article concludes our series on Psychology and Religion. A further series of articles on " The Idea of Deity " as it is conceived i t , the principal schools of religious...

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The Post-War Generation and the League of Nations

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BY KATHLEEN CONYNGHANI GREENE. I T is difficult for people who have lived through the 1 - World War, and whose lives are coloured by its events, to realize haw far away it is...

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The International Broadcasting Union

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BY MAJOR C. F. ATKINSON. I NTERNATIONAL organiiations, if not as numerous as the pebbles on the beach, are numerous enough to fill a League directory of more than 800 pages....

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Tragedy and the Whole Truth

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BY ALDOUS HUXLEY. T URNING back from his post in the bows, Odysseus was in time to see his six companions lifted, strug- gling, into the air, to hear their screams, the...

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An Experiment in Sensation

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BY BERNARD DARWIN. A T my private school there came daily at tea-time a moment when the sound of thumping grew fainter and a god-like voice from the dais at the end of the room...

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Mr. Siegfried Sassoon By AMICUS.

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M R. SIEGFRIED LORAINE SASSOON was the son of a Sassoon, of the famous financial family, and a Thornycroft, of the famous family of sculptors. He was educated at Marlborough,...

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The Election in St. George's, Westminster

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The following declaration signed by Editors or ex-Editors, representative of British journalism, was issued in London on Wednesday :- The Newspaper Press to-day plays a much...

The Theatre

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[" STRICTLY DISHONOURABLE." BY PRESTON STURGES. AT THE PHOENIX THEATRE ] THE day after the production of Strictly Dishonourable I happened to read a criticism by one whose...


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Before going abroad or away /ran home readers are advised to place an order for the SPECTATOR. The journal will be forwarded to any address at the following rates :— One...

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[SWEDISH INDUSTRIAL ART.] I WENT away from the Exhibition of Swedish Industrial Art with a feeling of depression, and I suppose that a good many other people will do the same...


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A LETTER FROM SPAIN—A TALK WITH DON RAMIRO DR MaErru. [To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sue,—While the mot d'ordre of the day in Madrid is still " sincerity "—for the present...

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Adamas and Eva WmLom ther was, dwellyng in Paradys Our fader Adamas with Eve hys wyf. They nere not sinful folk in any wys But angelyk they lived, withouten stryf : They...

A Hundred Years Ago

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THE " SPECTATOR," .MARCH 19m, 1831. NEWS OF THE WEEK. The Ministers were last night outvoted by 236 to 190 on the question of the Timber-duties—notwithstanding an attempt to...

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"Ex AFRICA—" It is of interest to every gardener that

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the Director of Kew-- the best garden in the world—has come back from a tour in Africa, a country that now, as in the past, has a name for novelty : Ex Africa semper aliquid...


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The less romantic countryman has always believed in the value of a late spring. The later it is the more likely is he to avoid what has been called the worst attribute of...

In an ambitious garden, where exotics abound, it -is a

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rather terrifying experience to make the rounds of inspection after such a frost. Shrubs that are on the edge of hardiness, such as many varieties of ceanothus or Camellia, or...

Country Life

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MIGRANTs. It has not perhaps happened before within our memory that March weather, however leonine, has routed migrating birds. Our winter visitors, of course, especially...

Arable farmers rejoiced even in districts where the zero mark

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was reached or passed. In the same vein as the village gardener one of them said to me : " It is just what we wanted." The early lambs, he explained, were strong enough to stand...


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It is astonishing how little is known locally of the flora (and sometimes , of the smaller fauna) of some of the richest districts of the Empire. I was amazed, even on the edge...

Africa excels in colour. It is therefore one of the

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very greatest feats of English florists that they have succeeded in the task (not, as Shakespeare held, of supererogation) of gilding the lily. The most lovely and useful of the...

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Six,—The growing colour prejudice against the Indian in England is due, among other things, to the fact that the Britishers retired from...

