6 JUNE 1931

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Rome The news from Rome is grave. The execution of

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a man who unsuccessfully attempted the murder of Signor Mussolini is a severer measure than would have been taken in countries where capital punishment is still the rule....

Dominion Finances The Australian Premiers' Conference on Tuesday at last

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took their courage in both hands and passed a resolution " that there be a reduction of 20% in all adjustable Government expenditure," including wages, salaries and pensions. It...

News of the Week The Maid of Orleans QT. JOAN

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OF ARC, five hundred years after her death at the hands of French and English, has formed another link of friendship between them. Both races have felt the need jointly to...


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1.—A Subscription to the SPECTATOR costs Thirty Shillings per annum, including postage, to any part of the world. The SPECTATOR is registered as a Newspaper. The Postage on this...

* * India The decision of H.M. Government that the

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Federal Structure Committee shall reassemble in London not later than September 5th has had a mixed reception in India. This final postponement, while it is welcomed by all who...

[Signed articles do not necessarily represent the views of the

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The Credit-Anstalt The serious condition into which Austrian finance has

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drifted is shown by the suspension of the great Viennese bank, the Credit-Anstalt, and the failure of a private Austrian bank with liabilities of a million pounds. To save the...

Hours and Wages There are three conferences of importance this

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week. At the first, on Tuesday, Mr. Bevin gave the reply of the Transport and General Workers' Union to the demands of the employers' representatives in the dock industry, which...

The meeting of the Mining Association and the Miners' Federation

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on Thursday takes place in more favourable circumstances than the meetings of these bodies for some time past. The Association has been empowered to discuss the question of...

Talbot House The spirit of Toc H easily survived its

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transition to civilian life, and even its ponderous definition, by the editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, as " an interdenominational organization for Christian social...

The Primate and Dr. Barnes The Archbishop of Canterbury, bowing

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to the decree of the Court of Chancery which the Bishop of Birmingham ignored, will institute the Rev. G. D. Simmonds to' the benefice of St. Aidan's, Birmingham. The Court...

Kenya The Joint Committee of Lords and Commons which is

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preparing the way for legislatiOn for new administration in East Africa has taken the evidence of deputations from Kenya. We are glad that native chiefs have come in person. It...

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* * * The Derby His Majesty spent his birthday

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with an immense con- course of his subjects on Epsom Downs. The Derby was won by the favourite, Cameronian, whose fortunate owner only recently succeeded to the stud of his...

Bank Rate 21 per cent., changed from 8 per cent.

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on May 14th, 1931. War Loan (5 per cent.) was on Wednesday 103 ; on Wednesday week, 102* ; a year ago, 1021. Funding Loan (4 per cent.) was on Wednesday 961 ; on Wednesday week,...

Count Apponyi The aridity of politics is refreshed by such

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an event as occurred last week at Budapest. The Hungarian elder statesman and savant, Count Albert Apponyi, a figure respected throughout Europe, has been honoured by the...

Academic Bloomsbury The Goldsmiths' Company's gift of £50,000 to the

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University of. London for a library building has been quickly followed by the announcement that-the new home of the University in Bloomsbury is about to be begun. The site...

Ten Miles High Professor Piccard of Brussels, with a companion,

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went up in a balloon from Augsburg last week and attained a height of nearly ten miles. They were enclosed in a metal sphere so that they were protected against the rarified...

The Royal Tournament Their Majesties honoured the Royal Tournament with

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their presence at Olympia on the opening day. It has become one of the most brilliant and thrilling annual treats that Londoners and visitors from far afield can possibly enjoy....

Honours The Birthday Honours were not exciting, but they fall

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to a well chosen number of admirable persons whom the King - may well delight to honour for their services to him and his people. No peerages are"conferred. Science is...

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Another Fiscal Campaign

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T HE Leader of the Opposition is delivering himself of a series of speeches, admirable in tone as usual, though confined to the obvious as soon as he approaches his main theme,...

The Youth Hostel Movement

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T HE Spectator has frequently drawn attention to the growth of the Youth Hostel Movement since the War in Europe and especially in Germany. British visitors returning from...

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Education and Democracy

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T HE Government's Education Bill was dropped after drastic amendment in the House of Lords on February 18th, and there must be a considerable delay before it -can be passed, as...

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The Idea of God—X

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Malalasekera is Head of the Department of Pali, Sanskrit and Sinhalese in Ceylon University College. Next week Professor J. A. Robertson will write from the point of view of...

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The Colour Bar [The Spectator does not necessarily agree with

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all the views of the writers contributing to this series on the Colour Bar. Our object in publishing the series is to attempt some explanation of why the Colour Bar exists, and...

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Child M arriage in India

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By MISS ELEANOR F. RATHBONE, M.P. D URING the past two years in India the din of the political conflict has completely drowned the voice of the social reformer. Or rather,...

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The Three Hares

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BY ELSPETH FOX-PITT. I T was at Christmas time. The country was drear. The land lay soggy and grey, with cold puddles in every dent. The grass of the down was brown, and as you...

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A Penny of Observation

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AMBASSADORS TO THE MOON. Fact is stranger than fiction only by dint of breaking all the rules of fiction. When it conforms to them—as when, for instance, a sequence of events...


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[From The Times.] " One of the prize-winners [in the Irish Sweep] was stated on Monday to be ' Jumbo,' 18 North Street, Havant. ' Jumbo' was the nom-de-plume adopted by Harry...


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During the applause which concluded a performance recently given in London by a distinguished foreign dancer, a member of the audience—an elderly man, sitting in a box—...


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The widespread sympathy evoked by the Prime Minister's announcement of his intention to humanize No. 10 Downing Street (which at present, he says, " is simply a mere official...

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The Theatre

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[" SALOME." BY OSCAR, WILDE. AT THE GATE THEATRE.] THE history of Wilde's Salome is surely one of the strangest in the records of the stage. Written in a French that a clever...


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[RUSSIAN SEASON AT THE LYCEUM. LA ARGENTINA AT THE ADELPHI.] LIRE all Opera seasons in this country, the Russian Season at the Lyceum began tentatively and has since been...

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[PAUL GAUGUIN.] THE Dtirrio collection of works by Gauguin, which is on view at the Leicester Galleries, is thoroughly worth a visit. There are only a few oil paintings, but...


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Answer Jr you leave me ? I shall not die Or make grief a trumpet To shatter the sky. I shall not ask For anything more, But to walk according To natural lore, One foot behind...

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I have been writing of particular points that are curious

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and suggestive, and worth attention from amateur experimenters. The application of electricity to the more general purposes of the farm is another question. Everyone who has...


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Now before coming to the practical side I would like to indicate a point or two on the research side, because in this anyone who has a garden, not least a suburban garden, may...

Country Life

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AN ALL-ELEcrarc FARM. A surprising advance (coincident with Faraday's cen- tenary) has been made quite recently in the art of applying electricity to the farm ; and though we...


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A curious little contradiction of principle is to be observed at the new Zoo. Whipsnade is to be a flower sanctuary as well as a bird sanctuary. Now all sorts of birds are...

Now some ten years ago the lives of small birds,

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especially sub-tropical birds, at the London Zoo were saved solely by more light. They needed food often, as do all birds, but would only feed in full daylight. The consequence...

THUNDER AND GROWTH. - It is a general belief in

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country places that thunderstorms accelerate growth, as no other weather phenomena. The belief seems to be true, though it has exceptions. Artificial thunderstorms have been...

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Letters to the Editor

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view of the length of many of the letters which we receive, we would remind correspondents we often cannot give space for long letters and that short ones are generally read...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,--In view of the fact that Mr. Gandhi's hand-spinning movement has ' attracted some attention in this country, the following quotation...


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SIR,—In your article "Empire-Citizenship and World-Citizen- ship" of 23rd ult. you say : " The most cherished privilege implied in Dominion status, which is now the axis round...

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR, —Even a casual visitor from India cannot help noticing the attention which his country receives in the English Press to-day and it is also...

[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—Mr. Ajose has misread

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my letter. No one can say where or when any disease originated ; my point was that the black man—as soldier and as slave—had been the great carrier of disease. What Mr. Ajose...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—Mr. Lothrop Stoddard's article on " Why the Colour Bar ? " strikes me as a rationalization of American colour prejudice rather than an...

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the SPECTATOR.] Sin,—I have unwittingly appeared in the two previous letters on this subject in the role of Fair Princess and Wicked Uncle respectively. I do not know how far...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] Sin,—A kind reference to Homecrofting in the Spectator of May 2nd by Mr. J. B. Pennington prompts me to give a cordial invitation to all who...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—I am glad that Mrs. Le Mesurier agrees with me as to the value of remand in custody, limited, of course, to lads whose guilt has been...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—Will you allow me space in your valuable columns to reply to George E. Lutton ? I certainly agree with him that Lord Charlemont was right...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—An article on " Countryside Amenities " in your issue of April 11th directs attention to the problem of advertise- ments at the village...

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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—With reference to Commander Southby, M.P.'s excellent letter in the Spectator of May 23rd, 1931, in support of the continued protection of...


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[To the Editor of the SPECTATOR.] SIR,—Lord Howard of Penrith has written you an interesting article about the social qualities of the pig. In Italy the dog is not as in Engl...


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The Duke of Montrose quotes a Nationalist candidate as saying that " Scotland is the only white nation in Europe that does not manage its own affairs." (By the way, why "...


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When the Pharmacy and Poisons Bill was before the House of Lords, I expressed the hope that their lordships realized that the way to encourage the housewife to take essential...


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The Indian Students' Union and Hostel was opened in London in 1920 in the Shakespeare Hut. By 1923 it became necessary to acquire permanent premises, and the present residence...

Pots° NI No.

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At the hospital of St.. Esprit, at Toulon, on the 16th instant, there had been a distribution of soup to the poor ; but the whole supply not being exhausted, the remainder was...


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In 1926 you raised a Special Fund for us through your columns which realized the splendid result of £550. This year we are sharing in the general depression, and are having to...