Letters to the Editor

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[In view of the length of many of the letters which we receive, we would again remind correspondents that we often cannot give space for long letters and that short ones are...

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is well for English people to remember that, far from this country having maintained silence on this question during the last forty years, as M. de La Sizeranne has stated, much...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—Last night I heard Mr. Shaw speaking on the " talkies," in a spirit of complete buffoonery, on the subject of Capital Punishment; Rouse...

CTo the Editor of the SPECTATOR.]

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Sra,—Is not this so-called " colour bar " after all simply the fear of cheap labour, of which colour is the indication ? I am quite sure that my children, who stayed in India...


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the SPECTATOR.] Sia,—The proposals now advanced by the L.C.C. Advisory Committee—which was appointed last year to work out an agreed scheme in place of that rejected by...

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR, —Whenever a General Election takes place there are thousands who are legally entitled to record their vote but, owing to serious illness,...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—May I have sufficient space to place a few facts before your readers as an answer to the two correspondents whose letters appeared in your...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—Professor Wilden-Hart, in his letter in your issue of March 7th, states that, " The success of the Five Year Plan means, in short, the...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—I should like to supplement the reply of Mr. Eldon Moore to Dr. R. A. Fisher's questioning of the Malthusian principle—that population...

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- Sue,—I have had an experience which approaches very nearly the kind of evidence which Mr. Gerald Heard says is unattainable, but without which communication from those who...

[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—According to the full

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quotation given by Mr. Gee from the 1926 Northern Mines Report some colliery companies could not look after their ponies on the surface, where they could be seen during the 1926...


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SIR,—The relationships shown to be possible by the winner of the Weekly Competition in your issue of March 7th are certainly very ingenious : 'but in No. 5 there appears to be...

PIT PONIES [To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.]

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Sin,—It is stated that pit ponies are as well off working below the surface of the earth as they are upon it. Would it be possible for the following incident to happen in an...

PROBATION OFFICERS [To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—The criticisms

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made by Miss Craven, in the first part of her letter in your issue of March 7th have been sufficiently answered on previous occasions, but I feel that the statement in the last...

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SCHOOLBOYS' CLOTHES [To the Editor of the SPECTATOR] SIR,—I feel

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that I am very brave—and perhaps rash—in taking up the cudgels on behalf of a section of the community who will themselves be the first to criticize my action and to resent any...


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Delving into the Close Rolls (tempore Richard II)• I am astonished to find what I believe to be known only to a few people, namely, that there were gold and silver mines in the...

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The Growing Use of Gas in the Home

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Progress and Prospects of the British Gas Industry By SIR DAVID MILNE-WATSON, D.L., LLD. (President of The National Gas Council of Great Britain and Ireland and Governor of...

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The Modern Use of Electricity

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ET WARWICK HOLM:ES. le you are attributing causes for the acceleration of 1930 in domestic electrical application which amounted to an increased home consumption over 1929 of...

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Smokeless Fuel

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BY SIR LAWRENCE CHUBB. Tur. coal smoke which pollutes the atmosphere of all large cities arises from two sources : it is emitted from the shafts of factories or other...

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Light in the Country House By D. WINTON THORPE, A.M.I.E.E.

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WHEN, a few years ago, it was decided to take in hand the electricity supply system in this country • and to co-ordinate it upon economical and efficient lines—in 'fact, to do...

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Life in New England

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puritan's Progress. By Arthur.,Train. (Scribner. 12s. 6d.) TrreNew England men of the old colonial days had- hard lives and 'a -terrible Proportion of their women and children...

What of Japan'?

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1 ofuku — Japan in Trousers. By Sherard Vines. (Wishart. is. 6d.) IT is generally admitted that it is unsafe to generalize on any country or people. In the case of Japan, where...

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Rolling Home

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Rolling Home. 12s. 61.) By Captain William Morris Barnes (Cassell, THE prejudices or imitative impulses which direct the minds of authors when they are choosing a manner in...