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" FULL FRUIT " JAMS. One wonders how many housewives and parents under- stand the meaning of the new labels on jam pots which state that " This jam is guaranteed to conform to...

A Hundred Years Ago THE " SPECTATOR," JUNE 4TH, 1831.

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SING ULAR OPERATION. The astonishing number of 450 plum-stones were last week extracted from the body of a women, in Wilmslow, named Ann Pearson, by Mr. Moore, the surgeon of...

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Lord Kilbracken

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Lord Kilbracken, G.C.B. (Macmillan. IT was known to some that Lord Kilbracken had privately printed a book of reminiscences and naturally there was a desire that they should be...

India : Two Points of View

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Volume Two. By Katharine Mayo. (Jonathan Cape. 7s. Gd.) India. By the Rt. Hon. Winston S. Churchill, P.C., C.H., M.P. (Thornton Butterworth. 2s.) Mother India was a bad book...

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Literary Clowning

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A Survey of Burlesque and Parody in English. By George. Kitchin. (Oliver and Boyd. 16s.) PARODIES, if good enough, are always great fun, though the censorious question whether...

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"Those are Pearls . . ."

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Seventy Fathoms Deep is the story of the Italian salvage ship Artiglio,' with her two companion vessels Raffio ' and Rostro,' and the work accomplished by them in the North...

A Modern Autobiography

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" I HAD a podgy face, enormous mouth, and the unbudgeable squareness of absolute determination. I lived in a state of continual clenched fists." This is Lady Constance...

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The Spring Journey

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As you start on this gorgeous lark, this bundle of chuckles, this poem, this reservoir of epigram and truth-revealing phrase, and read some twenty pages treating of the commerce...

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The Crown of Immortelles

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The Poems of Wilfred Owen. Edited by Edmund Blunden. (Chatto and Windus. 6s.) MR. BLUNDEN and Mr. Sassoon, the only War poets, apart from Mr. Robert Graves, whose work may rank...


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Dichtung and Wahrheit The Corn King and the Spring Queen. By Naomi Mathison. (Cape. 10s. 6d.) THE body without the spirit is dead ; and history is dead without imagination. The...

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GENERAL B. O.: A novel of the Russian Terror. Translated

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by L. Zarine. Preface by Stephen Graham. (Benn. 8s. 6d.).—If General B. 0. fails to succeed quickly, part of the blame will be due to its obscure title. It is sure of ultimate...

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"Spectator" Competitions

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RULES AND CONDITIONS Entries must be typed or very clearly written on one side of the paper only. The name and address, or pseudonym, of the competitor must be on each entry and...

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[We publish on this page articles and notes which may help our readers in making their plans for travel at home and abroad. We shall be glad to answer questions arising out of...

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And when I refer to scientific theories with regard to the causes of depression, I am thinking mainly of those eminent Economists who would attribute the depression as being due...


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On the morning following Professor Cassel's address both The Times and the Morning Post criticized his conclusions closely and rather strongly, maintaining that there are many...

Finance Public & Private

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Causes of Industrial Depression— (I) Scientific Ix this and in a subsequent article I want to try and place fairly before readers of the Spectator two views of a very different...

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But while Professor Cassel maintained that the great fall in commodity prices during the past eighteen months was largely the cause of the world crisis and that the fall in its...


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And now to return to Professor Cassel's exposition. In fairness, it must be recognized he was dealing not with the depression in Great Britain in particular, but with the World...


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Meanwhile, however, because I would not wish to minimize for one moment the importance which Professor Cassel attaches to banking and monetary policy as a solution of our...

Financial Notes

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NEWSPAPER PROFITS. ALTHOUGH somewhat smaller profits were earned by Allied Newspapers last year, the Chairman, Lord Camrose, was very confident regarding the position attained...


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During the period of dearer money rates two years ago there was much talk by economists of the trade depression being attributable to high bankers' charges, and so much was that...


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On the other hand, it must, I think, be admitted that when surveying not present but future possibilities Professor Gustav Cassel and other economists emphasize the anticipated...

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Messrs. Sliced and Ward have just added to their English

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translation of Jacques Maritain's works his essay on St. Thomas Aquinas, Angel of the Schools (7s. 6d.). It ` is astonishing to find M. Maritain in the role of hagiographer,'...


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At the meeting of the Guardian Assurance Company, Colonel Lionel Hanbury, the Chairman of the company, expressed the opinion that advocates of social reform in these Islands did...

The Firm of Cadbury, by Iolo A. Williams (Constable. 10s.

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6d.) is a valuable document for the social historian, Since its foundation in 1831 members have been not merely leaders in their industry, but, as is the excellent habit of many...


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At the meeting last week of Hambros Bank, Sir Eric Hambro, the Chairman, preferred to exercise so much caution with regard to the general economic outlook that he refrained from...

Some Books of the Week

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SOME readers find it difficult to reconcile the current bio- logical conception of man's place in nature with the poten- tialities and prospects of his development during the...

Few of us are fortunate enough to see for ourselves

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the new Viceroy's palace at Delhi. Country Life is therefore fulfilling a most useful function in publishing a series of articles by Mr. Robert Byron on The New Delhi,...