The Passion for Reality

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The Prison. By H. B. Brewster. With a Memoir of the Auttor The Prison is an easy book to enjoy but a difficult one to review. In form, it is a small Platonic dialogue : in...

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Pioneer Printers at Home

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OxE hopes that the happy ghost of William Morris slipped into the Old Court House of Marylebone last Thursday and wandered round with his friend Sir Emery Walker and his...

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All the - Past We Leave Behind

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The New World Architecture. By Sheldon Cheney. (Longmans. £2 2s.) Modern Theatres and Cinemas. By P. Morton Shand. (Bataford. 15s.) POSTERITY, I imagine, domiciled in cities of...

The Second Living " Oxford" Poet

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The Poems of Lascelles Abercrombie. (The Oxford Poets. Oxford University Press. 6s.) ROBERT BRIDGES was the first English poet who during his lifetime had his work collected...

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Popular Science

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Master Minds of Modern Science. By T. C. Bridges and H. B. Tiltman. (Harrap. 7s. 6d.) Modern Science and the Truths Beyond. By Abb4 Th. Morel's. (Browne and Nolan. 50.) THESE...

A New Kind of History Book The Evolution of England.

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By Dr. James A. Williamson. (Oxford University Press. 15s.) Da. WILLIAMSON has written a somewhat unusual history of England. As is suggested by the title, he has attempted to...

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How Much Artist ? AFTER reading these books one realizes how impossible it is to say exactly what a novel is and how much " pure novel " any novel contains. It is simpler to...

LATE OF LONDON WALL. By Bruce Norman. (Arrosv- smith. 7s.

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6d.)—A sound, readable novel about an ordinary business man who, having made money, retires and sets about the new and more perplexing business of enjoying it.

STANTON. By Desmond Coke. (Chapman and nail. 7s. 6d.)—It has

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been well said that a faithful account of public school life would be dull. Mr. Coke is not dull, but, to one 'e.t.a master st least, he seems to have dis- covered °their forms...

New Novels

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CONCERNING PETER JACKSON AND OTHERS. By Gilbert Frankau. (Hutchinson. 7s. 6d.)—" So Eva Carroway cantered down the lane . . . and Peter, collarless. in his oldest coat and...

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Sir Leo Chiozza Money, in Can War Be Averted? (Thornton

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Butterworth, 10s. 6d.) sets out to face the facts of the inter- national situation. He succeeds tolerably well, by means of statistics a population, "natural resources,...

FED UP. By George A. Birmingham. (Methuen. 7s. 6d.) —A

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Conservative and- a Labour candidate, tired of electiOn trappings—rantings, kisses, accidents and con- fusion—meet together, disappear, and provide . a good story which is most...

We 'were not amused by this " powerful and convincing

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tale," as the publishers describe Congo Gods, by Otto Liitken i(Constable,. 7s. 6d.). It is built up on a series of remarkable coincidences and based, if a knowledge of language...

Iii THE MARKET. By Archibald Lee. (Cassell. 7s. 6d.) The

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author, who has distilled for us the very essence of Victorianism; tells of a *ell-brought-up girl, who cuts a number of dashes. His book is wise, witty and convincing.

" Sentiment is out of fashion. Yet Bitter Sweet, which

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is nothing if not sentimental, has not been a dead failure. Thus we see that things that are out of fashion do not cease to exist. Sentiment goes on," says Mr. Max Beerbohm in...

Sir Charles Bright has been happily inspired in Let's Help

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a Collection of Good Causes (Routledge, 4s. 6d.). Voluntary service in a myriad forms is still a characteristic of English society, despite the growth of bureaucracy, but the...

Messrs. William Blackwood are publishing this week a highlY characteristic

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book, which one would instantly label a Blackwood : and that is praise enough. A Celtic Hulk Burly, by L. Luard (7s. 6d.), is ostensibly the story of the building of a "...

CINDERELLA'S DAUGHTER. By John Erskine. (Put- nam. 7s. 6d.)—Did Lady

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Godiva enjoy her ride, and did Cinderella's daughter follow in her mother's footsteps, and how patient was Griselda ? The author answers these and five more questions rather...

" A curious country, but rather thorough," is one of

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Captain Owen Tweedy's comments on Russia, which his account of a three days' organized tour in Leningrad and Moscow ade- quately substantiates. In Russia at Random (Jarrolds,...

It is an agreeable surprise to find that the new

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life of George TVashington, by Mr. Shelby Little (Routledge, 16s.) is both easy to read and truthful, for no man has suffered more from his biographers. The author has made use...

The War and the motor car between them have undoubtedly

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popularized the use of maps. Thus Dr. I. J. Curnow s agreeable and well illustrated account of map-making ancient and modern, under the title of The World Mapped (Sifton Praed,...

Some Books of the Week

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* *' * * ' ABRAHAM 'Ascots's character gains in interest as it is more closely studied, especially in relation to the politicians with whom he had to work. There is much detail...

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A. Letter from the Riviera [To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sin,—The French Riviera is passing through one of the most difficult times it has ever been called upon to suffer....

A Students' Tour to Greece

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.' SIRS Will you assist me by making known the fact that the Tourist Bureau of the Greek Government has arranged for facilities to be granted to...

General Knowledge Questions

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Oun weekly prize of one guinea for the best thirteen Questions submitted is awarded this week to Lady Erskine-Crum, Fyfield Manor, Abingdon, Berks. Questions on the Oxford and...

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Answers to Questions on the Oxford and Cambridge

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Boat Race 1. From Hambledon Lock to Henley Bridge, June 10th, 1829, 7.56 p.m.-2. Charles Wordsworth, of Oxford, described Staniforth thus, in his letter accepting Cambridge's...

FANCIES AND-FACTS. -- - Fortunately, hoWever, we have to deal

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with a com- munity still posseSsed of an average of sound 'common- sense, however much their quickness to appreciate the inwardness of the position may have been dulled by...

Notes from the Sale-Rooms

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PART of a very famous collection of English historical MSS. is shortly to be sold at Sotheby's. It comprises three bound volumes of the Poston Letters from the library at Orwell...


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At first sight the task may seem to be almost an impos- sible one, but a closer examination of the problems will, I am persuaded, reveal ways and means by which the advantages...

,Finance—Public & Private

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Popularising Economy MUCH has been said and written of late concerning National Economy, and in a vague kind of way I suppos e general assent is given to the idea that it would...

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Again, I maintain that it should not be difficult to bring right home to the wage-earners the manner in which the incidence as well as the amount of taxation is responsible for...


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Consent on the part of the shareholders of the Rio Tinto Copper Company to the issue of £2,000,000 in 5 per cent. debenture stock was practically a foregone conclusion, the...

Financial Notes

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MARKETS QUIETLY CHEERFUL. THE present Fortnightly Account on the Stock Exchange extends over the Easter holidays, and that circumstance in itself tends to check dealings,...


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The new business figures of the London- Life Association for the past year exceeded 4.3,000,000 after deduction of reassurances, and of the new business nearly one - half Was...


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There are two points which emerge very clearly from the latest annual report of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The first is that, notwithstanding disturbed...


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Nor should it be difficult to explain to the mass of the people what is equally true, namely, that without economy in the National Expenditure and without the putting forth of...


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The Annual Report of the Mazawattee Tea Company is a good one, the profit for the year amounting to £57,875 against 156,574 for the previous year. A further £5,000 is placed to...


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Finally, however, I suggest that the gospel of Economy is not a gospel of negation, but one of great hope for the future. So far from decrying the demands of the com- munity not...

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The valuation results in the Life Department of the Phoenht Assurance Company in respect of the quinquennium ended December 31st last constituted a record. The rate of bonus...


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The latest Report of the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China naturally reflects to some extent, the trade depres- sion in the East, and Deposits at the end of the year...